Displaying publications 121 - 140 of 514 in total

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  1. Lee WC, Yusof MM, Lau FN, Phua VC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3941-4.
    PMID: 23886211
    BACKGROUND: The use of preoperative chemoirradiation is the commonest treatment strategy employed in Malaysia for locally advanced rectal cancer. We need to determine the local control and survival rates for comparison with established rates in the literature.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed all newly diagnosed patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent long course preoperative radiotherapy (RT) at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) between 1st January 2004 and 31st December 2010. The aim of the study was to determine the radiological response post radiotherapy, pathological response including circumferential resection margin (CRM) status, 3 years local control, 3 years overall survival (OS) and 3 years disease free survival (DFS). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software. Kaplan-Meier and log rank analysis were used to determine survival outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 507 patients with rectal cancer underwent RT at HKL. Sixty seven who underwent long course preoperative RT were eligible for this study. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years old with a range of 26-78 years. The median tumour location was 6 cm from the anal verge. Most patients had suspicion of mesorectum involvement (95.5%) while 28.4% of patients had enlarged pelvic nodes on staging CT scan. All patients underwent preoperative chemo-irradiation except for five who had preoperative RT alone. Only 38 patients underwent definitive surgery (56.7%). Five patients were deemed to be inoperable radiologically and 3 patients were found to have unresectable disease intraoperatively. The remaining 21 patients defaulted surgery (31.3%). The median time from completion of RT to surgery was 8 weeks (range 5.6 to 29.4 weeks). Fifteen patients (39.5%) had surgery more than 8 weeks after completion of RT. Complete pathological response was noted in 4 patients (10.5%). The pathological CRM positive rate after RT was 18.4%. With a median follow-up of 38.8 months, the 3 year local control rate was 67%. The 3 years rate for CRM positive (<2 mm), CRM clear (>2 mm) and pCR groups were 0%, 88.1% and 100% respectively (p-value of 0.007). The 3 year OS and DFS were 57.3% and 44.8% respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the approach of long course preoperative chemoirradiation for rectal cancer needs to be re-examined in our local setting. The high rate of local recurrence is worrying and is mainly due to patient defaulting post-preoperative chemoirradiation or delayed definitive surgery.
  2. Loh KW, Majid HA, Dahlui M, Roslani AC, Su TT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3799-804.
    PMID: 23886185
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in Malaysia. The prognosis of the disease is excellent if detected at an early stage, but the majority of Malaysian patients present at late stages. We aimed to assess the awareness of cancer warning signs and anticipated delay in help-seeking as possible contributors to this phenomenon.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey using the Colorectal Cancer Awareness Measure was initiated in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2,379 respondents aged 18 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling in five locations. Analysis of covariance was used to examine independent sociodemographic predictors of scores for symptom awareness.

    RESULTS: Younger age, being female, a higher education, and higher income were significantly associated with better scores for both recall and recognition of warning symptoms. Among the ethnic groups, Malays had better recognition of symptoms whereas Chinese recalled the most symptoms. Passing bloody stool was associated with the least anticipated delay and unexplained anal pain had the highest anticipated delay.

    CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness across all ethnicities in Malaysia is generally low, especially among minorities. Targeted public education, which is culturally and linguistically appropriate, should be developed to encourage early help-seeking and improve clinical outcomes.

  3. Ezat SW, Syed Junid SM, Noraziani K, Zafar A, Saperi S, Nur AM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3357-62.
    PMID: 23803129
    The human skeleton is the most common organ to be affected by metastatic cancer and bone metastases are a major cause of cancer morbidity. The five most frequent cancers in Malaysia among males includes prostate whereas breast cancer is among those in females, both being associated with skeletal lesions. Bone metastases weaken bone structure, causing a range of symptoms and complications thus developing skeletal-related events (SRE). Patients with SRE may require palliative radiotherapy or surgery to bone for pain, having hypercalcaemia, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. These complications contribute to a decline in patient health- related quality of life. The multidimensional assessment of health-related quality of life for those patients is important other than considering a beneficial treatment impact on patient survival, since the side effects of treatment and disease symptoms can significantly impact health-related quality of life. Cancer treatment could contribute to significant financial implications for the healthcare system. Therefore, it is essential to assess the health-related quality of life and treatment cost, among prostate and breast cancer patients in countries like Malaysia to rationalized cost-effective way for budget allocation or utilization of health care resources, hence helping in providing more personalized treatment for cancer patients.
  4. Ho CC, Seong PK, Zainuddin ZM, Abdul Manaf MR, Parameswaran M, Razack AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(5):3289-92.
    PMID: 23803117
    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify clinical profiles of patients with low risk of having bone metastases, for which bone scanning could be safely eliminated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cross sectional study looked at prostate cancer patients seen in the Urology Departments in 2 tertiary centres over the 11 year period starting from January 2000 to May 2011. Patient demographic data, levels of PSA at diagnosis, Gleason score for the biopsy core, T-staging as well as the lymph node status were recorded and analysed.

