Displaying publications 121 - 140 of 532 in total

  1. Tan GH, Azrif M, Shamsul AS, Ho CC, Praveen S, Goh EH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2727-30.
    PMID: 22320982
    INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately.

    CONCLUSION: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.

  2. Chang SW, Kareem SA, Kallarakkal TG, Merican AF, Abraham MT, Zain RB
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2659-64.
    PMID: 22320970
    The incidence of oral cancer is high for those of Indian ethnic origin in Malaysia. Various clinical and pathological data are usually used in oral cancer prognosis. However, due to time, cost and tissue limitations, the number of prognosis variables need to be reduced. In this research, we demonstrated the use of feature selection methods to select a subset of variables that is highly predictive of oral cancer prognosis. The objective is to reduce the number of input variables, thus to identify the key clinicopathologic (input) variables of oral cancer prognosis based on the data collected in the Malaysian scenario. Two feature selection methods, genetic algorithm (wrapper approach) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (filter approach) were implemented and compared with single-input models and a full-input model. The results showed that the reduced models with feature selection method are able to produce more accurate prognosis results than the full-input model and single-input model, with the Pearson's correlation coefficient achieving the most promising results.
  3. Abdullah NN, Aziz NA, Rampal S, Al-Sadat N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2643-7.
    PMID: 22320967
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Of the total cancer cases registered in the National Cancer Registry for 2006, 3,525 were female breast cancer cases. The overall age standardized rate was 39.3 per 100,000 population in 2006. An estimated 30%-40% were diagnosed in the late stages and this had resulted in poor survival rates. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors and barriers related to mammography screening uptake among hospital personnel.

    METHODS: This mixed method explanatory study was carried out on a universal sampling of 707 female personnel aged 40 and above, from June 2007 until November 2007. The study was conducted at University Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Pre-tested self-administered questionnaires were mailed to eligible personnel.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of mammography screening uptake was 80.3% (95%CI: 76.8%,83.5%) among 534 respondents. Personnel who had physician recommendation had significantly higher odds of mammography screening uptake compared to those who did not have recommendation, adjusted odds ratio of 21.25 (95%CI:12.71,36.56). Reported barriers can be grouped into several themes; negative perception of the procedure like embarrassment due to the presence of male technicians/radiographers; low confidence with radiologist/radiographers in detecting abnormality; lack of coping skills in dealing with expected results and pain during procedure.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study highlighted that 20% of personnel did not undertake mammography screening although there is no cost incurred and the procedure is fully accessible to them. Opportunistic recommendation by physician and concerns on the procedure should be addressed.
  4. Yusoff N, Taib NA, Ahmad A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2563-70.
    PMID: 22320956
    The aim of this study was to assess why women delay in getting treatment (i.e. surgery) for breast cancer, as well as to explore on what type of issues are involved in such delay cases. Basic interpretative of qualitative methodology was applied to construct the reality of delay phenomena, and its interaction with social worlds. Six themes were identified: new conception of breast cancer treatment, psychological defenses, health support system, symtomatology experience, model and barriers. The delay issue in breast cancer requires attention as a multidimensional problem as this will facilitate more comprehensive and effective intervention to reduce delay.
  5. Al-Dubai SA, Qureshi AM, Saif-Ali R, Ganasegeran K, Alwan MR, Hadi JI
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2531-8.
    PMID: 22320951
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among Malaysian women in Shah Alam.

    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 250 Malaysian women. Data were collected using a self administrated questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography.

    RESULTS: Mean age of respondents was 28 ± 9.2 with 69.2% aged 18 to 29 years. The majority had heard about breast cancer (81.2%) and indicated books, magazines and brochures as their source of information (55.2%). However, most did not know about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and many of its risk factors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of breast cancer knowledge were age, race, marital status, level of education, occupation, family size and family history of other cancers (p<0.05). Fifty percent of women were aware of mammography, significant predictors being age, occupation, marital status and knowledge of breast cancer (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Most women were aware of breast cancer. However, the knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and awareness of mammography were inadequate. It is recommended that the level of knowledge should be raised among Malaysian women, particularly in the less educated young.

