Displaying publications 101 - 120 of 514 in total

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  1. Hussain SM, Al-Jashamy KA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6257-60.
    PMID: 24377514
    Gallstone disease is a major surgical problem in many populations; it is probably related to diet, especially excessive consumption of meat. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of gallstones and their association with neoplastic changes including cholangiocarcinomas in cholecystectomised patients. The chemical composition of gallstones from 40 patients (8 males and 32 females) was analyzed. This is a prospective study performed in Baquba teaching hospital in the period from 1/10/2012 to 1/1/2013 in which we collected the gallstones for the patients who underwent cholecystectomy, whether open or laparoscopic. The stones were classified according to their chemical composition as a mixed stones (MS), and examined using a stone analysis set (chemical qualitative method) for calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate which was used reagent for qualitative determination of main individual components of stones. The results of this study showed the highest incidence of gallstones in the age group 40-49 was 13 cases followed by 11, 8 and 4 cases for age groups 30-39, 50-59, 20-29 and 60 and above, respectively. The chemical analysis showed the majority of gallstones were mixed, 38 containing calcium followed by 37 cases with uric acid, 28 with magnesium, and 25 and 22 stones with oxalate and phosphate, respectively. Microscopically, we confirmed neoplastic changes (17.5%) as cholangiocarcinomas (CCCs) (7.55%) and dysplastic cells of carcinoma in situ in 4 (10%), 31 (77.5%) cases were chronic cholecystitis and 2 (5%) cases were acute cholecystitis with empyema out of bile duct disorders patients. In conclusion, majority of cases had mixed gallstones that involved five and four of inorganic chemicals of calcium, magnesium and phosphate, the highest incidence of gallstones in age group 40-49 years old was 13 cases, and neoplastic changes were confirmed (17.5%) including CCCs, (7.5%) and dysplastic cells of carcinoma in situ (10%), while 31 (77.5%) cases were chronic cholecystitis.
  2. Yaacob NS, Nasir R, Norazmi MN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6761-7.
    PMID: 24377602
    The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), is expressed in various cancer cells including breast, prostate, colorectal and cervical examples. An endogenous ligand of PPARγ, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14 prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), is emerging as a potent anticancer agent but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated, especially in breast cancer. The present study compared the anticancer effects of PGJ2 on estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive (MCF-7) and ERα-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cells. Based on the reported signalling cross-talk between PPARγ and ERα, the effect of the ERα ligand, 17β-estradiol (E2) on the anticancer activities of PGJ2 in both types of cells was also explored. Here we report that PGJ2 inhibited proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing apoptotic cell death with active involvement of mitochondria. The presence of E2 potentiated PGJ2-induced apoptosis in MCF-7, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. The PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, failed to block PGJ2-induced activities but potentiated its effects in MCF-7 cells, instead. Interestingly, GW9662 also proved capable of inducing apoptotic cell death. It can be concluded that E2 enhances PPARγ-independent anticancer effects of PGJ2 in the presence of its receptor.
  3. Alabsi AM, Ali R, Ali AM, Harun H, Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6273-80.
    PMID: 24377517
    Goniothalamin, a natural compound extracted from Goniothalamus sp. belonging to the Annonacae family, possesses anticancer properties towards several tumor cell lines. This study focused on apoptosis induction by goniothalamin (GTN) in the Hela cervical cancer cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by MTT assay and the IC50 value of goniothalamin was 3.2 ± 0.72 μg/ml. Morphological changes and biochemical processes associated with apoptosis were evident on phase contrast microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. DNA fragmentation, DNA damage, caspase-9 activation and a large increase in the sub-G1 and S cell cycle phases confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. It could be concluded that goniothalamin show a promising cytotoxicity effect against cervical cancer cells (Hela) and the cell death mode induced by goniothalamin was apoptosis.
  4. Hock LK, Ghazali SM, Cheong KC, Kuay LK, Li LH, Ying CY, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6971-8.
    PMID: 24377635
    BACKGROUND: Smoking among adolescents has been linked to a variety of adverse and long term health consequences. "Susceptibility to smoking" or the lack of cognitive commitment to abstain from smoking is an important predictor of adolescent smoking. In 2008, we conducted a study to determine the psycho-sociological factors associated with susceptibility to smoking among secondary school students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred students were randomly selected by proportional stratified sampling. Analyses on 1,736 non-smoking students revealed that prevalence of adolescents susceptible to smoking was 16.3%.

