Displaying publications 161 - 180 of 313 in total

  1. Chahal S, Kumar A, Hussian FSJ
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2019 10;30(14):1308-1355.
    PMID: 31181982 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2019.1630699
    Electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Ideal scaffolds should be biocompatible and bioactive with appropriate surface chemistry, good mechanical properties and should mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone. Selection of the most appropriate material to produce a scaffold is an important step towards the construction of a tissue engineered product. Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field, where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. This review covers the latest development of biomimetic electrospun polymeric biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. It includes the brief details to bone tissue engineering along with bone structure and ideal bone scaffolds requirements. Details about various engineered materials and methodologies used for bone scaffolds development were discussed. Description of electrospinning technique and its parameters relating their fabrication, advantages, and applications in bone tissue engineering were also presented. The use of synthetic and natural polymers based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and their biomineralization processes were discussed and reviewed comprehensively. Finally, we give conclusion along with perspectives and challenges of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering based on electrospun nanofibers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*
  2. Rizal S, Saharudin NI, Olaiya NG, Khalil HPSA, Haafiz MKM, Ikramullah I, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 01;26(7).
    PMID: 33916094 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072008
    The degradation and mechanical properties of potential polymeric materials used for green manufacturing are significant determinants. In this study, cellulose nanofibre was prepared from Schizostachyum brachycladum bamboo and used as reinforcement in the PLA/chitosan matrix using melt extrusion and compression moulding method. The cellulose nanofibre(CNF) was isolated using supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was characterised with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, zeta potential and particle size analysis. The mechanical, physical, and degradation properties of the resulting biocomposite were studied with moisture content, density, thickness swelling, tensile, flexural, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and biodegradability analysis. The TEM, FT-IR, and particle size results showed successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre using this method. The result showed that the physical, mechanical, and degradation properties of PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite were significantly enhanced with cellulose nanofibre. The density, thickness swelling, and moisture content increased with the addition of CNF. Also, tensile strength and modulus; flexural strength and modulus increased; while the elongation reduced. The carbon residue from the thermal degradation and the glass transition temperature of the PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite was observed to increase with the addition of CNF. The result showed that the biocomposite has potential for green and sustainable industrial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  3. Wong TW, Nurulaini H
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2012 Dec;38(12):1417-27.
    PMID: 22309449 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2011.653364
    Alginate-chitosan pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique exhibited fast drug dissolution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  4. Zare-Zardini H, Amiri A, Shanbedi M, Taheri-Kafrani A, Kazi SN, Chew BT, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2015 Sep;103(9):2959-65.
    PMID: 25690431 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35425
    One of the novel applications of the nanostructures is the modification and development of membranes for hemocompatibility of hemodialysis. The toxicity and hemocompatibility of Ag nanoparticles and arginine-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT-Arg) and possibility of their application in membrane technology are investigated here. MWNT-Arg is prepared by amidation reactions, followed by characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed a good hemocompatibility and the hemolytic rates in the presence of both MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles. The hemolytic rate of Ag nanoparticles was lower than that of MWNT-Arg. In vivo study revealed that Ag nanoparticle and MWNT-Arg decreased Hematocrit and mean number of red blood cells (RBC) statistically at concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . The mean decrease of RBC and Hematocrit for Ag nanoparticles (18% for Hematocrit and 5.8 × 1,000,000/µL) was more than MWNT-Arg (20% for Hematocrit and 6 × 1000000/µL). In addition, MWNT-Arg and Ag nanoparticles had a direct influence on the White Blood Cell (WBC) drop. Regarding both nanostructures, although the number of WBC increased in initial concentration, it decreased significantly at the concentration of 100 µg mL(-1) . It is worth mentioning that the toxicity of Ag nanoparticle on WBC was higher than that of MWNT-Arg. Because of potent antimicrobial activity and relative hemocompatibility, MWNT-Arg could be considered as a new candidate for biomedical applications in the future especially for hemodialysis membranes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/toxicity; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  5. Jaganathan SK, Mohandas H, Sivakumar G, Kasi P, Sudheer T, Avineri Veetil S, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:963149.
    PMID: 24955370 DOI: 10.1155/2014/963149
    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  6. Das S, Roy P, Pal R, Auddy RG, Chakraborti AS, Mukherjee A
    PLoS One, 2014;9(7):e101818.
    PMID: 24991800 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101818
    Silybin, is one imminent therapeutic for drug induced hepatotoxicity, human prostate adenocarcinoma and other degenerative organ diseases. Recent evidences suggest that silybin influences gluconeogenesis pathways favorably and is beneficial in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The compound however is constrained due to solubility (0.4 mg/mL) and bioavailabilty limitations. Appropriate nanoparticle design for silybin in biocompatible polymers was thus proposed as a probable solution for therapeutic inadequacy. New surface engineered biopolymeric nanoparticles with high silybin encapsulation efficiency of 92.11% and zeta potential of +21 mV were designed. Both the pure compound and the nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo for the first time in experimental diabetic conditions. Animal health recovered substantially and the blood glucose levels came down to near normal values after 28 days treatment schedule with the engineered nanoparticles. Restoration from hyperglycemic damage condition was traced to serum insulin regeneration. Serum insulin recovered from the streptozotocin induced pancreatic damage levels of 0.17 ± 0.01 µg/lit to 0.57 ± 0.11 µg/lit after nanoparticle treatment. Significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin level, and restoration of liver glycogen content were some of the other interesting observations. Engineered silybin nanoparticle assisted recovery in diabetic conditions was reasoned due to improved silybin dissolution, passive transport in nanoscale, and restoration of antioxidant status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage*; Biocompatible Materials/pharmacokinetics
  7. Awang MA, Firdaus MA, Busra MB, Chowdhury SR, Fadilah NR, Wan Hamirul WK, et al.
    Biomed Mater Eng, 2014;24(4):1715-24.
    PMID: 24948455 DOI: 10.3233/BME-140983
    Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/toxicity*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  8. Ujang Z, Abdul Rashid AH, Suboh SK, Halim AS, Lim CK
    J Appl Biomater Funct Mater, 2014 Dec 30;12(3):155-62.
    PMID: 24700269 DOI: 10.5301/jabfm.5000190
    BACKGROUND: The physical and biological characteristics of oligochitosan (O-C) film, including its barrier and mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, were studied to assess its potential use as a wound dressing.