    RESULTS: 258 men were included. The mean age of those 90 men (34.9%) with bone metastasis was 69.2 ± 7.3 years. Logistic regression found that PSA level (P=0.000) at diagnosis and patient's nodal-stage (P=0.02) were the only two independent variables able to predict the probability of bone metastasis among the newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Among those with a low PSA level less than 20 ng/ml, and less than 10 ng/ml, bone metastasis were detected in 10.3% (12 out of 117) and 9.7% (7 out of 72), respectively. However, by combining PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower, and nodal negative as the two criteria to predict negative bone scan, a relatively high negative predictive value of 93.8% was obtained. The probability of bone metastasis in prostate cancer can be calculated with this formula: -1.069+0.007(PSA value, ng/ml) +1.021(Nodal status, 0 or 1)=x Probability of bone metastasis=2.718 x/1+2.718 x.

    CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients with a PSA level of 10 ng/ml or lower and negative nodes have a very low risk of bone metastasis (negative predictive value 93.8%) and therefore bone scans may not be necessary.

  5. Abdull Razis AF, Noor NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(7):4235-8.
    PMID: 23991982
    Glucoraphanin is the main glucosinolate found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae). The objective of the study was to evaluate whether glucoraphanin and its breakdown product sulforaphane, are potent modulators of various phase I and phase II enzymes involved in carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems in vitro. The glucosinolate glucoraphanin was isolated from cruciferous vegetables and exposed to human hepatoma cell line HepG2 at various concentrations (0-25 μM) for 24 hours. Glucoraphanin at higher concentration (25 μM) decreased dealkylation of methoxyresorufin, a marker for cytochrome P4501 activity; supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase (0.018 U), the enzyme that converts glucosinolate to its corresponding isothiocyanate, showed minimal induction in this enzyme activity at concentration 10 μM. Quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were unaffected by this glucosinolate; however, supplementation of the incubation medium with myrosinase elevated quinone reductase activity. It may be inferred that the breakdown product of glucoraphanin, in this case sulforaphane, is superior than its precursor in modulating carcinogen- metabolising enzyme systems in vitro and this is likely to impact on the chemopreventive activity linked to cruciferous vegetable consumption.
  6. Ho CC, Tan WP, Pathmanathan R, Tan WK, Tan HM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(7):4057-9.
    PMID: 23991952
    BACKGROUND: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing may be useful to screen for bladder carcinoma or dysplasia by detecting aneuploidy chromosomes 3, 7, 17 and deletion of the chromosome 9p21 locus in urine specimens. This study aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of FISH in a multi-ethnic population in Asia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with haematuria and/or past history of urothelial cancer on follow-up had their voided urine tested with FISH. Patients then underwent cystoscopy/ ureteroscopy and any lesions seen were biopsied. The histopathological reports of the bladder or ureteroscopic mucosal biopsies were then compared with the FISH test results.

    RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the FISH test was 89.2% and 83.4% respectively. The positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 47.1% and 97.9%. By excluding patients who had positive deletion of chromosome 9, the overall results of the screening test improved: sensitivity 84.6%; specificity 96.4%; PPV 75.9% and NPV 97.9%.

    CONCLUSIONS: UroVysion FISH has a high specificity of detecting urothelial cancer or dysplasia when deletion of chromosome 9 is excluded. Negative UroVysion FISH-tests may allow us to conserve health resources and minimize trauma by deferring cystoscopic or ureteroscopic examination.

  7. Jeganathan PD, Hairi NN, Al Sadat N, Chinna K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3483-9.
    PMID: 23886133
    BACKGROUND: To identify the prevalence of different stages of smoking and differences in associated risk factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thos longitudinal study started in February 2011 and the subjects were 2552 form one students aged between twelve to thirteen years of from 15 government secondary schools of Kinta, Perak. Data on demographic, parental, school and peer factors were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We examined the effects of peer, school and parental factors on the five stages of smoking; never smokers, susceptible never smokers, experimenters, current smokers and ex-smokers, at baseline.

