Displaying publications 101 - 120 of 532 in total

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  1. Azmawati M, Krisnan R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6023-6.
    PMID: 23464397
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Malaysia for the year 2001 was 2.8 per 100,000 people. The mortality rate is increasing. A retrospective cohort study measuring the survival of HCC patients who received treatment in Selayang Hospital was conducted from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2006. The main objectives of the study were to measure the survival of the patients and to understand the influencing factors, especially ethnicity. The subjects were newly diagnosed cases of HCC by CT scan and histopathological assessment who underwent futher investigations and treatments in Hospital Selayang (inception cohort). The survival time was measured from the date of diagnosis until the subjects died, or failed to follow-up at the end of the study period (31 December 2007). A total of 299 patients were selected with 95 patients dying, the majority among Chinese (39.1%). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity proved significantly that Chinese patients who had smaller tumor, less number of nodules, low AFP level, Child Pugh Class A and received surgical treatment had a better median survival rate compared to other ethnic groups. Malay (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.89-1.85) and Indian (cHR: 1.3, 95%CI; 0.74-2.26) patients had a poor survival compared to Chinese patients, but not in the final model. Therefore ethnicity may play a role in survival of HCC patients, but not as a main hazard prognostic factor.
  2. Yip CH, Samiei M, Cazap E, Rosenblatt E, Datta NR, Camacho R, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4 Suppl):23-36.
    PMID: 22631594
    Survival following a diagnosis of cancer is contingent upon an interplay of factors, some non-modifiable (e.g., age, sex, genetics) and some modifiable (e.g., volitional choices) but the majority determined by circumstance (personal, social, health system context and capacity, and health policy). Accordingly, mortality and survival rates vary considerably as a function of geography, opportunity, wealth and development. Quality of life is impacted similarly, such that aspects of care related to coordination and integration of care across primary, community and specialist environments; symptom control, palliative and end-of-life care for those who will die of cancer; and survivorship challenges for those who will survive cancer, differs greatly across low, middle and high-income resource settings. Session 3 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on cancer care and treatment through three plenary presentations and five interactive workshop discussions: 1) establishing, implementing, operating and sustaining the capacity for quality cancer care; 2) the role of primary, community, and specialist care in cancer care and treatment; 3) the economics of affordable and sustainable cancer care; 4) issues around symptom control, support, and palliative/end-of-life care; and 5) issues around survivorship. A number of recommendations were proposed relating to capacity-building (standards and guidelines, protocols, new technologies and training and deployment) for safe, appropriate evidence-informed care; mapping and analysis of variations in primary, community and specialist care across countries with identification of models for effective, integrated clinical practice; the importance of considering the introduction, or expansion, of evidence-supported clinical practices from the perspectives of health economic impact, the value for health resources expended, and sustainability; capacity-building for palliative, end-of-life care and symptom control and integration of these services into national cancer control plans; the need for public education to reduce the fear and stigma associated with cancer so that patients are better able to make informed decisions regarding follow-up care and treatment; and the need to recognize the challenges and needs of survivors, their increasing number, the necessity to integrate survivorship into cancer control plans and the economic and societal value of functional survival after cancer. Discussions highlighted that coordinated care and treatment for cancer patients is both a ' systems'challenge and solution, requiring the consideration of patient and family circumstances, societal values and priorities, the functioning of the health system (access, capacity, resources, etc.) and the importance assigned to health and illness management within public policy.
  3. Lim JN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1627-9.
    PMID: 22126510
    Psychosocial and cultural factors influencing cancer health behaviour have not been systematically investigated outside the western culture, and qualitative research is the best approach for this type of social research. The research methods employed to study health problems in Asia predominantly are quantitative techniques. The set up of the first psychosocial cancer research network in Asia marks the beginning of a collaboration to promote and spearhead applied qualitative healthcare research in cancer in the UK, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. This paper sets out the rationale, objectives and mission for the UK-SEA-ME Psychosocial-Cultural Cancer Research Network. The UK-SEA-ME network is made up of collaborators from the University of Leeds (UK), the University of Malaya (Malaysia), the National University of Singapore (Singapore) and the University of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The network promotes applied qualitative research to investigate the psychosocial and cultural factors influencing delayed and late presentation and diagnosis for cancer (breast cancer) in partner countries, as well as advocating the use of the mixed-methods research approach. The network also offers knowledge transfer for capacity building within network universities. The mission of the network is to improve public awareness about the importance of early management and prevention of cancer through research in Asia.
  4. Taib NA, Yip CH, Low WY
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1601-8.
    PMID: 22126506
    INTRODUCTION: Advanced presentation of breast cancer and the problem of late diagnosis is well documented. Patient delay beyond three months has been shown to reduce survival. This paper aims to explore the experience of Malaysian women presenting with advanced breast cancer with regards to their interpretation of breast symptoms.