    METHODS: Membrane films were prepared from water-soluble O-C solution blended with various concentrations of glycerol to modify the physical properties of the films. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluations were performed using primary human skin fibroblast cultures and subcutaneous implantation in a rat model, respectively.

    RESULTS: Addition of glycerol significantly influenced the barrier and mechanical properties of the films. Water absorption capacity was in the range of 80%-160%, whereas water vapor transmission rate varied from 1,180 to 1,618 g/m2 per day. Both properties increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased with the addition of glycerol. O-C films were found to be noncytotoxic to human fibroblast cultures and histological examination proved that films are biocompatible.

    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the membrane film from O-C has potential application as a wound-dressing material.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis; Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  9. Lee SY, Kamarul T
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2014 Mar;64:115-22.
    PMID: 24325858 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.11.039
    In this study, a chitosan co-polymer scaffold was prepared by mixing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), NO, carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions to obtain desirable properties for chondrocyte cultivation. Electron beam (e-beam) radiation was used to physically cross-link these polymers at different doses (30 kGy and 50 kGy). The co-polymers were then lyophilized to form macroporous three-dimensional (3-D) matrix. Scaffold morphology, porosity, swelling properties, biocompatibility, expression of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen following the seeding of primary chondrocytes were studied up to 28 days. The results demonstrate that irradiation of e-beam at 50 kGy increased scaffold porosity and pore sizes subsequently enhanced cell attachment and proliferation. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive interconnected microstructure of PVA-PEG-NOCC, demonstrated cellular activities on the scaffolds and their ability to maintain chondrocyte phenotype. In addition, the produced PVA-PEG-NOCC scaffolds showed superior swelling properties, and increased GAG and type II collagen secreted by the seeded chondrocytes. In conclusion, the results suggest that by adding NOCC and irradiation cross-linking at 50 kGy, the physical and biological properties of PVA-PEG blend can be further enhanced thereby making PVA-PEG-NOCC a potential scaffold for chondrocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/radiation effects*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  10. Puvaneswary S, Balaji Raghavendran HR, Ibrahim NS, Murali MR, Merican AM, Kamarul T
    Int J Med Sci, 2013;10(12):1608-14.
    PMID: 24151432 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.6496
    The objective of this study was to compare the morphological and chemical composition of bone graft (BG) and coral graft (CG) as well as their osteogenic differentiation potential using rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) in vitro. SEM analysis of BG and CG revealed that the pores in these grafts were interconnected, and their micro-CT confirmed pore sizes in the range of 107-315 µm and 103-514 µm with a total porosity of 92% and 94%, respectively. EDS analysis indicated that the level of calcium in CG was relatively higher than that in BG. FTIR of BG and CG confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to carbonyl, aromatic, alkyl, and alkane groups. XRD results revealed that the phase content of the inorganic layer comprised highly crystalline form of calcium carbonate and carbon. Atomic force microscopy analysis showed CG had better surface roughness compared to BG. In addition, significantly higher levels of osteogenic differentiation markers, namely, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Osteocalcin (OC) levels, and Osteonectin and Runx2, Integrin gene expression were detected in the CG cultures, when compared with those in the BG cultures. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs is relatively superior in coral graft than in bone graft culture system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/isolation & purification; Biocompatible Materials/metabolism
  11. Mohammadi H, Sepantafar M
    Iran. Biomed. J., 2016 Sep;20(4):189-200.
    PMID: 26979401