    RESULTS: In the sample, 19.3% were susceptible never smokers, 5.5% were current smokers 6% were experimenters and 3.1% were ex-smokers. Gender, ethnicity, best friends' smoking status, high peer pressure, higher number of relatives who smoked and parental monitoring were found to be associated with smoking stages. Presence of parent-teen conflict was only associated with susceptible never smokers and experimenters whereas absence of home discussion on smoking hazards was associated with susceptible never smokers and current smokers.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified variations in the factors associated with the different stages of smoking. Our results highlight that anti-smoking strategies should be tailored according to the different smoking stages.

  8. Merriam S, Muhamad M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3593-601.
    PMID: 23886151
    BACKGROUND: For a number of reasons from cultural compatibility, to accessibility, to cost, traditional healers are a major source of health care in developing countries. In Malaysia, 'en estimated that upwards of 80% of the population consult traditional healers even if simultaneously seeking treatment from the Western medical system. Partially as a result of the widespread practice of visiting traditional healers, cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia is often delayed or interrupted resulting in late presentation, advanced stage diagnosis, and a higher mortality rate than in Western countries. However, there is very little research on the role of traditional healers in cancer treatment in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative study was designed to identify the roles traditional healers play in cancer diagnosis and treatment, with an eye to alleviating the cancer burden through educational responses with four publics in mind-policy makers, Western medical personnel, traditional healers, and the general public. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 Malay traditional healers, 13 cancer survivors who had seen both traditional healers and Western doctors, and 12 cancer medical specialists.

    RESULTS: Analysis of the data from these 39 participants revealed four roles traditional healers play in cancer treatment-medicinal healer, emotional comforter, spiritual guide, and palliative caregiver.

    CONCLUSIONS: Three roles (emotional, spiritual, palliative) can be seen as complementary to the allopathic system. Emotional and spiritual roles may augment the effectiveness of biomedical treatment. Cancer awareness and education programs need to position traditional healers as complementary, rather than an alternative to Western medical treatment; Validating the roles Traditional Healers can play in cancer treatment in MY through health promotion and education will contribute to alleviating the nation's cancer burden.

  9. Yusuf A, Ab Hadi IS, Mahamood Z, Ahmad Z, Keng SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(6):3689-98.
    PMID: 23886167
    Breast cancer is the most common and leading cause of cancer mortality among Malaysian women. Despite good survival rates, the diagnosis of cancer still invokes the feeling of stress, fear and uncertainty. Because very little is known about the experiences of Malaysian women with breast cancer, a qualitative study using semi- structured interviews to explore the lived experience of newly diagnosed breast cancer. Using a purposive sampling method, 20 Malaysian women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, including Malays (n=10) and Chinese (n=10) were recruited in two main public hospitals in Kelantan. Similarities and divergence in women's experience were identified through thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Three themes emerged from the data: uncertainty experience of the illness, transition process and fatalistic view of breast cancer. In many ways, these findings were parallel with previous studies, suggesting that the experience of breast cancer is to a certain extent similar among women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. This study adds to the sparse literature concerning the experience of illness following breast cancer diagnosis among the Malays and Chinese. More importantly, this study addressed areas that were previously lacking, specifically in depth information on breast cancer experience from a developing country with a multi-ethnic population. The results of this investigation provide preliminary information to healthcare professionals on the impact of illness and cultural influence on survivorship to plan for appropriate education and supportive programme in order to meet the needs of breast cancer women more effectively.
  10. Khalilpour A, Santhanam A, Wei LC, Saadatnia G, Velusamy N, Osman S, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1635-42.
    PMID: 23679248
    Helicobacter pylori antigen was prepared from an isolate from a patient with a duodenal ulcer. Serum samples were obtained from culture-positive H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and gastritis (n=30). As controls, three kinds of sera without detectable H. pylori IgG antibodies were used: 30 from healthy individuals without history of gastric disorders, 30 from patients who were seen in the endoscopy clinic but were H. pylori culture negative and 30 from people with other diseases. OFF-GEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and Western blots of individual serum samples were used to identify protein bands with good sensitivity and specificity when probed with the above sera and HRP-conjugated anti-human IgG. Four H. pylori protein bands showed good (≥ 70%) sensitivity and high specificity (98-100%) towards anti-Helicobacter IgG antibody in culture- positive patients sera and control sera, respectively. The identities of the antigenic proteins were elucidated by mass spectrometry. The relative molecular weights and the identities of the proteins, based on MALDI TOF/ TOF, were as follows: CagI (25 kDa), urease G accessory protein (25 kDa), UreB (63 kDa) and proline/pyrroline- 5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (118 KDa). These identified proteins, singly and/or in combinations, may be useful for diagnosis of H. pylori infection in patients.
  11. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV, Mohd Noor NA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1895-903.
    PMID: 23679290
    BACKGROUND: It is well established that a healthy lifestyle is of benefit in the prevention of diseases such as cancer and promotion of well-being. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine lifestyle practice and associated factors among university students in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted over six months from November 2011 until May 2012 among the students from the Management and Science University. This study was approved by its ethical committee , the students being explained the objective and invited to participate. A consent form was signed by all study participants. Questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the five faculties through their lecturers in different faculty. For univariate analysis t-test and ANOVA test were performed. Multiple linear regression used for multivariate analysis using SPSS 13.0.