    METHOD: Purposive sampling of 19 breast cancer patients presenting with delayed treatment and/ or advanced cancer diagnosed within two years at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur were carried out. In-depth interviews were conducted using a self-devised interview guide. The interview guide covered the journey of the patient from discovering of symptoms to their present state. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim. NVivo 8 qualitative software was utilised for data management. Grounded theory with thematic analysis was utilised.

    RESULTS: Nine women delayed seeking diagnosis although recognizing the symptom, five did not recognize symptom, three delayed treatment and two did not delay health attention. Themes that emerged with regards to triggering help seeking behavior were: a) poor symptom knowledge and recognition; b) importance of knowledge of the disease and its' outcomes; c) role of coping mechanisms and affect; and lastly d) role of significant others in appraising a breast symptom.

    CONCLUSION: Symptom recognition remains an important public health issue in Malaysia. Educating women, their significant others and primary health and primary care providers in detecting early staged breast cancer are needed. Supporting and sanctioning women with breast symptoms are important. The psycho-social-cultural model of symptom appraisal may serve as an important addition to the fight against cancer in countries that do not have the resources for population based screening mammogram programmes.
  5. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1573-6.
    PMID: 22126501
    INTRODUCTION: Anemia is one of the most frequent hematological demonstration of malignant diseases, leading to impairment of function in all tissues and organs of cancer patients and associated with serious stress. This major problem may be exacerbated by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. It is characterized by lower hemoglobin (Hb) level or inadequate circulating red blood cells (RBCs). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of treatment guidelines for anemia among solid cancer patients in Penang hospital and to find associations between treatments and anemia onset and severity.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study was conducted on 534 cancer patients with anemia who were admitted to a government hospital on Penang island i.e., Penang General Hospital in the period between 2003 to 2009.

    RESULTS: Effectiveness of standard anemia treatment guidelines was not sufficient because correction of anemia was just temporary.

    CONCLUSION: According to the results, erythropoietin must be used as a cornerstone even for patients who suffer from moderate anemia and blood transfusion should be used just for emergency cases when anemia leads to a critical situation.
  6. Rashwan H, Lubis SH, Ni KA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(7):1837-41.
    PMID: 22126576
    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (p<0.05). The main source of cervical cancer information was from their parents (25.9%). HPV vaccination acceptance among students was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (p<0.05). In conclusion, the students had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students.
  7. El-Sherbieny E, Rashwan H, Lubis SH, Choi VJ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(7):1739-43.
    PMID: 22126556
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the third most common cancer among men in Peninsular Malaysia. However, no information is available about the prognostic factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors with an influence on outcome in patients treated in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    METHODS: A total of 159 patients with non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated during 2002-2003 in Hospital Kuala Lumpur were included in this study. All received radiotherapy. Fifty three patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, while 106 patients received combination chemotherapy. Overall survival and local recurrence-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was performed using the log-rank test.

