METHODS: A total of 159 patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated during 2002-2003 in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this study. All received radiotherapy. Fifty three patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, while 106 patients received combination chemotherapy. Overall survival and local recurrence-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: This study found out that 5-year overall survival and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.6% and 54.2% respectively. The stage specific 5-year overall survival rates were: Stage I, 100%; Stage II; 93.3%, Stage III, 62.7%; Stage IVA, 42.2%; and Stage IVB, 40.6%. On univariate analysis, gender (p<0.05), T-classification (p<0.001), N-classification (p<0.05), stage (p<0.05) and cranial nerve involvement (p<0.001) were found to be significant prognostic factors for 5-year overall survival, while gender (p<0.05) and N-classification (p<0.05) were significant prognostic factors for 5-year local recurrence-free survival.
CONCLUSION: The overall survival rate of patients for this study was low. The patient factor that significantly affected 5-year overall survival was gender, while disease factors were stage, T-classification, N-classification and cranial nerve involvement.
METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study carried out in a general hospital on 117 solid tumor patients who admitted between January 2003 to December 2006. The main statistical tests used were Chi- square test and Fisher' s Exact test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.
RESULTS: The highest chemotherapeutic regimen was (5-FU+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide) (47, 40.2%) followed by (gemcitabine+cisplatin) (6, 5.1%) and many others. Majority of the patients receive their chemotherapy schedule of administration was one day schedule (90, 76.9%) followed by more than one day schedule (27, 23.1%).
CONCLUSION: The doses of these drugs were not high enough to produce a sufficient pharmacological effect to cause bone marrow suppression and lead to neutropenia. Besides the schedule of administration for each drug was long enough to overcome neutropenia also the high uses of granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) which will play a major role in reducing the time and severity of neutropenia. All these factors play an important role in giving non- significant association between neutropenia onset and severity with chemotherapeutics drugs and their schedule of administration.
METHOD: The clinical trial was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2006 and 2008. The experimental group underwent a 4-week self management program, and the control group underwent usual care. Two years after the intervention, questionnaires were randomly posted out to the participants.
RESULTS: A total of 51 questionnaires returned. There were statistically differences between groups in psychological, self-care, mobility and participation aspects in PIPP (p<0.05). The experimental group reported having higher confidence to live with breast cancer compared to control group (p<0.05). There were significant between-group changes in anxiety scores at T2 (immediately after intervention) to T4 (two years later), and the differences in anxiety scores within groups between time point T2 and T4 were significantly different (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The SAMA program is potentially capable to serve as a model intervention for successful transition to survivorship following breast cancer treatment. The program needs to be further tested for efficacy in a larger trial involving more diverse populations of women completing breast cancer treatment.
METHODS: We used a grounded theory approach to analyze three focus groups conducted between May and August 2010 in Kuala Lumpur. We used random sampling to recruit the informants (n=21), all of whom had earlier participated in the 4 week self-management program held two years previously.
FINDINGS: The women reported positive experience and growth with the self management program. Self-efficacy appears as an important underlying theme for successful experiences. The lack of proactive plans to provide bereavement support to surviving women was a key negative experience.
CONCLUSION: The intervention successfully brought women together to work in close partnership with health professionals on ways to self manage the medical, emotional and role task as they live indefinitely with breast cancer, a new chronic illness. The beneficial effect from the 4 week intervention was expressed by women even at 2 years after the program. Having successfully developed a tightly knitted group, a major oversight was the lack of professional support on bereavement for grieving members when close friends passed away.
METHOD: Between October 2009 and April 2010, a survey was prospectively conducted among women admitted to clinics of Penang General Hospital for examination and/or treatment by using a questionnaire. Therefore, characteristics of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (n=150) were compared with control cases (n=150) admitted to hospital for non-neoplastic, non-hormone related diseases.
RESULTS: Family history of a distant relative with breast cancer (OR=2.84), history of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (OR=2.95), history of benign breast disease (OR=2.43), menstrual irregularity (OR=4.24), and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (OR=2.15) were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer in our population. Furthermore, education more than 11 years (OR=0.40), breastfeeding (OR=0.50), being employed (OR=0.45) and practicing low fat diet (OR=0.53) were strongly protective against breast cancer development.
CONCLUSION: The results emphasize the importance of conducting a series of awareness campaigns that highlights the protective role of longer breastfeeding period against breast cancer and the negative relationships between OCP use and high fat diet with this disease.
METHODS: Patients referred to the Endoscopic Unit for colonoscopy were recruited for the study. Stool samples were collected prior to bowel preparation, and tested for occult blood with both gFOBT and FIT. Dietary restriction was not imposed. To assess the validity of either tests or in combination to detect a neoplasm or cancer in the colon, their false positive rates, their sensitivity (true positive rate) and the specificity (true negative rate) were analyzed and compared.
RESULTS: One hundred and three patients were analysed. The sensitivity for picking up any neoplasia was 53% for FIT, 40% for gFOBT and 23.3% for the combination. The sensitivities for picking up only carcinoma were 77.8% , 66.7% and 55.5%, respectively. The specificity for excluding any neoplasia was 91.7% for FIT, 74% for gFOBT and 94.5% for a combination, whereas for excluding only carcinomas they were 84%, 73.4% and 93.6%. Of the 69 with normal colonoscopic findings, FOBT was positive in 4.3%, 23.2 %and 2.9% for FIT, gFOBT, or combination of tests respectively.
CONCLUSION: FIT is the recommended method if we are to dispense with dietary restriction in our patients because of its relatively low-false positivity and better sensitivity and specificity rates.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 university students in Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. It included questions on socio- demographic data, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer.
RESULTS: Mean age of the respondents was 21.5 ± 2.5 and the age ranged from 18 to 27 years. The majority of the respondents were aware of oral cancer (92.0%) and recognized the followings as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: ulcer and oral bleeding (71.0%), followed by swelling (61.5%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on the following risk factors; smoking (95.5%), poor oral hygiene (90.5%), family history (90.0%), alcohol (84.5%) and poor fitting dentures (83.0%). However, unsatisfactory knowledge was observed about hot/spicy food (46.5%), obesity (36.0%), old age (31.5%), dietary factor (29.0%) and smokeless tobacco (25.5%). Knowledge of oral cancer was associated significantly with age (p<0.01), year of study (p<0.01) and course of study (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Instead of satisfactory awareness and knowledge of oral cancer and its clinical presentations, inadequate knowledge was observed about its risk factors. There is a need to introduce oral cancer education among university students.
METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in Penang General Hospital on 534 anemic solid cancer patients who were admitted between 2003 and 2009. The main statistical tests used were Chi-square test and Logistic regression test for categorical data. While for continues data the main statistical tests were Linear regression and correlation test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.
RESULTS: FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel and Cisplatin+ 5-FU regimen has strong association and correlation with anemia onset and severity. However the associations and correlations with anemia severity were stronger than those with the onset. Different doses of 5-FU, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and cisplatin play a critical role in anemia onset and severity.
CONCLUSION: Monitoring and determination of hemoglobin levels for cancer patients treated with FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel, Cisplatin+ 5-FU specifically with high doses must be emphasized and a focus of particular attention.