Displaying publications 141 - 160 of 314 in total

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  1. Gumel AM, Annuar MS, Heidelberg T
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2013 Apr;55:127-36.
    PMID: 23305702 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.12.028
    The effects of organic solvents and their binary mixture in the glucose functionalization of bacterial poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates catalyzed by Lecitase™ Ultra were studied. Equal volume binary mixture of DMSO and chloroform with moderate polarity was more effective for the enzyme catalyzed synthesis of the carbohydrate polymer at ≈38.2 (±0.8)% reactant conversion as compared to the mono-phasic and other binary solvents studied. The apparent reaction rate constant as a function of medium water activity (aw) was observed to increase with increasing solvent polarity, with optimum aw of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.7 (±0.1) observed in hydrophilic DMSO, binary mixture DMSO:isooctane and hydrophobic isooctane, respectively. Molecular sieve loading between 13 to 15gL(-1) (±0.2) and reaction temperature between 40 to 50°C were found optimal. Functionalized PHA polymer showed potential characteristics and biodegradability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  2. Penjumras P, Rahman RA, Talib RA, Abdan K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:293609.
    PMID: 26167523 DOI: 10.1155/2015/293609
    Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  3. Ataollahi Oshkour A, Pramanik S, Mehrali M, Yau YH, Tarlochan F, Abu Osman NA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2015 Sep;49:321-31.
    PMID: 26072197 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.05.020
    This study aimed to investigate the structural, physical and mechanical behavior of composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) made of stainless steel (SS-316L)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and SS-316L/calcium silicate (CS) employing powder metallurgical solid state sintering. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the sintering at high temperature led to the reaction between compounds of the SS-316L and HA, while SS-316L and CS remained intact during the sintering process in composites of SS-316L/CS. A dimensional expansion was found in the composites made of 40 and 50 wt% HA. The minimum shrinkage was emerged in 50 wt% CS composite, while the maximum shrinkage was revealed in samples with pure SS-316L, HA and CS. Compressive mechanical properties of SS-316L/HA decreased sharply with increasing of HA content up to 20 wt% and gradually with CS content up to 50 wt% for SS-316L/CS composites. The mechanical properties of the FGM of SS-316L/HA dropped with increase in temperature, while it was improved for the FGM of SS-316L/CS with temperature enhancement. It has been found that the FGMs emerged a better compressive mechanical properties compared to both the composite systems. Therefore, the SS-316L/CS composites and their FGMs have superior compressive mechanical properties to the SS-316L/HA composites and their FGMs and also the newly developed FGMs of SS-316L/CS with improved mechanical and enhanced gradation in physical and structural properties can potentially be utilized in the components with load-bearing application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  4. Khalili AA, Ahmad MR
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015 Aug 05;16(8):18149-84.
    PMID: 26251901 DOI: 10.3390/ijms160818149
    Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/metabolism
  5. Pramanik S, Ataollahi F, Pingguan-Murphy B, Oshkour AA, Osman NAA
    Sci Rep, 2015 May 07;5:9806.
    PMID: 25950377 DOI: 10.1038/srep09806
    Scaffold design from xenogeneic bone has the potential for tissue engineering (TE). However, major difficulties impede this potential, such as the wide range of properties in natural bone. In this study, sintered cortical bones from different parts of a bovine-femur impregnated with biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) binder by liquid phase adsorption were investigated. Flexural mechanical properties of the PEG-treated scaffolds showed that the scaffold is stiffer and stronger at a sintering condition of 1000°C compared with 900°C. In vitro cytotoxicity of the scaffolds evaluated by Alamar Blue assay and microscopic tests on human fibroblast cells is better at 1000°C compared with that at 900°C. Furthermore, in vitro biocompatibility and flexural property of scaffolds derived from different parts of a femur depend on morphology and heat-treatment condition. Therefore, the fabricated scaffolds from the distal and proximal parts at 1000°C are potential candidates for hard and soft TE applications, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  6. Abdullah D, Ford TR, Papaioannou S, Nicholson J, McDonald F
    Biomaterials, 2002 Oct;23(19):4001-10.
    PMID: 12162333
    Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials*
  7. Revati R, Abdul Majid MS, Ridzuan MJM, Normahira M, Mohd Nasir NF, Rahman Y MN, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Jun 01;75:752-759.
