Displaying publications 141 - 160 of 514 in total

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  1. Yusof AS, Isa ZM, Shah SA
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):1151-4.
    PMID: 23621204
    BACKGROUND: Changes in dietary practices are known to be associated with changes in the health and disease pattern of a population. This study aimed to qualitatively explore the perception of colorectal cancer patients regarding causes of colorectal cancer and the influence of diet.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve respondents from three major ethnicities in Malaysia were selected from the quantitative study on dietary pattern and colorectal cancer carried out earlier in this study. In-depth interviews (IDI), conducted from April until June 2012, were mainly in the Malay language with additional use of English and continued until the saturation point was reached. All interviews were autorecorded so that verbatim transcriptions could be created.

    RESULTS: Causes of colorectal cancer were categorized into internal and external factors. The majority of respondents agreed that there is an association between Western foods and colorectal cancer. Malaysian traditional diet was not related to colorectal cancer as less preservative agents were used. Malaysian diet preparation consisting of taste of cooking (spicy, salty and sour foods) plus type of cooking (fry, grilled and smoked) were considered causes of colorectal cancer. All respondents changed their dietary pattern to healthy food after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Advice from doctors regarding suitable food for colorectal cancer was useful in this regard.

    CONCLUSIONS: Eating outside, use of food flavoring ingredients and preservative agents were considered to be the main factors causing colorectal cancer. All respondents admitted that they changed to a healthy diet after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer.

  2. Zainal NZ, Nik-Jaafar NR, Baharudin A, Sabki ZA, Ng CG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2649-56.
    PMID: 23725190
    BACKGROUND: Depression is common in breast cancer patients. The aim of this paper was to make a systematic review of its prevalence and associated factors oin breast cancer survivors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive systematic electronic review (PUBMED, CINAHL, PsyINFO and Ovid) and handsearch were carried out to retrieve published articles up to November 2012, using Depression OR Dysthymia AND (Cancer OR Tumor OR Neoplasms as the keywords. Information about the design of the studies, measuring scale, characteristics of the participants, prevalence of depression and its associated factors from the included studies were extracted and summarized.

    RESULTS: We identified 32 eligible studies that recruited 10,826 breast cancer survivors. Most were cross-sectional or prospective designed. The most frequent instrument used to screen depression was the Center for Epidemiological Studies for Depression (CES-D, n=11 studies) followed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, n=6 studies) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, n=6 studies). CES-D returned about similar prevalence of depression (median=22%, range=13-56%) with BDI (median=22%, range=17-48%) but higher than HADS (median=10%, range=1-22%). Depression was associated with several socio-demographic variables, cancer-related factors, treatment-related factors, subject psychological factors, lifestyle factors, social support and quality of life.

    CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer survivors are at risk for depression so that detection of associated factors is important in clinical practice.

  3. Phua Chee Ee V, Tan BS, Tan AL, Eng KY, Ng BS, Ung NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2243-8.
    PMID: 23725120
    BACKGROUND: To compare the dosimetric coverage of target volumes and organs at risk in the radical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three- dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 10 consecutive patients treated with IMRT from June-October 2011 in Penang General Hospital were collected retrospectively for analysis. For each patient, dose volume histograms were generated for both the IMRT and 3DCRT plans using a total dose of 70Gy. Comparison of the plans was accomplished by comparing the target volume coverage (5 measures) and sparing of organs at risk (17 organs) for each patient using both IMRT and 3DCRT. The means of each comparison target volume coverage measures and organs at risk measures were obtained and tested for statistical significance using the paired Student t-test.

    RESULTS: All 5 measures for target volume coverage showed marked dosimetric superiority of IMRT over 3DCRT. V70 and V66.5 for PTV70 showed an absolute improvement of 39.3% and 24.1% respectively. V59.4 and V56.4 for PTV59.4 showed advantages of 18.4% and 16.4%. Moreover, the mean PTV70 dose revealed a 5.1 Gy higher dose with IMRT. Only 4 out of 17 organs at risk showed statistically significant difference in their means which were clinically meaningful between the IMRT and 3DCRT techniques. IMRT was superior in sparing the spinal cord (less 5.8Gy), V30 of right parotid (less 14.3%) and V30 of the left parotid (less 13.1%). The V55 of the left cochlea was lower with 3DCRT (less 44.3%).