    Titanium and its alloy are known as important load-bearing biomaterials. The major drawbacks of these metals are fibrous formation and low corrosion rate after implantation. The surface modification of biomedical implants through various methods such as plasma spray improves their osseointegration and clinical lifetime. Different materials have been already used as coatings on biomedical implant, including calcium phosphates and bioglass. However, these materials have been reported to have limited clinical success. The excellent bioactivity of calcium silicate (Ca-Si) has been also regarded as coating material. However, their high degradation rate and low mechanical strength limit their further coating application. Trace element modification of (Ca-Si) bioceramics is a promising method, which improves their mechanical strength and chemical stability. In this review, the potential of trace element-modified silicate coatings on better bone formation of titanium implant is investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology*; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  12. Ngadiman NH, Idris A, Irfan M, Kurniawan D, Yusof NM, Nasiri R
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2015 Sep;49:90-104.
    PMID: 26002419 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.04.029
    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticle with its unique magnetic properties is recently known to enhance the cell growth rate. In this study, γ-Fe2O3 is mixed into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and then electrospun to form nanofibers. Design of experiments was used to determine the optimum parameter settings for the electrospinning process so as to produce elctrospun mats with the preferred characteristics such as good morphology, Young's modulus and porosity. The input factors of the electrospinnning process were nanoparticles content (1-5%), voltage (25-35 kV), and flow rate (1-3 ml/h) while the responses considered were Young's modulus and porosity. Empirical models for both responses as a function of the input factors were developed and the optimum input factors setting were determined, and found to be at 5% nanoparticle content, 35 kV voltage, and 1 ml/h volume flow rate. The characteristics and performance of the optimum PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats were compared with those of neat PVA nanofiber mats in terms of morphology, thermal properties, and hydrophilicity. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats exhibited higher fiber diameter and surface roughness yet similar thermal properties and hydrophilicity compared to neat PVA PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats. Biocompatibility test by exposing the nanofiber mats with human blood cells was performed. In terms of clotting time, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers exhibited similar behavior with neat PVA. The PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofibers also showed higher cells proliferation rate when MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was done using human skin fibroblast cells. Thus, the PVA/γ-Fe2O3 electrospun nanofibers can be a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  13. Amin Yavari S, Chai YC, Böttger AJ, Wauthle R, Schrooten J, Weinans H, et al.
    PMID: 25842117 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.02.050
    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/chemical synthesis*; Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology
  14. Hassan UA, Hussein MZ, Alitheen NB, Yahya Ariff SA, Masarudin MJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:5075-5095.
    PMID: 30233174 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S164843
    Background: Inefficient cellular delivery and poor intracellular accumulation are major drawbacks towards achieving favorable therapeutic responses from many therapeutic drugs and biomolecules. To tackle this issue, nanoparticle-mediated delivery vectors have been aptly explored as a promising delivery strategy capable of enhancing the cellular localization of biomolecules and improve their therapeutic efficacies. However, the dynamics of intracellular biomolecule release and accumulation from such nanoparticle systems has currently remained scarcely studied.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to utilize a chitosan-based nanoparticle system as the delivery carrier for glutamic acid, a model for encapsulated biomolecules to visualize the in vitro release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acid from chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) systems.

