Displaying publications 101 - 120 of 313 in total

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  1. Leong HY, Chang CK, Khoo KS, Chew KW, Chia SR, Lim JW, et al.
    Biotechnol Biofuels, 2021 Apr 07;14(1):87.
    PMID: 33827663 DOI: 10.1186/s13068-021-01939-5
    Global issues such as environmental problems and food security are currently of concern to all of us. Circular bioeconomy is a promising approach towards resolving these global issues. The production of bioenergy and biomaterials can sustain the energy-environment nexus as well as substitute the devoid of petroleum as the production feedstock, thereby contributing to a cleaner and low carbon environment. In addition, assimilation of waste into bioprocesses for the production of useful products and metabolites lead towards a sustainable circular bioeconomy. This review aims to highlight the waste biorefinery as a sustainable bio-based circular economy, and, therefore, promoting a greener environment. Several case studies on the bioprocesses utilising waste for biopolymers and bio-lipids production as well as bioprocesses incorporated with wastewater treatment are well discussed. The strategy of waste biorefinery integrated with circular bioeconomy in the perspectives of unravelling the global issues can help to tackle carbon management and greenhouse gas emissions. A waste biorefinery-circular bioeconomy strategy represents a low carbon economy by reducing greenhouse gases footprint, and holds great prospects for a sustainable and greener world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  2. Vigneswari S, Chai JM, Kamarudin KH, Amirul AA, Focarete ML, Ramakrishna S
    Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2020;8:567693.
    PMID: 33195129 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2020.567693
    Biomaterial scaffolds play crucial role to promote cell proliferation and foster the regeneration of new tissues. The progress in material science has paved the way for the generation of ingenious biomaterials. However, these biomaterials require further optimization to be effectively used in existing clinical treatments. It is crucial to develop biomaterials which mimics structure that can be actively involved in delivering signals to cells for the formation of the regenerated tissue. In this research we nanoengineered a functional scaffold to support the proliferation of myoblast cells. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer is chosen as scaffold material owing to its desirable mechanical and physical properties combined with good biocompatibility, thus eliciting appropriate host tissue responses. In this study P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer was biosynthesized using Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 transformant harboring additional PHA synthase gene, and the viability of a novel P(3HB-co-4HB) electrospun nanofiber scaffold, surface functionalized with RGD peptides, was explored. In order to immobilize RGD peptides molecules onto the P(3HB-co-4HB) nanofibers surface, an aminolysis reaction was performed. The nanoengineered scaffolds were characterized using SEM, organic elemental analysis (CHN analysis), FTIR, surface wettability and their in vitro degradation behavior was evaluated. The cell culture study using H9c2 myoblast cells was conducted to assess the in vitro cellular response of the engineered scaffold. Our results demonstrated that nano-P(3HB-co-4HB)-RGD scaffold possessed an average fiber diameter distribution between 200 and 300 nm, closely biomimicking, from a morphological point of view, the structural ECM components, thus acting as potential ECM analogs. This study indicates that the surface conjugation of biomimetic RGD peptide to the nano-P(3HB-co-4HB) fibers increased the surface wettability (15 ± 2°) and enhanced H9c2 myoblast cells attachment and proliferation. In summary, the study reveals that nano-P(3HB-co-4HB)-RGD scaffold can be considered a promising candidate to be further explored as cardiac construct for building cardiac construct.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  3. Ibrahim WN, Muizzuddin Bin Mohd Rosli L, Doolaanea AA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:8059-8074.
    PMID: 33116518 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S269340
    Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main active compound extracted from Nigella sativa a traditional herb with wide therapeutic applications and recognizable anticancer properties. This study aimed to formulate and characterize TQ-nanoparticles using PLGA as a biocompatible coating material (TQ-PLGA NPs) with the evaluation of its therapeutic properties in human melanoma cancer cells.

    Methods: The TQ-PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, and release profile.

    Results: The particle size was 147.2 nm, with 22.1 positive zeta potential and 96.8% encapsulation efficiency. The NPs released 45.6% of the encapsulated TQ within 3 h followed by characteristic sustained release over 7 days with a total of 69.7% cumulative release. TQ-PLGA NPs were taken up effectively by the cells in a time-dependent manner up to 24 h. Higher cell toxicity was determined within the first 24 h in melanoma cells due to the rapid release of TQ from the NPs and its low stability in the cell culture media.

    Conclusion: TQ-PLGA NPs is a potential anticancer agent taking advantage of the sustained release and tailored size that allows accumulation in the cancer tissue by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, stability problems of the active ingredient were address in this study and requires further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  4. Zahib IR, Md Tahir P, Talib M, Mohamad R, Alias AH, Lee SH
    Carbohydr Polym, 2021 Jan 15;252:117224.