    CONCLUSIONS: IMRT is superior to 3DCRT due to its dosimetric advantage in target volume coverage while delivering acceptable doses to organs at risk. A total dose of 70Gy with IMRT should be considered as a standard of care for radical treatment of NPC.

  4. Yeong LT, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Khaza'ai H
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2301-5.
    PMID: 23725131
    Ardisia crispa (Family: Myrsinaceae) is an evergreen, fruiting shrub that has been traditionally used as folklore medicine. Despite a scarcity of research publications, we have succeeded in showing suppressive effects on murine skin papillomagenesis. In extension, the present research was aimed at determining the effect of a quinone-rich fraction (QRF) isolated from the same root hexane extract on both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, at the selected dose of 30 mg/kg. Mice (groups I-IV) were initiated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA, 100 μg/100 μl) followed by repeated promotion of croton oil (1%) twice weekly for 20 weeks. In addition, group I (anti-initiation) received QRF 7 days before and after DMBA; group II (anti-promotion) received QRF 30 minutes before each croton oil application; group III (anti-initiation/ promotion) was treated with QRF as a combination of group I and II. A further two groups served as vehicle control (group V) and treated control (group VI). As carcinogen control, group IV showed the highest tumor volume (8.79±5.44) and tumor burden (3.60±1.17). Comparatively, group III revealed only 20% of tumor incidence, tumor burden (3.00±1.00) and tumor volume (2.40±1.12), which were significantly different from group IV. Group II also showed significant reduction of tumor volume (3.11), tumor burden (3.00) and tumor incidence (11.11%), along with prominent increase of latency period of tumor formation (week 12). Group I, nonetheless, demonstrated marked increment of tumor incidence by 40% with prompted latency period of tumor formation (week 7). No tumor formation was observed in groups V and VI. This study provided clear evidence of inhibitory effects of QRF during promotion period which was in agreement with our previous findings. The mechanism(s) underlying such effects have yet to be elucidated.
  5. Rashwan H, Ishak I, Sawalludin N
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2545-9.
    PMID: 23725172
    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.
  6. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