    PMID: 28415525 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.02.127
    The mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of a 3D porous Pennisetum purpureum (PP)/polylactic acid (PLA) based scaffold were investigated. In this study, a scaffold containing P. purpureum and PLA was produced using the solvent casting and particulate leaching method. P. purpureum fibre, also locally known as Napier grass, is composed of 46% cellulose, 34% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin. PLA composites with various P. purpureum contents (10%, 20%, and 30%) were prepared and subsequently characterised. The morphologies, structures and thermal behaviours of the prepared composite scaffolds were characterised using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology was studied using FESEM; the scaffold possessed 70-200μm-sized pores with a high level of interconnectivity. The moisture content and mechanical properties of the developed porous scaffolds were further characterised. The P. purpureum/PLA scaffold had a greater porosity factor (99%) and compression modulus (5.25MPa) than those of the pure PLA scaffold (1.73MPa). From the results, it can be concluded that the properties of the highly porous P. purpureum/PLA scaffold developed in this study can be controlled and optimised. This can be used to facilitate the construction of implantable tissue-engineered cartilage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  8. Sohail M, Mudassir, Minhas MU, Khan S, Hussain Z, de Matas M, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):595-614.
    PMID: 29611113 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0512-x
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon that severely affects the quality of life of patients and usually responds well to anti-inflammatory agents for symptomatic relief; however, many patients need colectomy, a surgical procedure to remove whole or part of the colon. Though various types of pharmacological agents have been employed for the management of UC, the lack of effectiveness is usually predisposed to various reasons including lack of target-specific delivery of drugs and insufficient drug accumulation at the target site. To overcome these glitches, many researchers have designed and characterized various types of versatile polymeric biomaterials to achieve target-specific delivery of drugs via oral route to optimize their targeting efficiency to the colon, to improve drug accumulation at the target site, as well as to ameliorate off-target effects of chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize and critically discuss the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials for efficient drug targeting to colon and rationalized treatment of UC. Among various types of biomaterials, natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels have shown promising targeting potential due to their innate pH responsiveness, sustained and controlled release characteristics, and microbial degradation in the colon to release the encapsulated drug moieties. These characteristic features make natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels superior to conventional pharmacological strategies for the management of UC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage*
  9. Hasmad H, Yusof MR, Mohd Razi ZR, Hj Idrus RB, Chowdhury SR
    Tissue Eng Part C Methods, 2018 06;24(6):368-378.
    PMID: 29690856 DOI: 10.1089/ten.TEC.2017.0447
    Fabrication of composite scaffolds is one of the strategies proposed to enhance the functionality of tissue-engineered scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration. By combining multiple elements together, unique biomimetic scaffolds with desirable physical and mechanical properties can be tailored for tissue-specific applications. Despite having a highly porous structure, the utility of electrospun fibers (EF) as scaffold is usually hampered by their insufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to produce a mechanically competent scaffold with cell-guiding ability by fabricating aligned poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) fibers on decellularized human amniotic membrane (HAM), known to possess favorable tensile and wound healing properties. Decellularization of HAM in 18.75 μg/mL of thermolysin followed by a brief treatment in 0.25 M sodium hydroxide efficiently removed the amniotic epithelium and preserved the ultrastructure of the underlying extracellular matrix. The electrospinning of 20% (w/v) PLGA 50:50 polymer on HAM yielded beadless fibers with straight morphology. Subsequent physical characterization revealed that EF-HAM scaffold with a 3-min fabrication had the most aligned fibers with the lowest fiber diameter in comparison with EF-HAM 5- and 7-min scaffolds. Hydrated EF-HAM scaffolds with 3-min deposition had a greater tensile strength than the other scaffolds despite having thinner fibers. Nevertheless, wet HAM and EF-HAMs regardless of the fiber thicknesses had a significantly lower Young's modulus, and hence, a higher elasticity compared with dry HAM and EF-HAMs. Biocompatibility analysis showed that the viability and migration rate of skeletal muscle cells on EF-HAMs were similar to control and HAM alone. Skeletal muscle cells seeded on HAM were shown to display random orientation, whereas cells on EF-HAM scaffolds were oriented along the alignment of the electrospun PLGA fibers. In summary, besides having good mechanical strength and elasticity, EF-HAM scaffold design decorated with aligned fiber topography holds a promising potential for use in the development of aligned tissue constructs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  10. Wahid MNA, Abd Razak SI, Abdul Kadir MR, Hassan R, Nayan NHM, Mat Amin KA
    J Biomater Appl, 2018 07;33(1):94-102.