    PMID: 33183648 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117224
    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) was produced from sago starch via carboxymethylation. The CMS with different degree of substitution (DS) ranges from 0.4 to 0.8 were mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weight and distilled water and the hydrogel was cured by electron beam irradiation with doses ranging from 25 to 35 kGy. The results revealed that CMS-PEG hydrogels with DS 0.4 give the optimum gel content when radiated at 30 kGy and with PEG 600. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that there are two phases exist in CMS with DS 0.4 in contrast to the three steps decomposition occurs in DS 0.6 and 0.8. It shows that the CMS with DS 0.4 is more thermally stable. Surface morphology revealed crosslinking among the blends when subjected into the radiation dose. The study shows both radiation and PEG addition improved most of the properties of CMS irrespective of the DS value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  5. Mohd Roslan MR, Mohd Kamal NL, Abdul Khalid MF, Mohd Nasir NF, Cheng EM, Beh CY, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Apr 14;14(8).
    PMID: 33919814 DOI: 10.3390/ma14081960
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. HA possesses high mechanical stress and exhibits particularly excellent biocompatibility owing to its similarity to natural bone. Nonetheless, this ceramic scaffold has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness. Therefore, this had presented some difficulties when shaping implants out of HA and for sustaining a high mechanical load. Fortunately, these drawbacks can be improved by combining HA with other biomaterials. Starch was heavily considered for biomedical device applications in favor of its low cost, wide availability, and biocompatibility properties that complement HA. This review provides an insight into starch/HA composites used in the fabrication of bone tissue scaffolds and numerous factors that influence the scaffold properties. Moreover, an alternative characterization of scaffolds via dielectric and free space measurement as a potential contactless and nondestructive measurement method is also highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  6. Mohd Pu'ad NAS, Koshy P, Abdullah HZ, Idris MI, Lee TC
    Heliyon, 2019 May;5(5):e01588.
    PMID: 31080905 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01588
    Waste materials from natural sources are important resources for extraction and recovery of valuable compounds. Transformation of these waste materials into valuable materials requires specific techniques and approaches. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a biomaterial that can be extracted from natural wastes. HAp has been widely used in biomedical applications owing to its excellent bioactivity, high biocompatibility, and excellent osteoconduction characteristics. Thus, HAp is gaining prominence for applications as orthopaedic implants and dental materials. This review summarizes some of the recent methods for extraction of HAp from natural sources including mammalian, aquatic or marine sources, shell sources, plants and algae, and from mineral sources. The extraction methods used to obtain hydroxyapatite are also described. The effect of extraction process and natural waste source on the critical properties of the HAp such as Ca/P ratio, crystallinity and phase assemblage, particle sizes, and morphology are discussed herein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  7. Raza MR, Sherazi I, Muhammad Aslam, Ahmad F, Abu Bakar Sulong, Muhamad Norhamidi, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:285-293.
    316L stainless steel is a common biomedical material. Currently, biomedical parts are produced through powder injection molding (PIM). Carbon control is the most critical in PIM. Improper debinding can significantly change the properties of the final product. In this work, thermal debinding and sintering were performed in two different furnaces (i.e. laboratory and commercially available furnaces) to study the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Debounded samples were sintered in different atmospheres. The samples sintered in inert gas showed enhanced mechanical properties compared with wrought 316L stainless steel and higher corrosion rate than those sintered in the vacuum furnace. The densification and tensile strength of the hydrogen sintered samples increased up to 3% and 51%, respectively, compared with those of the vacuum-sintered samples. However, the samples sintered in inert gas also exhibited reduced ductility and corrosion resistance. This finding is attributed to the presence of residual carbon in debonded samples during debinding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  8. Abudula T, Gauthaman K, Hammad AH, Joshi Navare K, Alshahrie AA, Bencherif SA, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 May 29;12(6).
    PMID: 32485817 DOI: 10.3390/polym12061233
    Lack of suitable auto/allografts has been delaying surgical interventions for the treatment of numerous disorders and has also caused a serious threat to public health. Tissue engineering could be one of the best alternatives to solve this issue. However, deficiency of oxygen supply in the wounded and implanted engineered tissues, caused by circulatory problems and insufficient angiogenesis, has been a rate-limiting step in translation of tissue-engineered grafts. To address this issue, we designed oxygen-releasing electrospun composite scaffolds, based on a previously developed hybrid polymeric matrix composed of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). By performing ball-milling, we were able to embed a large percent of calcium peroxide (CP) nanoparticles into the PGS/PCL nanofibers able to generate oxygen. The composite scaffold exhibited a smooth fiber structure, while providing sustainable oxygen release for several days to a week, and significantly improved cell metabolic activity due to alleviation of hypoxic environment around primary bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Moreover, the composite scaffolds also showed good antibacterial performance. In conjunction to other improved features, such as degradation behavior, the developed scaffolds are promising biomaterials for various tissue-engineering and wound-healing applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  9. Naomi R, Ratanavaraporn J, Fauzi MB
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Jul 10;13(14).