  7. Soon SS, Lim HY, Lopes G, Ahn J, Hu M, Ibrahim HM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2159-65.
    PMID: 23725106
    Cancer registries help to establish and maintain cancer incidence reporting systems, serve as a resource for investigation of cancer and its causes, and provide information for planning and evaluation of preventive and control programs. However, their wider role in directly enhancing oncology drug access has not been fully explored. We examined the value of cancer registries in oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region on three levels: (1) specific registry variable types; (2) macroscopic strategies on the national level; and (3) a regional cancer registry network. Using literature search and proceedings from an expert forum, this paper covers recent cancer registry developments in eight economies in the Asia-Pacific region - Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand - and the ways they can contribute to oncology drug access. Specific registry variables relating to demographics, tumor characteristics, initial treatment plans, prognostic markers, risk factors, and mortality help to anticipate drug needs, identify high-priority research area and design access programs. On a national level, linking registry data with clinical, drug safety, financial, or drug utilization databases allows analyses of associations between utilization and outcomes. Concurrent efforts should also be channeled into developing and implementing data integrity and stewardship policies, and providing clear avenues to make data available. Less mature registry systems can employ modeling techniques and ad-hoc surveys while increasing coverage. Beyond local settings, a cancer registry network for the Asia-Pacific region would offer cross-learning and research opportunities that can exert leverage through the experiences and capabilities of a highly diverse region.
  8. Kadir EA, Sulaiman SA, Yahya NK, Othman NH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2249-54.
    PMID: 23725121
    The study was conducted to determine the effect of Malaysian jungle Tualang Honey (TH) on development of breast cancer induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) in rats. Forty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 80 mg/kg DMBA then randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a Control while Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg bodyweight/day of TH, respectively, for 150 days. Results showed that breast cancers in the TH-treated groups had slower size increment and smaller mean tumor size (≤ 2 cm3) compared to Controls (≤ 8 cm3). The number of cancers developing in TH-treated groups was also significantly fewer (P<0.05). Histological grading showed majority of TH-treated group cancers to be of grade 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 in controls. There was an increasing trend of apoptotic index (AI) seen in TH-treated groups with increasing dosage of Tualang Honey, however, the mean AI values of all TH-treated groups were not significantly different from the Control value (p>0.05). In conclusion, Tualang Honey exerted positive modulation effects on DMBA-induced breast cancers in rats in this preliminary study.
  9. Yasin SM, Retneswari M, Moy FM, Taib KM, Isahak M, Koh D
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2317-23.
    PMID: 23725134
    The role of The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in predicting relapse is limited. We aimed to assess whether this model can be utilised to predict relapse during the action stage. The participants included 120 smokers who had abstained from smoking for at least 24 hours following two Malaysian universities' smoking cessation programme. The smokers who relapsed perceived significantly greater advantages related to smoking and increasing doubt in their ability to quit. In contrast, former smokers with greater self-liberation and determination to abstain were less likely to relapse. The findings suggest that TTM can be used to predict relapse among quitting smokers.
  10. Lee JE, Loh SY
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(4):2551-5.
    PMID: 23725173
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a component of lifestyle activity and one that has been increasingly seen as 'the medicine' to cure chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer. Physical activity has potent impact on mortality but only if it is well incorporated as lifestyle activity may it allow a better outcome of the quality of life of cancer survivors. This paper presents a review on the evidence of physical activity being actively promoted as lifestyle activity amongst cancer survivors, for the last five years.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials incorporated as lifestyle activity through MEDLINE with the associated terms "physical activity or exercise", "quality of life" and "cancer survivor or people with cancer", 'lifestyle' and 'randomised controlled trial'. The period of search was confined to publication within January 2008 till December 2012 and further limits were to full text, peer reviewed, abstract available and English language.

    RESULTS: Based on inclusion criteria, 45 articles were retrieved. Of these, 41 were excluded after examining the full paper. Four final articles on randomized controlled trials were studied to determine the effectiveness of PA to improve the quality of life in post treatment cancer survivors and positive associations were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity is related to better quality of life of cancer survivors. Only one paper had characteristics of lifestyle incorporation for a lifestyle redesign, but none overtly or actively promoting exercise interventions as an essential lifestyle activity. With increasing survivorship, the benefits of physical activity must be aggressively and overtly promoted to optimize its positive impact.

  11. Abdull Razis AF, Noor NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(3):1565-70.
    PMID: 23679237
    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.
  12. Lim KH, Ibrahim N, Ghazali SM, Kee CC, Lim KK, Chan YY, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):805-10.
    PMID: 23621242
    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.
  13. Razak NA, Mn K, Zubairi YZ, Naing NN, Zaki NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):825-8.
    PMID: 23621246
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival among patients with cervical cancer treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1st July 1995 and 30th June 2007 were identified. Data were obtained from medical records. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to compare the survival distribution between groups.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival was 39.7% [95%CI (Confidence Interval): 30.7, 51.3] with a median survival time of 40.8 (95%CI: 34.0, 62.0) months. The log-rank test showed that there were survival differences between the groups for the following variables: stage at diagnosis (p=0.005); and primary treatment (p=0.0242). Patients who were diagnosed at the latest stage (III-IV) were found to have the lowest survival, 18.4% (95%CI: 6.75, 50.1), compared to stage I and II where the five-year survival was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.7, 77.2) and 40.8% (95%CI: 27.7, 60.3), respectively. The five-year survival was higher in patients who received surgery [52.6% (95%CI: 37.5, 73.6)] as a primary treatment compared to the non-surgical group [33.3% (95%CI: 22.9, 48.4)].