    PMID: 29716417 DOI: 10.1177/0885328218771195
    This work reports the modification of freeze/thaw poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel using citric acid as the bioactive molecule for hydroxyapatite formation in simulated body fluid. Inclusion of 1.3 mM citric acid into the poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel showed that the mechanical strength, crystalline phase, functional groups and swelling ability were still intact. Adding citric acid at higher concentrations (1.8 and 2.3 mM), however, resulted in physically poor hydrogels. Presence of 1.3 mM of citric acid showed the growth of porous hydroxyapatite crystals on the poly(vinyl alcohol) surface just after one day of immersion in simulated body fluid. Meanwhile, a fully covered apatite layer on the poly(vinyl alcohol) surface plus the evidence of apatite forming within the hydrogel were observed after soaking for seven days. Gel strength of the soaked poly(vinyl alcohol)/citric acid-1.3 mM hydrogel revealed that the load resistance was enhanced compared to that of the neat poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. This facile method of inducing rapid growth of hydroxyapatite on the hydrogel surface as well as within the hydrogel network can be useful for guided bone regenerative materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  11. Thomas B, Gupta K
    J Esthet Restor Dent, 2017 Nov 12;29(6):435-441.
    PMID: 28703476 DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12317
    OBJECTIVE: Nano-hydroxyapatite-added GIC has been developed to improve the physical properties of conventional GIC. However, biological response of periodontal cells to this potentially useful cervical restorative material has been unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro response of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to hydroxyapatite-added GIC.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three categories of materials, namely, test group 1 (cGIC or type IX GIC), test group 2 (HA-GIC or hydroxyapatite-added GIC), and positive control (glass cover slips) were incubated with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. The samples were viewed under scanning electron microscope to study the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts. Additionally, elemental analysis was performed to differentiate between the two test groups based on surface chemical composition.

    RESULTS: Test group 1 (cGIC) exhibited cells with curled up morphology, indicative of poor attachment to the substrate. Test group 2 (Ha-GIC) exhibited cells with flattened morphology and numerous cellular extensions such as lamellipodia and blebs, indicative of good attachment to the substrate. The test group 2 (Ha-GIC) demonstrated higher surface elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that hydroxyapatite-added GIC is more biocompatible than conventional GIC (type IX), probably attributed to high elemental percentages of calcium and phosphorus.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The search for an ideal cervical restorative dental material has been ever elusive. Hydroxyapatite-added GIC is a simple and economical dental material to fabricate from basic conventional GIC. The results from this study strengthen its candidature for cervical and root surface restorations which may later require soft tissue augmentation. The possibility of connective tissue adhesion to this material is an exciting prospect in the field of periorestorative dentistry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  12. Gorain B, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Iyer AK, Kalia K, Tekade RK
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 04;22(4):652-664.
    PMID: 28219742 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.12.007
    To avoid tissue rejection during organ transplantation, research has focused on the use of tissue engineering to regenerate required tissues or organs for patients. The biomedical applications of hyperbranched, multivalent, structurally uniform, biocompatible dendrimers in tissue engineering include the mimicking of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) in the 3D microenvironment. Dendrimers are unimolecular architects that can incorporate a variety of biological and/or chemical substances in a 3D architecture to actively support the scaffold microenvironment during cell growth. Here, we review the use of dendritic delivery systems in tissue engineering. We discuss the available literature, highlighting the 3D architecture and preparation of these nanoscaffolds, and also review challenges to, and advances in, the use dendrimers in tissue engineering. Advances in the manufacturing of dendritic nanoparticles and scaffold architectures have resulted in the successful incorporation of dendritic scaffolds in tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage
  13. Sharifzadeh G, Hosseinkhani H
    Adv Healthc Mater, 2017 Dec;6(24).
    PMID: 29057617 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201700801
    Recent advances and applications of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, namely, glucose-responsive hydrogels, protein-responsive hydrogels, and nucleic-acid-responsive hydrogels are highlighted. However, achieving the ultimate purpose of using biomolecule-responsive hydrogels in preclinical and clinical areas is still at the very early stage and calls for more novel designing concepts and advance ideas. On the way toward the real/clinical application of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels, plenty of factors should be extensively studied and examined under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. For example, biocompatibility, biointegration, and toxicity of biomolecule-responsive hydrogels should be carefully evaluated. From the living body's point of view, biocompatibility is seriously depended on the interactions at the tissue/polymer interface. These interactions are influenced by physical nature, chemical structure, surface properties, and degradation of the materials. In addition, the developments of advanced hydrogels with tunable biological and mechanical properties which cause no/low side effects are of great importance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  14. Hiew VV, Simat SFB, Teoh PL
    Stem Cell Rev Rep, 2018 Feb;14(1):43-57.