  6. Hilmi I, Hartono JL, Goh KL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(3):815-22.
    PMID: 21039060
    INTRODUCTION: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the second commonest malignancy in Malaysia, with the highest incidence seen in the Chinese. The aim of this study is to examine the knowledge of CRC and to identify potential barriers for screening, which has yet to be carried out on a nationwide scale.
    METHODS: Subjects were recruited consecutively from friends and relatives accompanying patients to the general medical clinic in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Interviews were carried out using a standardized questionnaire for the Asia Pacific CRC working group based on the Health Belief Model (HBM).
    RESULTS: 991 subjects were interviewed. From our study, 414 (41.8%), 500 (50.5%) and 646 (65.2%) could not identify any of the symptoms, risk factors and screening methods for CRC respectively. Only 384 (38.7%) were agreeable to undergo screening. Independent factors associated with willingness to undergo screening were as follows; Malay and Indian race compared to the Chinese [aOR 2.73 (1.87, 3.98) and 3.04 (2.02, 4.59) respectively], perceived susceptibility, perceived barriers to screening, doctor's recommendation and personal contact with CRC.
    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of CRC and CRC screening is low among the Malaysian population. The majority are not willing to undergo screening, the Chinese paradoxically being the least willing despite being at greatest risk
    Study site: Medical clinics, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Rosmawati NH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(3):767-71.
    PMID: 21039051
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in women today and the major challenge is late presentation then later contributes to poor outcome and high fatality rate. Mammography is effective in early detection of breast cancer and consequently significantly improves the breast cancer survival.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was used to study the knowledge and awareness towards mammogram amongst women aged 15 years old and above. A systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Eighty-six respondents were recruited. The mean age of respondents was 40.5 years (SD: 15.51) and more than 80% had secondary and tertiary level of education. The percentage of respondents ever performed mammogram was 10.5% (95% CI: 4.0%-17.0%). The rate of correct answers was between 8.1% and 48.8%. Most of the respondents do not sure the answer (45.3%-61.6%) rather than wrongly answer (4.7%-43.0%). Only about 8% truly answer that mammogram should be done once in a life. There are 10.5% of women claimed that mammogram had no serious side effect and not a painful procedure. Nearly half of respondents (48.8%) correctly mentioned that Mammogram can detect breast cancer in early stage.

    CONCLUSION: Only a small percentage of women ever performed mammogram and there are seriously unaware and poor knowledge pertaining to mammography screening for breast cancer among women in sub urban area. A massive health education campaign through multiple methods and agencies are needed to enhance the knowledge and awareness on mammogram.
  8. Hong GE, Kong CH, Singam P, Cheok LB, Zainuddin ZM, Azrif M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1351-3.
    PMID: 21198291
    INTRODUCTION: Analysis of epidemiological as well as survival differences among the multiethnic population of Malaysia with prostate cancer is important.

    METHODS: Patients confirmed by transrectal-ultrasonographic-guided-biopsy performed from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled and analysed according to ethnicity, age, PSA level, Gleason score, stage of disease and survival.

    RESULTS: Among 83 patients, there were 38 Malay, 40 Chinese, 3 Indians and 2 others. Median age at diagnosis was 69.9 (range: 59-93), 43 patients (51.8%) being diagnosed before the age of 70. The median PSA level upon diagnosis was 574 ng/ml (range: 1-8632) and the median Gleason score was 7 (range: 2-10). Over half were already in Stage 4 when diagnosed. The most common site of metastasis was the bone. As a result the commonest prescribed treatment was hormonal manipulation. Five patients underwent radical prostatectomy and a further thirteen patients had radical radiotherapy (stage I: 1 patient, stage II: 7 patients and stage III: 5 patients). Ten patients defaulted follow-up. The median disease-specific survival was 21.9 months (range: 1-53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma is a disease of the elderly and it is frequently diagnosed late in Malaysia. Greater efforts should be made to educate Malaysians regarding prostate cancer.