    RESULTS: A total number of 1100 students participated with a mean age of 22.1±2.21 (SD) years. The majority were 22 years or younger (56.3%), female (54%), Malay (61.5%), single (92.3%), with family monthly income ≥5000 Ringgit Malaysia (41.2%). Regarding lifestyle, about were 31.6% smokers, 75.6% never drank alcohol and 53.7% never exercised. Multivariate analysis showed that age, sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, smoking status, exercise, residency, brushing teeth, fiber intake and avoid fatty food significantly influenced the practice of drinking alcohol among university students (p=0.006, p=0.042, p<0.001, p=0.003, p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.003, p<0.001; respectively). It similarly showed that sex, race, parent marital status, participant marital status, monthly family income, exercise, residency, brushing teeth and fiber intake significantly influenced the practice of sun protection (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.017, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively) and that age, sex, parent marital status, participant marital status, type of faculty, living status, exercise, taking non- prescribed medication, brushing the teeth, coffee consumption and fiber intake were significantly influenced the practice of fruits consumption (p=0.008, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, P<0.001; respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a poor practice of healthy lifestyle among university students. Therefore universities should emphasize a healthy lifestyle in all faculties as a required subject. Socio-demographic characteristics significantly influenced practice and thus should be considered when planning preventive measures among university students. Frequent campaigns and educational seminars are to be encouraged.

  12. Ghani WM, Doss JG, Jamaluddin M, Kamaruzaman D, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1957-63.
    PMID: 23679299
    OBJECTIVE: To assess oral cancer awareness, its associated factors and related sources of information among a selected group of Malaysians.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all Malaysian ethnic groups aged ≥15 years old at eight strategically chosen shopping malls within a two week time period. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression. Significance level was set at α<0.05.

    RESULTS: Most (84.2%) respondents had heard of oral cancer. Smoking was the most (92.4%) recognized high risk habit. Similar levels of awareness were seen for unhealed ulcers (57.3%) and red/white patches (58.0%) as signs of oral cancer. Age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, occupation and income were significantly associated with oral cancer awareness (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a general lack of awareness regarding the risk habits, early signs and symptoms, and the benefits of detecting this disease at an early stage. Mass media and health campaigns were the main sources of information about oral cancer. In our Malaysian population, gender and age were significantly associated with the awareness of early signs and symptoms and prevention of oral cancer, respectively.

  13. Abdul Murad NA, Razak ZA, Hussain RM, Syed Hussain SN, Ko Ching Huat C, Che Md Ali SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1655-9.
    PMID: 23679251
    BACKGROUND: HER-2/neu is a proto-oncogene that encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase growth factor which is crucial for stimulating growth and cellular motility. Overexpression of HER-2/neu is observed in 10-35% of human breast cancers and is associated with pathogenesis, prognosis as well as response to therapy. Given the imperative role of HER-2/neu overexpression in breast cancer, it is important to determine the magnitude of amplification which may facilitate a better prognosis as well as personalized therapy in affected patients. In this study, we determined HER-2/neu protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) concurrently with HER-2/neu DNA amplification by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 paired tissue samples from breast cancer patients were frozen-sectioned to characterize the tumour and normal tissues. Only tissues with 80% tumour cells were used in this study. For confirmation, Q-PCR was used to determine the HER-2/neu DNA amplification.