    PMID: 32664418 DOI: 10.3390/ma13143097
    The use of hybridisation strategy in biomaterials technology provides a powerful synergistic effect as a functional matrix. Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used for drug delivery, and collagen (Col) resembles the extracellular matrix (ECM). This systematic review was performed to scrutinise the outcome of hybrid Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. This paper reviewed the progress of related research based on in vitro and in vivo studies and the influence of the physicochemical properties of the hybrid in wound healing. The results indicated the positive outcome of hybridising Col and SF for cutaneous wound healing. The hybridisation of these biomaterials exhibits an excellent moisturising property, perfectly interconnected structure, excellent water absorption and retention capacity, an acceptable range of biodegradability, and synergistic effects in cell viability. The in vitro and in vivo studies clearly showed a promising outcome in the acceleration of cutaneous wound healing using an SF and Col hybrid scaffold. The review of this study can be used to design an appropriate hybrid scaffold for cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that the hybridisation of Col and SF promoted rapid cutaneous healing through immediate wound closure and reepithelisation, with no sign of adverse events. This paper concludes on the need for further investigations of the hybrid SF and Col in the future to ensure that the hybrid biomaterials are well-suited for human skin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  10. Huang X, Shan L, Cheng K, Weng W
    ACS Biomater Sci Eng, 2017 Dec 11;3(12):3254-3260.
    PMID: 33445368 DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.7b00551
    The topography at the micro/nanoscale level for biomaterial surfaces has been thought to play vital roles in their interactions with cells. However, discovering the interdisciplinary mechanisms underlying how cells respond to micro-nanostructured topography features still remains a challenge. In this work, ∼37 μm 3D printing used titanium microspheres and their further hierarchical micro-nanostructured spheres through hydrothermal treatment were adopted to construct typical model surface topographies to study the preosteoblastic cell responses (adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation). We here demonstrated that not only the hierarchical micro-nanostructured surface topography but also their distribution density played critical role on cell cytocompatibility. The microstructured topography feature surface with middle-density distributed titanium microspheres showed significantly enhanced cell responses, which might be attributed to the better cellular interaction due to the cell aggregates. However, the hierarchical micro-nanostructured topography surface, regardless of the distribution density of titanium microspheres, improved the cell-surface interactions because of the enhanced initial protein adsorption, thereby reducing the cell aggregates and consequently their responses. This work, therefore, provides new insights into the fundamental understanding of cell-material interactions and will have a profound impact on further designing micro-nanostructured topography surfaces to control cell responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  11. Liu J, Soo Yun Tan C, Lan Y, Scherman OA
    J Polym Sci A Polym Chem, 2017 09 15;55(18):3105-3109.
    PMID: 28931970 DOI: 10.1002/pola.28667
    The success of exploiting cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-based molecular recognition in self-assembled systems has sparked a tremendous interest in polymer and materials chemistry. In this study, polymerization in the presence of host-guest complexes is applied as a modular synthetic approach toward a diverse set of CB[8]-based supramolecular hydrogels with desirable properties, such as mechanical strength, toughness, energy dissipation, self-healing, and shear-thinning. A range of vinyl monomers, including acrylamide-, acrylate-, and imidazolium-based hydrophilic monomers, could be easily incorporated as the polymer backbones, leading to a library of CB[8] hydrogel networks. This versatile strategy explores new horizons for the construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks and materials with emergent properties in wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors, and structural biomaterials. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017, 55, 3105-3109.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  12. Riha SM, Maarof M, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 May 12;13(10).
    PMID: 34065898 DOI: 10.3390/polym13101546
    Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  13. Sung TC, Li HF, Higuchi A, Kumar SS, Ling QD, Wu YW, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2020 02;230:119638.