  9. Hashim SM, Omar K, Fah TS, Rashid RA, Daud TI, Shah SA, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1335-9.
    PMID: 21198288
    BACKGROUND: Patients' delay in the presentation with rectal bleeding had been identified as a factor for late diagnosis of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of delay in consulting a medical practitioner and identifying associated factors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 80 patients with rectal bleeding, aged 40 and above, was conducted between December 2008 and June 2009 in the endoscopy unit, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. The self-administered questionnaire included data on sociodemographic, concern of rectal bleeding, whether patients sought initial advice, any self treatment prior to medical consultation and patients' opinion on causes of their own rectal bleeding.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of delay in the presentation of rectal bleeding was 60%. Patients who were less worried (OR 9.6; 95% CI 3.3-27.5), who did not seek anyoneandapos;s advice (OR 11.8; 95% CI 3.8-36.8) and took some treatment before seeking medical consultation (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.0-24.1) were significantly more likely to delay. Multiple logistic regression revealed that less worry of rectal bleeding and not seeking anyoneandapos;s advice were important predictors (p<0.05). The majority of patients attributed their bleeding to benign causes.

    CONCLUSION: A high proportion of patients with rectal bleeding in the high risk group delayed in seeking medical advice. Public education needs to focus on interventions to reduce the delay in presenting and diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma.
  10. Choong LP, Taib NA, Rampal S, Saad M, Bustam AZ, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1409-16.
    PMID: 21198302
    BACKGROUND: Locoregional recurrence after mastectomy for breast cancer may predict distant recurrence and mortality. This study examined the pattern and rates of post-mastectomy locoregional recurrence (PMLRR), survival outcome and prognostic factors for isolated PMLRR (ILR) in a breast cancer cohort in University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC).

    METHODS: We studied 522 patients who underwent mastectomy between 1998 and 2002 and followed them up until 2008. We defined PMLRR as recurrence to the axilla, supraclavicular nodes and or chest wall. ILR was defined as PMLRR occurring as an isolated event. Prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence were determined using the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

    RESULTS: The overall PMLRR rate was 16.4%. ILR developed in 42 of 522 patients (8.0%). Within this subgroup, 25 (59.5%) remained disease free after treatment while 17 (40.5%) suffered disease progression. Univariate analyses identified race, age, size, stage, margin involvement, lymph node involvement, grade, lymphovascular invasion and ER status as probable prognostic factors for ILR. Cox regression resulted in only stage III disease and margin involvement as independent prognostic factors. The hazard of ILR was 2.5 times higher when the margins were involved compared to when they were clear (aHRR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 5.0). Similarly, compared with stage I those with Stage II (aHRR 2.1; 95%CI 0.6 to 6.8) and stage III (aHRR 4.6; 95%CI 1.4 to 15.9) had worse prognosis for ILR.

    CONCLUSION: Margin involvement and stage III disease were identified to be independent prognostic factors for ILR. Close follow-up of high risk patients and prompt treatment of locoregional recurrence were recommended.

  11. Abdullah F, Su TT
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(5):1359-66.
    PMID: 21198293
    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer has long been known as a preventable disease. Yet it still is a prime women's health issue globally. In Malaysia, the current cervical cancer screening program, introduced in the 1960s, has been found to be unsuccessful in terms of Pap smear coverage. The aim of this study is to determine providers perceptives on the program and the feasibility of practicing an organized cervical screening program in Malaysia.

    METHODS: 11 key informant interviews were conducted with policy makers and health care providers from the Ministry of Health in Malaysia from October 2009 to May 2010. Interviewees' perceptions were explored on current and organized cervical screening program based on their expertise and experience.

    RESULTS: The results highlighted that the existing cervical screening program in Malaysia faced flaws at all levels that failed to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The identified weaknesses were poor acceptance by women, lack of commitment by health care providers, nature of the program, an improper follow-up system, limited resources and other competing needs. Complementarily, all interviewees perceived an organized cervical screening program as an alternative approach both feasible and acceptable by women and government to practice in Malaysia.

    CONCLUSION: Better screening coverage depends on an effective screening program that incorporates a behaviour-based strategy. A new program should be focused in the policy-making context to improve screening coverage and to effectively combat cervical cancer.

  12. Chong HY, Taib NA, Rampal S, Saad M, Bustam AZ, Yip CH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):913-7.
    PMID: 21133600
    BACKGROUND: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is characterized by the presence of a large primary tumour (>5 cm) associated with or without skin or chest-wall involvement (T4) or with fixed (matted) axillary lymph nodes in the absence of any evidence of distant metastases. These cancers are classified as stage IIIA and IIIB according to the AJCC Staging System. Treatment of choice involves combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy. Current guidelines recommend primary surgery or neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcome of LABC patients subjected to neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery and those who underwent surgery as the primary treatment and to determine prognostic predictors. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the response after neoadjuvant therapy and to determine the treatment compliance rate.