    RESULTS: We found 20/53 (37.7%) of the tumour tissues to be positive for HER-2/neu protein overexpression using IHC. Out of these twenty, only 9/53 (17%) cases were in agreement with the Q-PCR results. The concordance rate between IHC and Q-PCR was 79.3%. Approximately 20.7% of positive IHC cases showed no HER-2/neu gene amplification using Q-PCR.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, IHC can be used as an initial screening method for detection of the HER-2/neu protein overexpression. Techniques such as Q-PCR should be employed to verify the IHC results for uncertain cases as well as determination of HER-2/neu gene amplification.

  14. Rashid RM, Dahlui M, Mohamed M, Gertig D
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):2141-6.
    PMID: 23679334
    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.
  15. Razali RM, Bee PC, Gan GG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):2029-32.
    PMID: 23679313
    BACKGROUND: The geriatric population in Malaysia is predicted to increase from 4% of the total population in 1998 to 9.8% by 2020, in parallel with developments in the socioeconomy. Cancer is expected to be a major medical issue among this population. However, the decision for treatment in Malaysia is always decided by the caregivers instead of the elderly patients themselves.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the willingness to accept chemotherapy among elderly Malaysians.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 60 and above from various clinics/wards were recruited. Those giving consent were interviewed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were recruited, 35 patients (47%) with a history of cancer. The median age was 73 years old. There were 29 Chinese (38.7%), 22 Indian (29.3%), 20 Malay (26.7%) and four other ethnicity patients. Some 83% and 73% of patients willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively. Patients with cancer were more willing to accept strong and mild chemotherapy compared to the non-cancer group (88.6% vs 62.5%, P=0.005, 94% vs 80%, P=0.068). On sub-analysis, 71.4% and 42.9% of Chinese patients without a history of cancer were not willing to receive strong and mild chemotherapy, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of elderly patients in UMMC were willing to receive chemotherapy if they had cancer. Experience with previous treatment had positive influence on the willingness to undergo chemotherapy.

  16. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1969-74.
    PMID: 23679301
    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and associated factors regarding colorectal cancer screening among university students in Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle practice and knowledge of colorectal screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 students (21.3±1.4 years old). The majority of the participants were Malay with a monthly family income of less than 5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (equal to 1,700 USD) (67.0% and 76.0%, respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority were non-smokers and had never consumed alcohol (83.7%, and 88.0%, respectively). The majority of the participants had no knowledge of digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, barium enema and fecal occult blood screening (63.3%, 60.7%, 74.0% and 62.3%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that their age and the discipline which the students were studying significantly influenced their level of knowledge about colorectal screening. The present study results indicate that education campaigns about colorectal cancer should be promoted.
  17. Mohamed NA, Muhamad M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):2043-8.
    PMID: 23679316
    The purpose of this study ??s to profile older breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. In a survey study, ? custom made questionnaire was administered to 69 breast cancer patients and survivors between 60 and 84 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic group recorded was Chinese, followed by Malay and Indian. The majority of women were married (87%) and had children (84.1%). Just over half (53.6%) had primary and secondary education, whereas 24.7% had higher education. Fifty five percent of the study participants made their own decision on treatment, 60.8% exercised at least 3 times in a week, and 56.6% sought information from specialists. Our study suggests that older breast cancer survivors are aware of the importance of exercise in their daily lives and make attempts to be cancer free (e.g. doing exercise, recreational activity and have good relationships with friends and family).
  18. Kua VF, Ismail F, Chee Ee Phua V, Aslan NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):1121-6.
    PMID: 23621198
    BACKGROUND: Palliative chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (5FU) is the commonest regimen employed for metastatic and recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, this regimen is cumbersome requiring 5 days of admission to hospital. Carboplatin/5FU may be an alternative regimen without compromising survival and response rates. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin/5FU regimen with the cisplatin/5FU regimen.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study looked at patients who had palliative chemotherapy with either cisplatin/5FU or carboplatin/5FU for metastatic and recurrent SCCHN and NPC. It included patients who were treated at UKMMC from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2009 with either palliative IV cispaltin 75 mg/m2 D1 only plus IV 5FU 750 mg/m2 D1-5 infusion or IV Carboplatin AUC 5 D1 only plus IV 5FU 500 mg/m2 D1-2 infusion plus IV 5FU 500 mg/m2 D1-2 bolus. The specific objectives were to determine the efficacy of palliative chemotherapy in terms of overall response rate (ORR), median progression free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS) and to evaluate the toxicities of both regimens.