    RESULTS: Male gender (aOR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.23-3.39), poor academic achievement (aOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.05-2.44), ever-smoker (aOR 2.17, 95%CI 1.37-3.44) and having a smoking friend (aOR 1.76, 95%CI 1.10-2.83) were associated with susceptibility to smoking, while having the perception that smoking prohibition in school was strictly enforced (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.94), and had never seen friends smoking in a school compound (aOR 0.59, 95%CI 0.37-0.96) were considered protective factors

    CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that follow-up programmes need to capitalise on the modifiable factors related to susceptibility to smoking by getting all stakeholders to be actively involved to stamp out smoking initiation among adolescents.

  5. Norsa'adah B, Nurhazalini-Zayani CG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6955-9.
    PMID: 24377632
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.
  6. Abidin EZ, Hashim Z, Semple S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6845-50.
    PMID: 24377615
    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to gather data on second-hand smoke (SHS) concentrations in a range of public venues following the implementation of partial Smoke-Free Legislation in Malaysia in 2004.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 was measured as a marker of SHS levels in a total of 61 restaurants, entertainment centres, internet cafes and pubs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Under the current smoke-free laws smoking was prohibited in 42 of the 61 premises. Active smoking was observed in nearly one-third (n=12) of these. For premises where smoking was prohibited and no active smoking observed, the mean (standard deviation) indoor PM2.5 concentration was 33.4 (23.8) μg/m3 compared to 187.1 (135.1) μg/m3 in premises where smoking was observed The highest mean PM2.5 was observed in pubs [361.5 (199.3) μg/m3].

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of high levels of SHS across a range of hospitality venues, including about one-third of those where smoking is prohibited, despite 8 years of smoke-free legislation. Compliance with the legislation appeared to be particularly poor in entertainment centres and internet cafes. Workers and non-smoking patrons continue to be exposed to high concentrations of SHS within the hospitality industry in Malaysia and there is an urgent need for increased enforcement of existing legislation and consideration of more comprehensive laws to protect health.

  7. Ngan R, Wang E, Porter D, Desai J, Prayogo N, Devi B, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6821-32.
    PMID: 24377612
    BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas require tailored and multidisciplinary treatment and management. However, little is known about how sarcomas are treated and managed throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE was systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications (previous 10 years) that reported tumour characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and/or safety outcomes of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma were selected. Exclusion criteria were studies of patients <18 years of age; ≤ 10 patients; countries other than Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, or Thailand; >20% benign tumours; sarcomas located in bones or joints; gastrointestinal stromal tumour; Kaposi's sarcoma; or not reporting relevant outcomes.

    RESULTS: Of the 1,822 publications retrieved, 35 (32 studies) were included. Nearly all patients (98%, 1,992/2,024; 31 studies) were treated with surgery, and more studies used adjuvant radiotherapy than chemotherapy (24 vs 17 studies). Survival outcomes and recurrence rates varied among the studies because of the different histotypes, sites, and disease stages assessed. Only 5 studies reported safety findings.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the lack of specific data available about soft-tissue sarcomas in the Asia-Pacific region. Better efforts to understand how the sarcoma is managed and treated will help improve patient outcomes in the region.

  8. Al-Naggar RA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4577-81.
    PMID: 24083705
    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the practice of skin cancer prevention among Malaysian road traffic police officers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 202 Malaysian Road Police Traffic officers. Inclusion criteria were those officers who work wearing white uniform regulating traffic. The survey took place at the Police Traffic Station, Jln Tun H.S. Lee, Kuala Lumpur, the main Head Quarters of Malaysian's Traffic Department where almost 600 police traffic officers are employed. The police traffic officers are given the task to take care of the traffic from the main office of the police station, then, according to the task, the officers drive to their given location for their duty. Each task is approved by the Chief Traffic Inspector of Kuala Lumpur. Data collected in this study were analyzed using SPSS 13, with the T-test for univariate analysis and multiple linear regression for multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 202 road traffic police officers participated. The majority were older than 30 years of age, male, Malay, married, with secondary education, with monthly income more than 2000 Ringgit Malaysia (66.3%, 91.1%, 86.6%, 84.7%, 96%, 66.3%; respectively). Regarding the practice of skin cancer prevention, 84.6% of the study participants were found to wear hats, 68.9% sunglasses and 85.6% clothing that covering most of the body but only 16.9% used a sunscreen when they were outdoors. When analysis of the factors that influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention was performed, univariate analysis revealed that gender, age and monthly income significantly influenced the practice of skin cancer prevention. For multivariate analysis, gender, monthly income and race significantly influenced the practice of using sunscreen among road traffic police officers (p<0.001, p=0.019, p=0.027; respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: The practice of skin cancer prevention among the traffic police officers showed good practices in terms of wearinga hat, sun glasses and clothing that covers most of the body. However, the study revealed a poor practice of the use of sunscreen. The factors that influence the practice of sunscreen use were found to be gender, income, and race. The study suggests that more awareness campaign among traffic police officers is needed. Providing sunscreen for free for police traffic officers should be considered by the Police authorities.