    METHODS: This retrospective study of Stage III breast cancer patients was conducted over a 5 year period from 1998 to 2002. The survival data were obtained from the National Registry of Births and Deaths with the end-point of the study in April 2006. The Kaplan Meier method was applied for survival analysis. Cox regression analysis by stepwise selection was performed to identify important prognostic factors.

    RESULTS: Out of a 155 evaluable patients, 74 (47.7%) had primary surgery, 62 (40%) had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 10 patients (6.5%) were given Tamoxifen as the primary treatment, while 9 patients (5.8%) defaulted any form of treatment. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 9 patients defaulted further treatment, leaving 53 evaluable patients. Out of these 53 evaluable patients, 5 patients (9.4%) had complete pathological response, 5 (9.4%) a complete clinical response, and 26 (49.1%) had partial response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year survival in the primary surgery group was 56.7 % compared to 44.7% in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (p<0.01). The important prognostic factors were race, size of tumour, nodal status, estrogen receptor status and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    CONCLUSION: Patients who had primary surgery had better survival than those who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which may be due to bias in the selection of patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Out of a total of 155 patients, 25.1% defaulted part of the treatment, or did not receive optimal treatment, emphasizing the importance of psychosocial support and counselling for this group of patients.

  13. Al-Dubai SA, Alshagga MA, Al-Naggar RA, Al-Jashamy K, Baobaid MF, Tuang CP, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):887-92.
    PMID: 21133596
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 Malaysian women in the obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic in a selected hospital in Bangi, Selangor to determine the level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccines, attitudes toward HPV vaccination and barriers of being vaccinated. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes were also addressed with a questionnaire. Seventy eight women (26%) had heard about the HPV virus and 65 about HPV vaccines (21.7%). Marital status was associated significantly with awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine (p=0.002, p=0.002; respectively), in addition to level of education (p=0.042). The percentages of women who reported correct answers for the questions on knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine ranged from 12% to 25%. One hundred fifty nine respondents (53%) had a positive attitude toward HPV vaccination. Age, marital status, and level of education were associated significantly with attitude (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively). The most important barriers reported were 'unawareness of the vaccine' 'concerned about side effects' and 'afraid of needles'. This study found a very low level of knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine. Education of population is highly recommended and barriers to being vaccinated should be dealt with seriously.
    Study site: Hospital, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  14. Kong CK, Roslani AC, Law CW, Law SC, Arumugam K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):969-74.
    PMID: 21133609
    OBJECTIVE: Research over the past several decades has indicated that low socioeconomic class has a direct effect on health outcomes. In Malaysia, class distribution may differ with the region. The objective of this study was to compare the presentation and survival of colorectal cancer patients in two dissimilar cities, Kuala Lumpur and Kuching, Sarawak.

    METHODS: All patients diagnosed with a malignancy of the colon or rectum in Sarawak General Hospital and University of Malaya Medical Center from 1st Jan 2000-31st Dec 2006 were recruited. Data on presentation, socio-economic class and survival were obtained. The survival duration was categorized into more than three years or three years and less. Testing for significance was performed using the chi-square test, with p values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 565 patients in UMMC and 642 patients in SGH had a new diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma. Patients in Kuching had a longer duration of symptoms and more advanced stage at presentation, but this was not statistically significant. Lower socio-economic class was a significant factor for late and more advanced stage at diagnosis, as well as poorer three and five year survival rates. However, survival was lower for patients in Kuching compared to Kuala Lumpur, even after matching for socio-economic class.