    PMID: 28884292 DOI: 10.1007/s12015-017-9764-y
    Stem cells are well-known to have prominent roles in tissue engineering applications. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into every cell type in the body while adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various sources. Nevertheless, an utmost limitation in harnessing stem cells for tissue engineering is the supply of cells. The advances in biomaterial technology allows the establishment of ex vivo expansion systems to overcome this bottleneck. The progress of various scaffold fabrication could direct stem cell fate decisions including cell proliferation and differentiation into specific lineages in vitro. Stem cell biology and biomaterial technology promote synergistic effect on stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Therefore, understanding the interaction of stem cell and biomaterials would allow the designation of new biomaterials for future clinical therapeutic applications for tissue regeneration. This review focuses mainly on the advances of natural and synthetic biomaterials in regulating stem cell fate decisions. We have also briefly discussed how biological and biophysical properties of biomaterials including wettability, chemical functionality, biodegradability and stiffness play their roles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  15. Paulraj P, Vnootheni N, Chandramohan M, Thevarkattil MJP
    Recent Pat Biotechnol, 2018;12(3):186-199.
    PMID: 29384069 DOI: 10.2174/1872208312666180131114125
    BACKGROUND: Polyhydroxyalkanoates are bio-based, biodegradable naturally occurring polymers produced by a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to higher mammals. The properties and biocompatibility of PHA make it possible for a wide spectrum of applications. In this context, we analyze the potential applications of PHA in biomedical science by exploring the global trend through the patent survey. The survey suggests that PHA is an attractive candidate in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products.

    OBJECTIVE: In our present study, we explored patents associated with various biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    METHOD: Patent databases of European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization were mined. We developed an intensive exploration approach to eliminate overlapping patents and sort out significant patents.We demarcated the keywords and search criterions and established search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents within the recent 6 years, 2010 to 2016 and sort out the collected data stepwise to gather the most appropriate documents in patent families for further scrutiny.

    RESULTS: By this approach, we retrieved 23,368 patent documents from all the three databases and the patent titles were further analyzed for the relevance of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biomedical applications. This ensued in the documentation of approximately 226 significant patents associated with biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the information was classified into six major groups. Polyhydroxyalkanoates has been patented in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packagingmaterial as well as other useful products.

    CONCLUSION: There are many avenues through which PHA & PHB could be used. Our analysis shows patent information can be used to identify various applications of PHA and its representatives in the biomedical field. Upcoming studies can focus on the application of PHA in the different field to discover the related topics and associate to this study.We believe that this approach of analysis and findings can initiate new researchers to undertake similar kind of studies in their represented field to fill the gap between the patent articles and research publications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/standards
  16. Ullah F, Javed F, Othman MBH, Khan A, Gul R, Ahmad Z, et al.
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2018 03;29(4):376-396.
    PMID: 29285989 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2017.1421347
    Addressing the functional biomaterials as next-generation therapeutics, chitosan and alginic acid were copolymerized in the form of chemically crosslinked interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The native hydrogel was functionalized via carbodiimide (EDC), catalyzed coupling of soft ligand (1,2-Ethylenediamine) and hard ligand (4-aminophenol) to replace -OH groups in alginic acid units for extended hydrogel- interfaces with the aqueous and sparingly soluble drug solutions. The chemical structure, Lower solution critical temperature (LCST ≈ 37.88 °C), particle size (Zh,app ≈ 150-200 nm), grain size (160-360 nm), surface roughness (85-250 nm), conductivity (37-74 mv) and zeta potential (16-32 mv) of native and functionalized hydrogel were investigated by using FT-IR, solid state-13C-NMR, TGA, DSC, FESEM, AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The effective swelling, drug loading (47-78%) and drug release (53-86%) profiles were adjusted based on selective functionalization of hydrophobic IPNs due to electrostatic complexation and extended interactions of hydrophilic ligands with the aqueous and drug solutions. Drug release from the hydrogel matrices with diffusion coefficient n ≈ 0.7 was established by Non- Fickian diffusion mechanism. In vitro degradation trials of the hydrogel with a 20% loss of wet mass in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and 38% loss of wet mass in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), were investigated for 400 h through bulk erosion. Consequently, a slower rate of drug loading and release was observed for native hydrogel, due to stronger H-bonding, interlocking and entanglement within the IPNs, which was finely tuned and extended by the induced hydrophilic and functional ligands. In the light of induced hydrophilicity, such functional hydrogel could be highly attractive for extended release of sparingly soluble drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  17. Alias R, Mahmoodian R, Genasan K, Vellasamy KM, Hamdi Abd Shukor M, Kamarul T
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Feb;107:110304.