  9. Abdullah NA, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Muhammad NA, Ali ZM, Ibrahim L, Ibrahim Tamim NS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4591-4.
    PMID: 24083707
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.
  10. Kamaludin KM, Muhammad M, Wahat NW, Ibrahim R
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4795-800.
    PMID: 24083746
    The involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs) and support groups has helped strengthen public health services in addressing cancer care burden. Owing to the contribution of volunteers in cancer care, this article documents a qualitative study that examined challenges in attracting and retaining cancer care volunteers as part of the effort to develop a volunteer recruitment model. Data were collected through three focus group discussions involving 19 cancer support group members in Malaysia. Findings of the study revealed that mobility and locality appeared to be significant in Malaysian context, while the need for financial support and time flexibility are challenges faced by cancer support groups to attract and retain volunteers. The findings imply that cancer care initiatives can benefit from more local volunteers but at the same time these volunteers require flexibility and financial support to sustain their engagement.
  11. Chee Ee Phua V, Loo WH, Yusof MM, Wan Ishak WZ, Tho LM, Ung NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4567-70.
    PMID: 24083703
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the commonest radiocurable cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the treatment outcomes and late effects of radiotherapy for NPC patients treated in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All newly diagnosed patients with NPC referred for treatment to the Oncology unit at UMMC from 2004-2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment outcomes were 5 years overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), loco- regional control (LRC) and radiotherapy-related late effects. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis and differences in survival according to AJCC stage was compared using the log-rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 176 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were treated in UMMC during this period. Late presentation was common, with 33.5% presenting with T3-4 disease, 84.7% with N1-3 disease and 75.6% with AJCC stage 3-4 disease. Radical RT was given to 162 patients with 22.7% having RT alone and 69.3% having CCRT. The stipulated OTT was 7 weeks and 72.2% managed to complete their RT within this time period. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 14.8% while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 16.5%. The 5 years OS was 51.6% with a median follow up of 58 months. The 5 years OS according to stage were 81.8% for stage I, 77.9% for stage II, 47.4% for stage III and 25.9% for stage IV. The 5 years overall CSS, DFS and LRC were 54.4%, 48.4% and 70.6%, respectively. RT related late effects were documented in 80.2%. The commonest was xerostomia (66.7%). Other documented late effects were hearing deficit (17.3%), visual deficit (3.1%), neck stiffness (3.1%) , dysphagia (3.4%), cranial nerve palsy (2.5%), pneumonitis (0.6%) and hypothyroidism (1.2%).

    CONCLUSIONS: The 5 years OS and LRC in this study are low compared to the latest studies especially those utilizing IMRT. Implementation of IMRT for NPC treatment should be strongly encouraged.