    CONCLUSION: There is near-zero awareness of colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia. These findings support reaching out to communities of lower socioeconomic backgrounds to improve the colorectal cancer survival rates.
  15. Ezat SW, Aljunid S
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):943-51.
    PMID: 21133606
    OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer (CC) had the second highest incidence of female cancers in Malaysia in 2003-2006. Prevention is possible by both Pap smear screening and HPV vaccination with either the bivalent vaccine (BV) or the quadrivalent vaccine (QV). In the present study, cost effectiveness options were compared for three programs i.e. screening via Pap smear; modeling of HPV vaccination (QV and BV) and combined strategy (screening plus vaccination). A scenario based sensitivity analysis was conducted using screening population coverages (40-80%) and costs of vaccines (RM 100-200/dose) were calculated.

    METHODS: This was an economic burden, cross sectional study in 2006-2009 of respondents interviewed from six public Gynecology-Oncology hospitals. Methods included expert panel discussions to estimate treatment costs of CC, genital warts and vulva/vagina cancers by severity and direct interviews with respondents using costing and SF-36 quality of life questionnaires.

    RESULTS: A total of 502 cervical cancer patients participated with a mean age at 53.3±11.2 years and a mean marriage length of 27.7±12.1 years, Malays accounting for 44.2%. Cost/quality adjusted life year (QALY) for Pap smear in the base case was RM 1,215 and RM 1,100 at increased screening coverage. With QV only, in base case it was RM 15,662 and RM 24,203 when the vaccination price was increased. With BV only, the respective figures were RM 1,359,057 and RM 2,530,018. For QV combined strategy cost/QALY in the base case it was RM 4,937, reducing to RM 3,395 in the best case and rising to RM 7,992 in the worst case scenario. With the BV combined strategy, these three cost/QALYs were RM 6,624, RM 4,033 and RM 10,543. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) showed that screening at 70% coverage or higher was highly cost effective at RM 946.74 per QALYs saved but this was preceded by best case combined strategy with QV at RM 515.29 per QALYs saved.

    CONCLUSIONS: QV is more cost effective than BV. The QV combined strategy had a higher CE than any method including Pap smear screening at high population coverage.
  16. Al-Naggar RA, Low WY, Isa ZM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):867-73.
    PMID: 21133593
    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the level of knowledge and barriers towards cervical cancer screening of female university students.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional design was used for 287 female students at a tertiary institution located in Selangor, Malaysia. A name list of all students in the all faculties were obtained from each faculty's registrar and the ethics committee of the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, approved the study. Respondents completed a consent form before they were given the questionnaire consisting of four sections: socio-demographic characteristics (six questions); risk factor of cervical cancer (six); knowledge about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test (ten); and finally barriers to Pap screening (eleven). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of ever having had a Pap test was 6%. Majority of the participants had adequate knowledge about risk factors of cervical cancer. The highest knowledge about cervical cancer risk factor reported by the respondents was having more than one sex partner (77.5%), whereas the lowest was the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer (51.2%). Age, marital status, ethnicity, monthly family income and faculty were significantly associated with knowledge of cervical cancer screening (p=0.003; p=0.001; p=0.002; p=0.002; p=0.001 and p=0.002; respectively). The most common barriers of cervical cancer screening were the Pap smear test will make them worry (95.8%) whereas the least common barrier reported among participants was no encouragement from the partner (8.8%).

