METHODS: Clinicopathological data were retrieved from the archived formal pathology reports for surgical specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 antibody and quantified as microvessel density.
RESULTS: At least 50% of 94 cases of invasive breast ductal carcinoma in the study were advanced stage. The majority had poor prognosis factors such as tumor size larger than 50mm (48.9%), positive lymph node metastasis (60.6%), and tumor grade III (52.1%). Higher percentages of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cases were recorded (46.8% and 46.8% respectively). Her-2 overexpression cases and triple negative breast cancers constituted 24.5% and 22.3% respectively. Significantly higher microvessel density was observed in the younger patient age group (p=0.012). There were no significant associations between microvessel density and other clinicopathological factors (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the breast cancer patients of this institution had advanced stage disease with poorer prognostic factors as compared to other local and western studies. Breast cancer in younger patients might be more proangiogenic.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: This review involves 6 cohort studies of dietary patterns and their association with colorectal cancer. An exploratory or a posteriori approach and a hypothesis-oriented or a priori approach were employed to identify dietary patterns.
RESULTS: The dietary pattern identified to be protective against CRC was healthy, prudent, fruits and vegetables, fat reduced/diet foods, vegetables/fish/poultry, fruit/wholegrain/dairy, healthy eating index 2005, alternate healthy eating index, Mediterranean score and recommended food score. An elevated risk of CRC was associated with Western diet, pork processed meat, potatoes, traditional meat eating, and refined grain pattern.
CONCLUSION: The Western dietary pattern which mainly consists of red and processed meat and refined grains is associated with an elevated risk of development of CRC. Protective factors against CRC include a healthy or prudent diet, consisting of vegetables, fruits, fish and poultry.
METHODS: This hospital based case control study conducted in the Western part of Nepal covered a total of 93 cancer patients with or without alcohol intake and smoking habits, along with 94 age, sex and habit-matched individuals serving as controls. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), total antioxidant activity (TAA), vitamin C, α-tocopherol and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated and compared.
RESULTS: The TBARS level was found to be significantly higher (p≤0.001) in all types of cancer patients when compared to controls, being aggravated in alcoholics with a smoking habit. No statistical significance (p≥0.05) was observed in the level of vitamin C and α-tocopherol. GSH and TAA level were significantly decreased (p≤0.001) in all the groups except those who consumed both branded as well as homemade alcohol and non-alcoholics without smoking habit.
CONCLUSION: Alcohol, irrespective of its commercial brand, increases oxidative stress in all types of cancer patients. This is even higher when alcohol intake is combined with a smoking habit. Decreased TAA and GSH are major risk factors for cancer development.
METHODS: This retrospective study covered all NPC patients who underwent radical IMRT treatment at the Penang General Hospital from June 2011 to February 2012. Patients of any age and stage of disease with histologically proven diagnosis were included. Information was collected on patient demographics, clinical stage, treatment received, including any neoadjuvant and/or concurrent chemotherapy, acute toxity and completion of IMRT within the OTT.
RESULTS: A total of 26 NPC patients were treated with IMRT during the study period; 88.5% had stage III/IV disease. 45.2% received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy while 50.0% were given concurrent chemo-irradiation. All patients completed the treatment and 92.3% within the 7 weeks OTT. Xerostomia was present in all patients with 92.3% having grade 2. Severe grade III/IV acute toxicity occurred in 73.1% of patients, the commonest of which was oral mucositis (57.6%). This was followed by dysphagia which occurred in 53.8%, skin reactions in 42.3% and weight loss in 19.2%. However, haematological toxicity was mild with only one patient having leucopaenia.
CONCLUSION: IMRT treatment for NPC is feasible in our center. More importantly, it can be delivered within the 7 weeks OTT in the majority of patients. Severe grade 3/4 toxicity is very common (73.1%) and thus maximal nutritional and analgesic support is required throughout the treatment.
METHODS: The Singapore Prostate Cancer Study is a hospital-based case-control study of 240 prostate cancer incident cases and 268 controls conducted in Singapore between April 2007 and May 2009. Detailed information on outdoor activities in the sun, skin colour, sun sensitivity and other possible risk factors were collected in personal interviews. Cases were further classified by Gleason scores and TNM staging. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, family history of any cancers, BMI and skin colour.
RESULTS: We found that prostate cancer risk was increased in subjects with black/dark-brown eyes (OR 5.88, 95%CI 3.17-10.9), darker skin colour e.g. tan/dark brown/black (OR 7.62, 95%CI 3.41-17.0), frequent sunburn in lifetime (OR 4.30, 95%CI 1.7-11.2) and increased general sun exposure in adulthood per week (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.09-3.81). The increased risk was consistent for high grade tumours and advanced stage prostate cancers.
CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest that excessive sun exposure is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Asians.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 175 subjects comprising 84 patients and 91 healthy individuals were recruited. Multiplex PCR was optimized to co-amplify DYS388, DYS435, DYS437, and DYS439 loci. All samples were genotyped for alleles of four DYS loci using a Genetic Analysis System.
RESULTS: Of all DYS loci, allele 10 (A) of DYS388 had a significantly lower incidence of disease in compare with other alleles of this locus, while a higher incidence of disease was found among males who had either allele 12 (C) of DYS388 or allele 14 (E) of DYS439. Moreover, a total of 47 different haplotypes comprising different alleles of four DYS loci were found among the whole study samples, of which haplotypes AABC and CAAA showed a lower and higher frequency among cases than controls, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: It is likely that Malaysian males who belong to Y-lineages with either allele 12 of DYS388, allele 14 of DYS439, or haplotype CAAA are more susceptible to develop prostate cancer, while those belonging to lineages with allele 10 of DYS388 or haplotype AABC are more resistant to the disease.
AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.
RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of using cyclin D1 as a prognostic marker in tongue and cheek SCC by the fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) method.
METHODS: Fifty paraffin-embedded samples (25 each of cheek and tongue SCCs) were obtained from the archives of the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory. Sociodemographic data, histopathologic diagnoses, lymph node status and survival data were obtained from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS)coordinated by the Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Centre (OCRCC), University of Malaya. The FISH technique was used to detect the amplification of cyclin D1 using the Vysis protocol. Statistical correlations of cyclin D1 with site and lymph node status were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Kaplan-Meier and Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test were used to analyze cyclin D1 amplification and median survival time.
RESULTS: Positive amplification of cyclin D1 was detected in 72% (36) of OSCCs. Detection of positive amplification for cyclin D1 was observed in 88% (22) and 56% (14) of the tongue and cheek tumors, respectively, where the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). Lymph node metastasis of cheek SCCs showed a trend towards a significant association (P= 0.098) with cyclin D1 amplification whereas the lymph node metastasis of tongue SCC was clearly not significant (P=0.593).There was a statistically significant correlation between cyclin D1 positivity and survival rate (P=0.009) for overall SCC cases and (P<0.001) for cheek SCC cases.
CONCLUSION: The present study found that cyclin D1 amplification may differ in different subsites of OSCC (tongue vs cheek) and its positive amplification implies an overall poor survival in OSCCs, particularly those arising in cheeks.