  12. Devan SM, Pailoor J, Sthaneshwar P, Narayanan V
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(8):4545-8.
    PMID: 24083699
    The objective of this study is to assess tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 protein in primary benign and malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary and correlate with serum CA-125 levels. A total of 100 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of ovarian tumours which included serous adenoma (11), mucinous adenoma (42), serous carcinoma (20), mucinous carcinoma (12) and endometrioid carcinoma (15), histologically diagnosed between 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2012 at the University Malaya Medical Centre, were stained for HE4 (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, UK) and CA-125 (mouse monoclonal antibody clone: OC125, Cell Marque Corporation, Rocklin, California, USA). Pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were obtained from the laboratory information system. Immunoscore (I score) for HE4 and CA-125 was given based on the intensity of staining and percentage of positive tumour cells and considered significant when it was >50 (intensity of staining multiplied by percentage of positive tumour cells). Serum CA-125 levels were compared with the I score of HE4 and CA-125 in tissues. We noted that the CA-125 levels in serum and tissues were significantly raised in malignant compared to benign ovarian tumours (p value<0.05). Tissue expression of HE4 protein was also significantly raised in malignant tumours compared to benign tumours (p value<0.05). We conclude that HE4 can be a useful tissue immunomarker in addition to CA-125.
  13. Abdul Rashid RM, Mohamed M, Hamid ZA, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(10):5901-4.
    PMID: 24289597
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of different methods of recall for repeat Pap smear among women who had normal smears in the previous screening.
    DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled study.
    SETTING: All community clinics in Klang under the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Women of Klang who attended cervical screening and had a normal Pap smear in the previous year, and were due for a repeat smear were recruited and randomly assigned to four different methods of recall for repeat smear.
    INTERVENTION: The recall methods given to the women to remind them for a repeat smear were either by postal letter, registered letter, short message by phone (SMS) or phone call.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and percentage of women who responded to the recall within 8 weeks after they had received the recall, irrespective whether they had Pap test conducted. Also the numbers of women in each recall method that came for repeat Pap smear.
    RESULTS: The rates of recall messages reaching the women when using letter, registered letter, SMS and phone calls were 79%, 87%, 66% and 68%, respectively. However, the positive responses to recall by letter, registered letter, phone messages and telephone call were 23.9%, 23.0%, 32.9% and 50.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Furthermore, more women who received recall by phone call had been screened (p<0.05) compared to those who received recall by postal letter (OR=2.38, CI=1.56-3.62).
    CONCLUSION: Both the usual way of sending letters and registered letters had higher chances of reaching patients compared to using phone either for sending messages or calling. The response to the recall method and uptake of repeat smear, however, were highest via phone call, indicating the importance of direct communication.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kelang, Selangor, Malaysia
  14. Abdul Rashid RM, Dahlui M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(10):5867-70.
    PMID: 24289591
    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women with an ASR of 17.9 and a mortality rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population in 2008 (GLOBOCAN, 2008). The 5 year prevalence was estimated to be 14.5 per 100,000 population. As the second most common cancer affecting productive females, cervical cancer imposes an impact to the socioeconomic aspect of the country. However, the poor uptake of cervical cancer screening is a major problem in detecting early pre-cancerous lesions and thus, delay in initiating treatment for cervical cancer. Realizing the urgency to increase the uptake of PAP smear, besides enhancing the promotion of PAP smear screening for women above 35 years old, the call-recall system for pap smear screening had been piloted in one of the suburban districts which aimed to improve regular participation of women for cervical and breast cancer screening. This is of public health importance as identifying the best feasible option to increase patient's respond to participate in the screening program effectively in our setting will be helpful in implementing an organized regular population based screening program tailored to our setting. The pilot program of cervical cancer screening in Klang was an opportunity to assess different options in recalling patients for a repeat pap smear to increase their participation and adherence to the program.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a population based randomized control trial. Women aged 20-65 years in the population that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria were re-called for a repeat smear. There are four different intervention groups; letter, registered letters, short messages services (SMS) and phone calls where 250 subjects were recruited into each group. Samples were generated randomly from the same population in Klang into four different groups. The first group received a recall letter for a repeat smear similar to the one that has been given during the first invitation. The intervention groups were either be given a registered letter, an SMS or a phone call to re-call them. The socio-demographic data of the patients who came for uptake were collected for further analysis. All the groups were followed up after 8 weeks to assess their compliance to the recall.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study will provide recommendations about the most effective methods for recall in a population based pap smear screening program on two outcomes: i) patients response; ii) uptake for repeat pap smear.

  15. Lachumy SJ, Oon CE, Deivanai S, Saravanan D, Vijayarathna S, Choong YS, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(10):5553-65.
    PMID: 24289545
    Plants play important roles in human life not only as suppliers of oxygen but also as a fundamental resource to sustain the human race on this earthly plane. Plants also play a major role in our nutrition by converting energy from the sun during photosynthesis. In addition, plants have been used extensively in traditional medicine since time immemorial. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated that many natural herbs have been investigated for their efficacy against lethal irradiation. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that natural herbs possess significant radioprotective activity. In view of the immense medicinal importance of natural product based radioprotective agents, this review aims at compiling all currently available information on radioprotective agents from medicinal plants and herbs, especially the evaluation methods and mechanisms of action. In this review we particularly emphasize on ethnomedicinal uses, botany, phytochemistry, mechanisms of action and toxicology. We also describe modern techniques for evaluating herbal samples as radioprotective agents. The usage of herbal remedies for combating lethal irradiation is a green anti- irradiation approach for the betterment of human beings without high cost, side effects and toxicity.
  16. Pandurangan AK, Esa NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(10):5543-52.
    PMID: 24289544
    Colorectal cancer (CRC), a complex multi-step process involving progressive disruption of homeostatic mechanisms controlling intestinal epithelial proliferation/inflammation, differentiation, and programmed cell death, is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. A number of promising targets such as inducible nitric acid (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and apoptotic signaling have been identified by researchers as useful targets to prevent or therapeutically inhibit colon cancer development. In this review article, we aimed to explore the current targets available to eliminate colon cancer with an update of dietary and non-nutritional compounds that could be of potential use for interaction with regulatory molecules to prevent CRC.
  17. Ahmadian M, Samah AA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(7):4005-13.
    PMID: 23991945
    BACKGROUND: Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS: Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.