    RESULTS: A total of 41 patients were eligible for this study. There were 17 in the cisplatin/5FU arm and 24 in the carboplatin/5FU arm. The ORR was 17.7 % for cisplatin/5FU arm and 37.5 % for carboplatin/5FU arm (p-value=0.304). The median PFS was 7 months for cisplatin/5FU and 9 months for carboplatin/5FU (p-value=1.015). The median OS was 10 months for cisplatin/5FU arm and 12 months for carboplatin/5FU arm (p-value=0.110). There were 6 treatment-related deaths (6/41=14.6%), four in the carboplatin/5FU arm (4/24=16.7%) and 2 in the cisplatin/5FU arm (2/17=11.8%). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicity was also more common with carboplatin/5FU group, this difference being predominantly due to grade 3-4 granulocytopenia (41.6% vs. 0), grade 3-4 anemia (37.5% vs. 0) and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (16.6% vs. 0).

    CONCLUSIONS: Carboplatin/5FU is not inferior to cisplatin/5FU with regard to its efficacy. However, there was a high rate of treatment-related deaths with both regimens. A better alternative needs to be considered.

  19. Nizam ZM, Abdul Aziz AA, Kaur G, Abu Hassan MR, Mohd Sidek AS, Yeh LY, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):619-24.
    PMID: 23621208
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) exists in a more common sporadic form and less common hereditary forms, associated with the Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and other rare syndromes. Sporadic CRC is believed to arise as a result of close interaction between environmental factors, including dietary and lifestyle habits, and genetic predisposition factors. In contrast, hereditary forms such as those related to the Lynch syndrome result from inheritance of germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, in certain cases, the influence of low penetrance alleles in familial colorectal cancer susceptibility is also undeniable.

    AIM: To investigate the genotype frequencies of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A and to determine whether it could play any role in modulating familial and sporadic CRC susceptibility risk.

    METHODS: A case-control study comprising of 104 histopathologically confirmed CRC patients as cases (52 sporadic CRC and 52 Lynch syndrome patients) and 104 normal healthy individuals as controls was undertaken. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the polymorphism was genotyped employing PCR-RFLP methods. The genotypes were categorized into homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous variants. The risk association between these polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk was calculated using binary logistic regression analysis and deriving odds ratios (ORs).

    RESULTS: When risk association was investigated for all CRC patients as a single group, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed a significantly higher risk for CRC susceptibility with an OR of 2.273, (95%CI: 1.133-4.558 and p-value=0.021). When analyzed specifically for the 2 types of CRC, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed significantly higher risk for sporadic CRC susceptibility with and OR of 3.714, (95%CI: 1.416-9.740 and p-value=0.008). Despite high OR value was observed for Lynch syndrome (OR: 1.600, 95%CI: 0.715-3.581), the risk was not statistically significant (P=0.253).

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an influence of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A in modulating susceptibility risk in Malaysian CRC patients, especially those with sporadic disease.

  20. Ghazali SM, Othman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Kamaluddin MA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):1141-5.
    PMID: 23621202
    Delay in seeking treatment for breast cancer is a barrier to the early diagnosis and management of the disease, resulting in a poorer prognosis. We here estimated the prevalence of delayed presentation for breast cancer and identified possible influential sociodemographic factors in a cross-sectional study of 250 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and from medical records. We examined associations between delayed presentation (presenting to a physician more than 3 months after self-discovery of a symptom) and sociodemographic characteristics, practice of breast self examination (BSE), history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer and type of symptom, symptom disclosure and advice from others to seek treatment using multiple logistic regression. Time from self-discovery of symptom to presentation ranged from tghe same day to 5 years. Prevalence of delayed presentation was 33.1% (95%CI: 27.4, 39.3). A significantly higher proportion of delayers presented with late stages (stage III/IV) (58.3% vs. 26.9%, p<0.001). Divorced or widowed women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.47) had a higher risk of delayed presentation than married women and women who never performed breast self examination were more likely to delay presentation compared to those who regularly performed BSE (OR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.33, 5.64). Our findings indicate that delayed presentation for breast cancer symptoms among Malaysian women is high and that marital status and breast self examination play major roles in treatment-seeking for breast cancer symptoms.
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