    PMID: 31810728 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119638
    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were generated on several biomaterials from human amniotic fluid in completely xeno-free and feeder-free conditions via the transfection of pluripotent genes using a nonintegrating RNA Sendai virus vector. The effect of xeno-free culture medium on the efficiency of the establishment of human amniotic fluid stem cells from amniotic fluid was evaluated. Subsequently, the effect of cell culture biomaterials on the reprogramming efficiency was investigated during the reprogramming of human amniotic fluid stem cells into hiPSCs. Cells cultured in laminin-511, laminin-521, and Synthemax II-coated dishes and hydrogels having optimal elasticity that were engrafted with specific oligopeptides derived from vitronectin could be reprogrammed into hiPSCs with high efficiency. The reprogrammed cells expressed pluripotency proteins and had the capability to differentiate into cells derived from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Human iPSCs could be generated successfully and at high efficiency (0.15-0.25%) in completely xeno-free conditions from the selection of optimal cell culture biomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  14. Arjmandi R, Hassan A, Haafiz MK, Zakaria Z, Islam MS
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Jan;82:998-1010.
    PMID: 26592699 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.11.028
    Polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites reinforced with hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers [MMT/CNW(SO4)] were prepared by solution casting. The CNW(SO4) nanofiller was first isolated from microcrystalline cellulose using acid hydrolysis treatment. PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by the addition of various amounts of CNW(SO4) [1-9 parts per hundred parts of polymer (phr)] into PLA/MMT nanocomposite at 5 phr MMT content, based on highest tensile strength values as reported previously. The biodegradability, thermal, tensile, morphological, water absorption and transparency properties of PLA/MMT/CNW(SO4) hybrid nanocomposites were investigated. The Biodegradability, thermal stability and crystallinity of hybrid nanocomposites increased compared to PLA/MMT nanocomposite and neat PLA. The highest tensile strength of hybrid nanocomposites was obtained by incorporating 1 phr CNW(SO4) [∼ 36 MPa]. Interestingly, the ductility of hybrid nanocomposites increased significantly by 87% at this formulation. The Young's modulus increased linearly with increasing CNW(SO4) content. This is due to the relatively good dispersion of nanofillers in the hybrid nanocomposites, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the formation of some polar interactions. In addition, water resistance of the hybrid nanocomposites improved and the visual transparency of neat PLA film did not affect by addition of CNW(SO4).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  15. Rayung M, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N, Saad WZ, Razak NI, Chieng BW
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(8):14728-42.
    PMID: 25153628 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150814728
    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  16. Pramanik S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Cho J, Abu Osman NA
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5843.
    PMID: 25068570 DOI: 10.1038/srep05843
    The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  17. Burham N, Hamzah AA, Majlis BY
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2014;24(6):2203-9.
    PMID: 25226919 DOI: 10.3233/BME-141032
    This paper studies parameters which affect the pore size diameter of a silicon membrane. Electrochemical etching is performed in characterise the parameter involved in this process. The parameter has been studied is volume ratio of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol as an electrolyte aqueous for electrochemical etch. This electrolyte aqueous solution has been mixed between HF and ethanol with volume ratio 3:7, 5:5, 7:3 and 9:1. As a result, the higher volume of HF in this electrolyte gives the smallest pore size diameter compared to the lower volume of HF. These samples have been dipped into HF and ethanol electrolyte aqueous with supplied 25 mA/cm2 current density for 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The samples will inspect under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to execute the pore formations on silicon membrane surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  18. Soheilmoghaddam M, Wahit MU, Tuck Whye W, Ibrahim Akos N, Heidar Pour R, Ali Yussuf A
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Jun 15;106:326-34.
    PMID: 24721086 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.02.085
    Bionanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose (RC) and incorporated with zeolite at different concentrations were fabricated by dissolving cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic liquid using a simple green method. The interactions between the zeolite and the cellulose matrix were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films significantly improved as compared with the pure regenerated cellulose film, without the loss of extensibility. Zeolite incorporation enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of the nanocomposites. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that zeolite was uniformly dispersed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated that both RC and RC/zeolite nanocomposite films are cytocompatible. These results indicate that the prepared nanocomposites have potential applications in biodegradable packaging, membranes and biomedical areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  19. Razak NI, Ibrahim NA, Zainuddin N, Rayung M, Saad WZ
    Molecules, 2014;19(3):2957-68.
    PMID: 24609017 DOI: 10.3390/molecules19032957
    Bleaching treatment of kenaf fiber was performed in alkaline medium containing hydrogen peroxide solution maintained at pH 11 and 80 °C for 60 min. The bleached kenaf fiber was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The bleached kenaf fiber was then compounded with poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) via a melt blending method. The mechanical (tensile, flexural and impact) performance of the product was tested. The fiber treatment improved the mechanical properties of PLA/bleached kenaf fiber composites. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) morphological analysis showed improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the fiber surface and polymer matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  20. Shirazi FS, Mehrali M, Oshkour AA, Metselaar HS, Kadri NA, Abu Osman NA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2014 Feb;30:168-75.
    PMID: 24316872 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.10.024
    The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
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