    CONCLUSION: Some misconceptions and barriers in uptaking Pap smear test are still serious problems among young women. Although knowledge about cervical cancer screening is adequate they have a very poor practice of Pap smear test. The introduction of reproductive health subjects is warranted for all university students.
  17. Yoo KY
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(4):839-44.
    PMID: 21133587
    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and incidence cases beginning at the regional level. Through the hospital census, countries will be able to determine the magnitude of the cancer burden. Moreover, countries with professionals and researchers with advanced cancer research, education, and training also need to contribute through international cooperation.
  18. Al-Jashamy K, Murad A, Zeehaida M, Rohaini M, Hasnan J
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1765-8.
    PMID: 21338230
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among men and women worldwide; the risk of its occurrence has been shown to be increased by chronic bacterial infections. A case control study was therefore carried out at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) to determine the incidence of colorectal cancer associated with S. bovis infection. A total of 166 stool specimens were collected from diseased patients and healthy individuals and S. bovis isolates were identified. Suspected colon tumor and cancer cases were diagnosed and confirmed. It was found that overall prevalence of S. bovis was 41 (24.7%) out of 166 cases studied. Some 41(48.6%) of these S. bovis isolates was found in patients with colonic polyps, adenocarcinomas, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and chronic gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It was also found that colorectal cancer incidence was 24.7%, adenocarinomas accounting for 51% with the highest incidence in the sigmoid part of the colon. Among the IBD and chronic GIT cases, ulcerative colitis featured in the majority of cases (41.4%). In conclusion, there is a high incidence of colorectal cancer associated with S. bovis.
  19. Chong PP, Asyikin N, Rusinahayati M, Halimatun S, Rozita R, Ng CK, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1645-51.
    PMID: 21338211
    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to play an important role in the genesis of cervical cancer. Since new screening and prevention strategies, namely improved HPV testing and HPV vaccination have been aggressively promoted recently, it is crucial to investigate the HPV distribution in Malaysia in order to maximize their cost-effectiveness. This study was therefore conducted to assess the HPV type distribution in the most populous region, the state of Selangor. A total of 200 cervical swab samples were collected in two health-screening campaigns, and also from women attending obstetrics and gynecology clinics in several hospitals in Selangor. DNA extraction was performed and HPV DNA was detected via nested PCR using MY09/MY11 as outer primers and GP5+/GP6+ as inner primers which target the L1 gene of the viral genome. The purified PCR products were subjected to automated DNA sequencing to determine the HPV genotype. Out of 180 β-globin positive samples, 84 (46.7%) were positive for HPV DNA. The most common HPV type found was high-risk oncogenic type 16 (40%), followed by HPV type 18 (3.3%), HPV 33 (1.7%), HPV 31 (0.6%), and low-risk HPV 87 (0.6%). Our study confirmed that nested PCR method is highly sensitive in detecting HPV DNA even in low risk patients. Since a relatively high prevalence rate of HPV infection was found in this population, prompt healthcare policy changes to bring about implementation of early HPV vaccination program is desirable to prevent a high incidence of cervical cancer.

    Study site: Gynaecology and Obstetrics
    Clinics in several hospitals in Southern Selangor The
    participating hospitals included Hospital Kajang,
    Hospital Serdang, and the Britannia Women and Children
    Specialist Centre
  20. Yaw YH, Kandiah M, Shariff ZM, Mun CY, Hashim Z, Yusof RM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(6):1535-40.
    PMID: 21338193
    This study describes weight changes experienced by Malaysian women with breast cancer. Women with breast cancer (n=368) were recruited from eight hospitals and four breast cancer support groups in Peninsular Malaysia. Current weight was measured and weight at the time of diagnosis and a year preceding diagnosis were based on self-reports. Change in weight was determined from the year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to study entry (time 1), at the time of diagnosis to study entry (time 2) and from a year preceding breast cancer diagnosis to the time of diagnosis (time 3). Current body mass index, at a year preceding diagnosis and at the time of diagnosis were determined. Waist circumference was also measured. The sample comprised 57% Malay, 34% Chinese and 9.8% Indian women. The mean age of the women was 54 ∓ 9.04 years and over 80% were post-menopausal. Majority of the women were in stage I and stage II breast cancer at the time of diagnosis. The most common treatments received by these women were chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy and mastectomy. Overweight and obesity were prevalent in over 40% of the survivors at all three periods. Significant weight changes were observed during time 1 (-0.74 ∓ 4.78kg, p< 0.001), time 2 (2.73 ∓ 8.06kg, p< 0.001) and time 3 (3.47 ∓ 7.53kg, p< 0.001). At time 1, almost 50% showed no changes in their weight. At time 2, nearly two-thirds had gained weight and at time 3, 69% had gained weight, abdominal obesity was observed in nearly two-thirds of the women at study entry. A significant difference in weight change among age groups was observed in time 2 and time 3. All ethnic groups had significant weight change in time 1 and time 2. Significant weight gain was observed in relation to body mass index prior to diagnosis, at diagnosis and at study entry. However, no significant difference in weight change by educational level, family history of cancer and cancer stages were observed in all 3 periods. In conclusion, significant weight gain was evident in this sample of women after diagnosis of breast cancer and treatment. Women with breast cancer should be encouraged to maintain normal body mass index and waist circumference through appropriate diet and regular physical activity which may help to reduce their risk of recurrence, secondary cancer and metastasis.
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