    PMID: 31761210 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110304
    Surgical site infection associated with surgical instruments has always been a factor in delaying post-operative recovery of patients. The evolution in surface modification of surgical instruments can be a potential choice to overcome the nosocomial infection mainly caused by bacterial populations such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. A study was, therefore, conducted characterising the morphology, hydrophobicity, adhesion strength, phase, Nano-hardness, surface chemistry, antimicrobial and biocompatibility of SS 316L steel deposited with a Nano-composite layer of Silver (Ag) and Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) using physical vapour deposition magnetron sputtering. The adhesion strength of Ag/AgTa2O5 coating on SS 316L and treated at 250-850 °C of thermal treatment was evaluated using micro-scratch. The Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C was shown a 154% improvement in adhesion strength on SS 316L when compared with as-sputtered layer or Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-250, 550, 700 and 850 °C. The FESEM, XPS, and XRD indicated the segregation of Ag on the surface of SS 316L after the crystallization. Wettability and Nano-indentation tests demonstrated an increase in hydrophobicity (77.3 ± 0.3°) and Nano-hardness (1.12 ± 0.43 GPa) when compared with as-sputtered layer, after the 400 °C of thermal treatment. The antibacterial performance on Ag/Ag-Ta2O5-400 °C indicated a significant zone of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus (A-axis: 16.33 ± 0.58 mm; B-axis: 25.67 ± 0.58 mm, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  18. Tan HL, Kai D, Pasbakhsh P, Teow SY, Lim YY, Pushpamalar J
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2020 Apr;188:110713.
    PMID: 31884080 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110713
    Electrospinning is a common method to prepare nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering. One of the common cellulose esters, cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), has been electrospun into nanofibers and studied. However, the intrinsic hydrophobicity of CAB limits its application in tissue engineering as it retards cell adhesion. In this study, the properties of CAB nanofibers were improved by fabricating the composite nanofibers made of CAB and hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG). Different ratios of CAB to PEG were tested and only the ratio of 2:1 resulted in smooth and bead-free nanofibers. The tensile test results show that CAB/PEG composite nanofibers have 2-fold higher tensile strength than pure CAB nanofibers. The hydrophobicity of the composite nanofibers was also reduced based on the water contact angle analysis. As the hydrophilicity increases, the swelling ability of the composite nanofiber increases by 2-fold with more rapid biodegradation. The biocompatibility of the nanofibers was tested with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The cell viability assay results revealed that the nanofibers are non-toxic. In addition to that, CAB/PEG nanofibers have better cell attachment compared to pure CAB nanofibers. Based on this study, CAB/PEG composite nanofibers could potentially be used as a nanofiber scaffold for applications in tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  19. Ghosal K, Das A, Das SK, Mahmood S, Ramadan MAM, Thomas S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jun 01;130:645-654.
    PMID: 30797807 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.117
    This study aimed to develop and characterize the calcium alginate films loaded with diclofenac sodium and other hydrophilic polymers with different degrees of cross-linking obtained by external gelation process. To the formed films different physicochemical evaluation were performed which showed an initial character of the films. The films produced by this external gelation process were found thicker (0.031-0.038 mm) and stronger (51.9-52.9 MPa) but less elastic (2.3%) than those non-cross-linked films (0.029 mm; 39.7 MPa; 4.4%). The lower water vapor permeability (WVP) values of the films were obtained where maximum level of crosslinking occurs. Composite films can be cross-linked in presence of external crosslinking agent to improve the quality of the produced matrices for various uses. The characterization of the film was performed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study showed the morphology of treated composite films. The kinetic release studies showed a sustained release of the drug from the formulated films as it can be prolonged in composite film. The prepared biodegradable Ca-Alginate bio-composite film may be of clinical importance for its therapeutic benefit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  20. Jaganathan SK, Mani MP
    An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 2020;92(1):e20180369.
    PMID: 32236296 DOI: 10.1590/0001-3765202020180369
    Ayurveda oil contains numerous source of biological constituents which plays an important role in reducing the pain relief caused during bone fracture. The aim of the study is to fabricate the polyurethane (PU) scaffold for bone tissue engineering added with ayurveda amla oil using electrospinning technique. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the fabricated nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (758 ± 185.46 nm) than the pristine PU (890 ± 116.91 nm). Fourier Infrared Analysis (FTIR) revealed the existence of amla oil in the PU matrix by hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle results revealed the decreased wettability (116° ± 1.528) of the prepared nanocomposites compared to the pure PU (100° ± 0.5774). The incorporation of amla oil into the PU matrix improved the surface roughness. Further, the coagulation assay indicated that the addition of amla oil into PU delayed the blood clotting times and exhibited less toxic to red blood cells. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposites showed enhanced physicochemical and better blood compatibility parameters which may serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/analysis*
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