    RESULTS: This study found out that 5-year overall survival and 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates were 58.6% and 54.2% respectively. The stage specific 5-year overall survival rates were: Stage I, 100%; Stage II; 93.3%, Stage III, 62.7%; Stage IVA, 42.2%; and Stage IVB, 40.6%. On univariate analysis, gender (p<0.05), T-classification (p<0.001), N-classification (p<0.05), stage (p<0.05) and cranial nerve involvement (p<0.001) were found to be significant prognostic factors for 5-year overall survival, while gender (p<0.05) and N-classification (p<0.05) were significant prognostic factors for 5-year local recurrence-free survival.

    CONCLUSION: The overall survival rate of patients for this study was low. The patient factor that significantly affected 5-year overall survival was gender, while disease factors were stage, T-classification, N-classification and cranial nerve involvement.

  8. Khoo CL, Teoh S, Rashid AK, Zakaria UU, Mansor S, Salleh FN, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1429-33.
    PMID: 22126476
    INTRODUCTION: As the second most common cancer in women worldwide, cervical cancer causes major health and economic burdens. Recent introduction of HPV immunization program locally has been encouraging but vaccine uptake remains poor. In addition, no study has been conducted to explore the people' s awareness and knowledge on cervical cancer, HPV and its vaccine in a rural setting in Malaysia after the inception of the HPV vaccination program.
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the awareness of cervical cancer, HPV vaccination and its affordability among people in a rural area in Malaysia.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 116 participants in a village in Penang. All consenting female villagers aged 13 years and above, and males who were married were interviewed using a questionnaire.
    RESULTS: Most participants (88.8%) had heard of cervical cancer, however only 29.3% and 42.2% of them had heard of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively. Only 5.2% knew the actual market price for the vaccine. They were willing to pay an average of RM 96.7 (USD $27.7) for the full course of vaccination if it is not given to them for free, whereas the market price is RM1200 (USD $342.85).
    CONCLUSION: Awareness among the Malaysian population in a rural setting on HPV and HPV vaccination is low. Educating the public on the infection can help control the illness. Cost of the HPV vaccine is a serious barrier to the success of the vaccination program in Malaysia.
  9. Abdul Rasool Hassan B, Yusoff ZB, Bin Othman S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1425-8.
    PMID: 22126475
    INTRODUCTION: Neutropenia, defined as a decrease in the absolute neutrophil count lower than the normal that is < 1500 cell/ ?l, has a detrimental effect on cancer patients' quality of life, also possibly resulting in a reduction in the chemotherapy dose which could lead to an increment in the size of a cancer. There are so many causative factors for neutropenia like hematological disorders, autoimmune diseases and infection, drugs reactions and chemotherapy or radiotherapy. So the main aim of this study is to find the association between chemotherapy drug or regimens, schedule of administration used for treatment of solid cancer diseases with neutropenia onset and severity.

    METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study carried out in a general hospital on 117 solid tumor patients who admitted between January 2003 to December 2006. The main statistical tests used were Chi- square test and Fisher' s Exact test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.

    RESULTS: The highest chemotherapeutic regimen was (5-FU+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide) (47, 40.2%) followed by (gemcitabine+cisplatin) (6, 5.1%) and many others. Majority of the patients receive their chemotherapy schedule of administration was one day schedule (90, 76.9%) followed by more than one day schedule (27, 23.1%).

    CONCLUSION: The doses of these drugs were not high enough to produce a sufficient pharmacological effect to cause bone marrow suppression and lead to neutropenia. Besides the schedule of administration for each drug was long enough to overcome neutropenia also the high uses of granulocyte colony stimulation factor (G-CSF) which will play a major role in reducing the time and severity of neutropenia. All these factors play an important role in giving non- significant association between neutropenia onset and severity with chemotherapeutics drugs and their schedule of administration.

  10. Loh SY, Chew SL, Lee SY
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1483-8.
    PMID: 22126486
    BACKGROUND: Many cancer survivors are still not active enough to reap the benefits of physical activity. This study aimed to explore the correlation between perceived barriers and participation in exercise among multi- ethnic Malaysian women with breast cancer.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a pre-post questionnaire and a media-clip as a cancer control strategy was conducted on a random sample of women with breast cancer. The tools were structured questionnaires to collect socio-medical demographic and physical activity data (e.g. barriers, exercise self-efficacy).

    RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship between level of physical activity before and after diagnosis of breast cancer (n=51, χ2=70.14, p<0.01) was found, whereby participants who rated more hours of physical activity before diagnosis were likely to persevere with exercise after diagnosis, r(49)=0.73, p<01. Some 76.5% of women engaged in low level activity and 23.5% of the participants engaged in moderate level of physical activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the many benefits of physical activity, the majority of survivors in this study were not found to be physically active, and did not even consciously think of exercise participation. Lack of time is the main barrier amongst those survivors who are predominantly 40-50 year old housewives juggling with household chores, childcare and/or job commitments. Public health messages stressing that short bouts of exercise or some exercise are better than no exercise needs to be emphasised consistently.
  11. Yasin SM, Taib KM, Zaki RA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1439-43.
    PMID: 22126478
    The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been used as one of the major constructs in developing effective cognitive behavioural interventions for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, in Western societies. This study aimed to examine the reliability and construct validity of the translated Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire among adult smokers in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The sample consisted of 40 smokers from four different worksites in Klang Valley. A 26-item TTM questionnaire was administered, and a similar set one week later. The questionnaire consisted of three measures; decisional balance, temptations and impact of smoking. Construct validity was measured by factor analysis and the reliability by Cronbach' s alpha (internal consistency) and test-retest correlation. Results revealed that Cronbach' s alpha coefficients for the items were: decisional balance (0.84; 0.74) and temptations (0.89; 0.54; 0.85). The values for test retest correlation were all above 0.4. In addition, factor analysis suggested two meaningful common factors for decisional balance and three for temptations. This is consistent with the original construct of the TTM questionnaire. Overall results demonstrated that construct validity and reliability were acceptable for all items. In conclusion, the Bahasa Malaysia version of TTM questionnaire is a reliable and valid tool in ass.
  12. Chang G, Chan CW, Hartman M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1635-9.
    PMID: 22126512
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Singaporean women and the rate of increase in incidence is one of the highest in the world. In view of the significant contribution of delayed presentation to the disease burden in South East Asia, we reviewed the incidence of late presentation of breast cancer and the contributing factors in Singapore. Disease presentation was analysed using studies based on the Singapore Cancer Registry 2004-2008 and with data from women with breast cancer at the National University Hospital (NUH) in Singapore 1990-2007. Available literature from Singapore on factors contributing to delayed presentation was reviewed and presented here. The overall age-standardized 5-year relative survival for Singaporean women was 70% with only half diagnosed with localized cancer. Of all women diagnosed at NUH close to 20% presented at Stages III and IV. Given the magnitude of the problem of women presenting with more advanced stages of breast cancer, the National University of Singapore has joined a collaborative team with the University of Leeds (UK), the University of Malaya, and University of UAE to set up the UK-SEA-ME Psychosocial-Cultural Cancer Research Network to better understand late presentation.
  13. Dahlui M, Ramli S, Bulgiba AM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1631-4.
    PMID: 22126511
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia.
  14. Loh SY, Chew SL, Lee SY, Quek KF
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1497-501.
    PMID: 22126488
    INTRODUCTION: Today, cancer survivors have an added new role to self manage living with the medical, emotional and role tasks that can affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the QOL of women two years after participating in a self-management intervention program.

    METHOD: The clinical trial was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre between 2006 and 2008. The experimental group underwent a 4-week self management program, and the control group underwent usual care. Two years after the intervention, questionnaires were randomly posted out to the participants.

    RESULTS: A total of 51 questionnaires returned. There were statistically differences between groups in psychological, self-care, mobility and participation aspects in PIPP (p<0.05). The experimental group reported having higher confidence to live with breast cancer compared to control group (p<0.05). There were significant between-group changes in anxiety scores at T2 (immediately after intervention) to T4 (two years later), and the differences in anxiety scores within groups between time point T2 and T4 were significantly different (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The SAMA program is potentially capable to serve as a model intervention for successful transition to survivorship following breast cancer treatment. The program needs to be further tested for efficacy in a larger trial involving more diverse populations of women completing breast cancer treatment.