    CONCLUSION: The five-year survival of cervical cancer patients in this study was low. The survival of those diagnosed at an advanced stage was low compared to early stages. In addition, those who underwent surgery had higher survival than those who had no surgery for primary treatment.

  14. Keat CH, Sooaid NS, Yun CY, Sriraman M
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):69-73.
    PMID: 23534806
    BACKGROUND: An increasing trend of cytotoxic drug use, mainly in cancer treatment, has increased the occupational exposure among the nurses. This study aimed to assess the change of nurses' safety-related knowledge as well as attitude levels and subsequently to assess the change of cytotoxic drug handling practices in wards after a series of pharmacist-based interventions.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective interventional study with a before and after design requested a single group of 96 nurses in 15 wards actively providing chemotherapy to answer a self-administered questionnaire. A performance checklist was then used to determine the compliance of all these wards with the recommended safety measures. The first and second assessments took 2 months respectively with a 9-month intervention period. Pharmacist-based interventions included a series of technical, educational and administrative support measures consisting of the initiation of closed-system cytotoxic drug reconstitution (CDR) services, courses, training workshops and guideline updates.

    RESULTS: The mean age of nurses was 32.2∓6.19 years. Most of them were female (93.8%) and married (72.9%). The mean knowledge score of nurses was significantly increased from 45.5∓10.52 to 73.4∓8.88 out of 100 (p<0.001) at the end of the second assessment. Overall, the mean practice score among the wards was improved from 7.6∓5.51 to 15.3∓2.55 out of 20 (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacist-based interventions improved the knowledge, attitude and safe practices of nurses in cytotoxic drug handling. Further assessment may help to confirm the sustainability of the improved practices.

  15. Mohammadi S, Sulaiman S, Koon PB, Amani R, Hosseini SM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):481-7.
    PMID: 23534778
    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life.
  16. Yusuf A, Ahmad Z, Keng SL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):435-40.
    PMID: 23534769
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Malaysia. A diagnosis is very stressful for women, affecting all aspects of their being and quality of life. As such, there is little information on quality of life of women with breast cancer across the different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of life in Malay and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study involved 58 Malays and 15 Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer prior to treatment. Quality of life was measured using the Malay version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast-specific module (QLQ-BR23). Socio-demographic and clinical data were also collected. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

    RESULTS: Most of the women were married with at least a secondary education and were in late stages of breast cancer. The Malay women had lower incomes (p=0.046) and more children (p=0.001) when compared to the Chinese women. Generally, both the Malay and Chinese women had good functioning quality-of-life scores [mean score range: 60.3-84.8 (Malays); 65.0-91.1 (Chinese)] and global quality of life [mean score 60.3, SD 22.2 (Malays); mean score 65.0, SD 26.6 (Chinese)]. The Malay women experienced more symptoms such as nausea and vomiting (p=0.002), dyspnoea (p=0.004), constipation (p<0.001) and breast-specific symptoms (p=0.041) when compared to the Chinese.

    CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life was satisfactory in both Malays and Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Kelantan. However, Malay women had a lower quality of life due to high general as well as breast-specific symptoms. This study finding underlined the importance of measuring quality of life in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient, as it will provide a broader picture on how a cancer diagnosis impacts multi-ethnic patients. Once health care professionals understand this, they might then be able to determine how to best support and improve the quality of life of these women during the difficult times of their disease and on-going cancer treatments.

  17. Yasin SM, Ismail N, Noor NM, Mohd Azman MS, Taib H, Jusop JM, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):303-8.
    PMID: 23534742
    BACKGROUND: Medical students' views may provide some direction for future policy considerations.

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in future doctors' receptiveness to currently implemented anti-smoking messages and the effectiveness of those messages.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to all students at a medical university in Malaysia, asking how frequently they noted anti- smoking policies, anti-smoking campaigns, and anti-smoking messages in schools. In addition, the questionnaire investigated most effective methods to convey these messages.