  18. Ezat SW, Hod R, Mustafa J, Mohd Dali AZ, Sulaiman AS, Azman A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):2991-9.
    PMID: 23803068
    BACKGROUND: Introduction of the HPV vaccine is a forefront primary prevention method in reducing the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. The Malaysia government has implemented the National HPV immunisation programme since 2010, supplying HPV vaccine free to targeted 13 year olds. This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge among mothers on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccine and National HPV (NHPV) immunisation programme since its' implementation. It also assessed acceptance of mothers towards HPV vaccine being administered to their daughter, son or themselves.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 155 respondents using self-administered questionnaires; conducted in December 2012 at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique.
    RESULTS: A response rate of 100% was obtained. Overall, 51.0% of mothers had good knowledge, with 55% having good knowledge of cervical cancer, 54.2% for both HPV and the National HPV immunisation programme and 51.0% for the HPV vaccine. Regression analyses showed that ethnicity was associated with knowledge on cervical cancer (p=0.003) while education was associated with knowledge on HPV (p=0.049). Three factors are associated with knowledge of the National HPV immunisation programme; ethnicity (p=0.017), mothers' education (p=0.0005) and number of children (p=0.020). The acceptance of HPV vaccine to be administered among daughter was the highest at 87.1%, followed by for mothers themselves at 73.5%, and the least is for sons 62.6%.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that the overall level of knowledge was moderate. Adequate information on cervical cancer, HPV, HPV vaccination and the National HPV immunisation programme should be provided to mothers in order to increase acceptance of the HPV vaccine which can reduce the disease burden in the future.
    Study site: O&G clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  19. Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Knight A, Shafie AA, Farooqui MA, Saleem F, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3017-21.
    PMID: 23803072
    BACKGROUND: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important aspect in identifying cancer patients' perceptions of being diagnosed with cancer and the assessment of treatment outcomes. The present study aimedto assess the profile and predicators of HRQoL of Malaysian oncology patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study adopting the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was conducted. All cancer patients attending Penang General Hospital between August-November 2011 were approached. Descriptive statistics were used to assess demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0.

    RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety three cancer patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 53.9 (SD±13) years. The cohort was dominated by females (n=260, 66.2%). Nearly half (n=190, 48.3%) of the participants were of Malay ethnicity, practicing Islam as their religion (n=194, 49.4%). Two hundred and ninety six (n=296, 75.3%) had beene diagnosed with cancer within six months to 3 years previously. The most common primary cancer site was breast (n=143, 36.4%). The mean Global Health Status (GHS) score was 60.7 (SD=21.3). Females (mean GHS score of 62.3, p=0.035) with Malay ethnicity (mean GHS score of 63.8, p=0.047), practicing Islam as their religion (mean GHS score of 63.0, p=0.011) had better GHS scores. Patients having medical insurance had good scores (mean 65.6, p=0.021). Marital status was significantly associated with GHS scores (p=0.022). Bone cancer patientshad the lowest mean GHS score of 49.2 (p=0.044). Patients at very advanced stages of cancer featured a low GHS mean score of 52.2 (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified many demographic and disease related factors which may contribute to the HRQoL of cancer patients, pointing to the necessity for improved management of disease symptoms and provision of psychological and financial support.

  20. Saad N, Esa NM, Ithnin H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3093-9.
    PMID: 23803085
    BACKGROUND: Phytic acid (PA) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that can be found in high amounts in most cereals, legumes, nut oil, seeds and soy beans. It has been suggested to play a significant role in inhibition of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to investigate expression changes of β-catenin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell proliferation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence after treatment with rice bran PA by immunocytochemistry.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 equal groups with 12 rats in each group. For cancer induction two intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) were given at 15 mg/kg bodyweight over a 2-weeks period. During the post initiation phase, two different concentrations of PA, 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) were administered in the diet.

    RESULTS: Results of β-catenin, COX-2 expressions and cell proliferation of Ki-67 showed a significant contribution in colonic cancer progression. For β-catenin and COX-2 expression, there was a significant difference between groups at p<0.05. With Ki-67, there was a statistically significant lowering the proliferating index as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). A significant positive correlation (p=0.01) was noted between COX-2 expression and proliferation. Total β-catenin also demonstrated a significant positive linear relationship with total COX-2 (p=0.044).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated potential value of PA extracted from rice bran in reducing colonic cancer risk in rats.

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