  15. Loh SY, Ong L, Ng LL, Chew SL, Lee SY, Boniface G
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1489-95.
    PMID: 22126487
    BACKGROUND: Increasing survivorship warrants evidence-based intervention to help women manage living effectively with breast cancer. Breast cancer survivors may have many medical and psychosocial issues in the post- treatment period. Qualitative research was carried out to assess survivors' overall experience and if intervention helps in survivorship care. This paper reports exploration of benefit-findings from participation in an earlier 4-week self management intervention.

    METHODS: We used a grounded theory approach to analyze three focus groups conducted between May and August 2010 in Kuala Lumpur. We used random sampling to recruit the informants (n=21), all of whom had earlier participated in the 4 week self-management program held two years previously.

    FINDINGS: The women reported positive experience and growth with the self management program. Self-efficacy appears as an important underlying theme for successful experiences. The lack of proactive plans to provide bereavement support to surviving women was a key negative experience.

    CONCLUSION: The intervention successfully brought women together to work in close partnership with health professionals on ways to self manage the medical, emotional and role task as they live indefinitely with breast cancer, a new chronic illness. The beneficial effect from the 4 week intervention was expressed by women even at 2 years after the program. Having successfully developed a tightly knitted group, a major oversight was the lack of professional support on bereavement for grieving members when close friends passed away.

  16. Matalqah L, Radaideh K, Yusoff ZM, Awaisu A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(6):1549-53.
    PMID: 22126497
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been increased in South East Asia countries, but there are limited data for breast cancer risk factors in these countries. To clarify the risk for breast cancer among the Malaysian women, a matched case-control study was conducted.

    METHOD: Between October 2009 and April 2010, a survey was prospectively conducted among women admitted to clinics of Penang General Hospital for examination and/or treatment by using a questionnaire. Therefore, characteristics of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (n=150) were compared with control cases (n=150) admitted to hospital for non-neoplastic, non-hormone related diseases.

    RESULTS: Family history of a distant relative with breast cancer (OR=2.84), history of first-degree relatives with breast cancer (OR=2.95), history of benign breast disease (OR=2.43), menstrual irregularity (OR=4.24), and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) (OR=2.15) were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer in our population. Furthermore, education more than 11 years (OR=0.40), breastfeeding (OR=0.50), being employed (OR=0.45) and practicing low fat diet (OR=0.53) were strongly protective against breast cancer development.

    CONCLUSION: The results emphasize the importance of conducting a series of awareness campaigns that highlights the protective role of longer breastfeeding period against breast cancer and the negative relationships between OCP use and high fat diet with this disease.

  17. Roslani AC, Abdullah T, Arumugam K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(1):237-41.
    PMID: 22502676
    OBJECTIVE: Screening for colorectal cancer using guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBT) is well established in Western populations, but is hampered by poor patient compliance due to the imposed dietary restrictions. Fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) do not require dietary restriction, but are more expensive than gFOBT and therefore restrict its use in developing countries in Asia. However, Asian diets being low in meat content may not require diet restriction for gFOBT to achieve equivalent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the validity and suitability of gFOBT and FIT or a combination of the two in screening for colorectal neoplasias without prior dietary restriction in an Asian population.

    METHODS: Patients referred to the Endoscopic Unit for colonoscopy were recruited for the study. Stool samples were collected prior to bowel preparation, and tested for occult blood with both gFOBT and FIT. Dietary restriction was not imposed. To assess the validity of either tests or in combination to detect a neoplasm or cancer in the colon, their false positive rates, their sensitivity (true positive rate) and the specificity (true negative rate) were analyzed and compared.