    RESULTS: A total of 522 (59.7%) students responded. Students were least likely to approve of total bans on cigarettes and increasing the price of cigarettes, and most likely to approve of bans on use of cigarettes in public places and sales to individuals less than 16 years old. Approval of total bans on cigarettes was more common in female students than in males OR=0.39 (95%CI: 0.18- 0.86). Furthermore, compared to the female students, the male students thought that printed media; OR=2.32 (95%CI: 1.31-4.10), radio; OR=1.93 (95%CI: 1.15-3.22) and the internet; OR=1.96 (95%CI: 1.15-3.33) were very effective at delivering anti-smoking messages.

    CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences existed in the future doctors' perception of the effectiveness of anti-smoking initiatives. Taking this gender difference into account may increase the receipt of anti-smoking messages in adolescents.

  18. Zainal NZ, Shuib N, Bustam AZ, Sabki ZA, Guan NC
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):463-8.
    PMID: 23534774
    BACKGROUND: Body image dissatisfaction among breast cancer survivors has been associated with psychological stress resultant from breast cancer and resultant surgery. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale (MVBITS) and to investigate the associations of retained factors with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MVBITS was 'forward-backward' translated from English to Malay and then administered to 70 female breast cancer patients who came to the Oncology Clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia to undergo chemotherapy. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was performed to explore the factor structure of the MVBITS. Associations of retained factors were estimated with reference to Spearman correlation coefficients.

    RESULTS: The internal consistency reliability of MVBITS was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.945) and showed temporal stability over a 3-week period. Principal component analysis suggested two factors termed as 'Intrusion' and 'Avoidance' domains. These factors explained 70.3% of the variance. Factor 1 comprised the effects of breast cancer treatment on the emotion and thought, while Factor 2 informed attempts to limit exposure of the body to self or others. The Factor 1 of MVBITS was positively correlated with total, depression and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. Factor 2 was positively correlated with total and anxiety sub-scores of HADS. MVBITS was also positively correlated with the RSES scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the Malay Version of Breast-Impact of Treatment Scale possesses satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this instrument is appropriate for assessment of body change stress among female breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

  19. Loo JL, Ang YK, Yim HS
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):565-70.
    PMID: 23534795
    OBJECTIVES: To describe the development and validation of a cancer awareness questionnaire (CAQ) based on a literature review of previous studies, focusing on cancer awareness and prevention.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 388 Chinese undergraduate students in a private university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were recruited to evaluate the developed self-administered questionnaire. The CAQ consisted of four sections: awareness of cancer warning signs and screening tests; knowledge of cancer risk factors; barriers in seeking medical advice; and attitudes towards cancer and cancer prevention. The questionnaire was evaluated for construct validity using principal component analysis and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed with a 10-14 days interval and measured using Pearson product-moment correlation.

    RESULTS: The initial 77-item CAQ was reduced to 63 items, with satisfactory construct validity, and a high total internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.77). A total of 143 students completed the questionnaire for the test-retest reliability obtaining a correlation of 0.72 (p<0.001) overall.

    CONCLUSIONS: The CAQ could provide a reliable and valid measure that can be used to assess cancer awareness among local Chinese undergraduate students. However, further studies among students from different backgrounds (e.g. ethnicity) are required in order to facilitate the use of the cancer awareness questionnaire among all university students.

  20. Akhtari-Zavare M, Juni MH, Said SM, Ismail IZ
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(1):57-61.
    PMID: 23534796
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 262 female undergraduate students in University Putra Malaysia using a validated questionnaire which was developed for this study.

    RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 22∓2.3 years. Most of them were single (83.1%), Malay (42.3%) and 20.7% reported having a family history of breast cancer. Eighty-seven (36.7%) claimed they had practiced BSE. Motivation and self-efficacy of the respondents who performed BSE were significantly higher compared with women who did not (p<0.05).There was no association between BSE practice and demographic details (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that women who perceived greater motivation (OR=1.089, 95%CI: 1.016-1.168) and had higher confidence of BSE (OR=1.076, 95%CI: 1.028-1.126) were more likely to perform the screening.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that Malaysian young female's perception regarding breast cancer and the practice of BSE is low. Targeted education should be implemented to improve early detection of breast cancer.

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