    RESULTS: One hundred and three patients were analysed. The sensitivity for picking up any neoplasia was 53% for FIT, 40% for gFOBT and 23.3% for the combination. The sensitivities for picking up only carcinoma were 77.8% , 66.7% and 55.5%, respectively. The specificity for excluding any neoplasia was 91.7% for FIT, 74% for gFOBT and 94.5% for a combination, whereas for excluding only carcinomas they were 84%, 73.4% and 93.6%. Of the 69 with normal colonoscopic findings, FOBT was positive in 4.3%, 23.2 %and 2.9% for FIT, gFOBT, or combination of tests respectively.

    CONCLUSION: FIT is the recommended method if we are to dispense with dietary restriction in our patients because of its relatively low-false positivity and better sensitivity and specificity rates.

  18. Su TT, Sallehuddin BA, Murniati HH, Swinder J, Al Sadat N, Saimy I
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(1):175-9.
    PMID: 22502663
    The objective of the study is to investigate the success rate of quit attempts and identify factors associated with success or failure of quit attempts in a quit smoking clinic. A cohort study was conducted with 495 smokers who enrolled in a quit smoking clinic from 2005 to 2008. The factors leading to quit smoking successfully were "being Malay", "having high blood pressure" "type of Nicotine Replacement Therapy" and "duration of follow up". In contrast, clerical staff had negative association to quit smoking. People who started smoking in their teenage years had a high risk of relapse. Integration of active follow up and tailor-made support programmes for quitters appear necessary in order to maintain their non-smoking status and encourage them to be permanent quitters. Integration of quit smoking clinics and primary care clinics could be another potential step for the success of quit smoking programmes.
  19. Al Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Alabsi AM, Alshagga MA, Ali RS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(1):165-8.
    PMID: 22502661
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of oral cancer and its associated factors among university students in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 university students in Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. It included questions on socio- demographic data, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer.

    RESULTS: Mean age of the respondents was 21.5 ± 2.5 and the age ranged from 18 to 27 years. The majority of the respondents were aware of oral cancer (92.0%) and recognized the followings as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: ulcer and oral bleeding (71.0%), followed by swelling (61.5%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on the following risk factors; smoking (95.5%), poor oral hygiene (90.5%), family history (90.0%), alcohol (84.5%) and poor fitting dentures (83.0%). However, unsatisfactory knowledge was observed about hot/spicy food (46.5%), obesity (36.0%), old age (31.5%), dietary factor (29.0%) and smokeless tobacco (25.5%). Knowledge of oral cancer was associated significantly with age (p<0.01), year of study (p<0.01) and course of study (p<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: Instead of satisfactory awareness and knowledge of oral cancer and its clinical presentations, inadequate knowledge was observed about its risk factors. There is a need to introduce oral cancer education among university students.

  20. Hassan BA, Yusoff ZB, Hassali MA, Othman SB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2753-8.
    PMID: 22320987
    INTRODUCTION: Anemia is considered as one of the most frequent hematological demonstration of malignant diseases, which lead to momentous impairment in every tissues and organs of cancer patients and put them under serious stress. This major problem may arise because of the underlining diseases (i.e., cancer diseases) or radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment received. This present study tries to find the association between anemia onset and severity with different chemotherapeutics regimens used in the treatment of several solid cancers and to find the association of anemia onset and severity with different doses of these chemotherapeutics drugs.

    METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in Penang General Hospital on 534 anemic solid cancer patients who were admitted between 2003 and 2009. The main statistical tests used were Chi-square test and Logistic regression test for categorical data. While for continues data the main statistical tests were Linear regression and correlation test. The significance of the result will be when the P<0.05, while the confidence interval for this study was 95%.

    RESULTS: FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel and Cisplatin+ 5-FU regimen has strong association and correlation with anemia onset and severity. However the associations and correlations with anemia severity were stronger than those with the onset. Different doses of 5-FU, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel and cisplatin play a critical role in anemia onset and severity.

    CONCLUSION: Monitoring and determination of hemoglobin levels for cancer patients treated with FEC, 5-FU+5-FU, Docetaxel, Cisplatin+ 5-FU specifically with high doses must be emphasized and a focus of particular attention.

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