    Methods: CNP was synthesized via ionic gelation routes utilizing tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linker. In order to track glutamic acid release, the glutamic acid was fluorescently-labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate prior encapsulation into CNP.

    Results: Light Scattering data concluded the successful formation of small-sized and mono-dispersed CNP at a specific volume ratio of chitosan to TPP. Encapsulation of glutamic acid as a model cargo into CNP led to an increase in particle size to >100 nm. The synthesized CNP exhibited spherical shape under Electron Microscopy. The formation of CNP was reflected by the reduction in free amine groups of chitosan following ionic crosslinking reactions. The encapsulation of glutamic acid was further confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis. Cell viability assay showed 70% cell viability at the maximum concentration of 0.5 mg/mL CS and 0.7 mg/mL TPP used, indicating the low inherent toxicity property of this system. In vitro release study using fluorescently-tagged glutamic acids demonstrated the release and accumulation of the encapsulated glutamic acids at 6 hours post treatment. A significant accumulation was observed at 24 hours and 48 hours later. Flow cytometry data demonstrated a gradual increase in intracellular fluorescence signal from 30 minutes to 48 hours post treatment with fluorescently-labeled glutamic acids encapsulated CNP.

    Conclusion: These results therefore suggested the potential of CNP system towards enhancing the intracellular delivery and release of the encapsulated glutamic acids. This CNP system thus may serves as a potential candidate vector capable to improve the therapeutic efficacy for drugs and biomolecules in medical as well as pharmaceutical applications through the enhanced intracellular release and accumulation of the encapsulated cargo.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacokinetics; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry
  15. Nasiri R, Hamzehalipour Almaki J, Idris AB, Abdul Majid FA, Nasiri M, Salouti M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Dec 01;69:1147-58.
    PMID: 27612812 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.07.076
    Engineering of a physiologically compatible, stable and targetable SPIONs-CA-FA formulation was reported. Initially fabricated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with citric acid (CA) to hamper agglomeration as well as to ameliorate biocompatibility. Folic acid (FA) as a targeting agent was then conjugated to the citric acid coated SPIONs (SPIONs-CA) for targeting the specific receptors expressed on the FAR+ cancer cells. Physiochemical characterizations were then performed to assure required properties like stability, size, phase purity, surface morphology, chemical integrity and magnetic properties. In vitro evaluations (MTT assay) were performed on HeLa, HSF 1184, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231cell lines to ensure the biocompatibility of SPIONs-CA-FA. There were no morphological changes and lysis in contact with erythrocytes recorded for SPIONs-CA-FA and SPIONs-CA. High level of SPIONs-CA-FA binding to FAR+ cell lines was assured via qualitative and quantitative in vitro binding studies. Hence, SPIONs-CA-FA was introduced as a promising tool for biomedical applications like magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery. The in vitro findings presented in this study need to be compared with those of in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  16. Siow KS, Abdul Rahman AS, Ng PY, Majlis BY
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Feb;107:110225.
    PMID: 31761201 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110225
    Role of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) groups in promoting cell adhesion or commonly known as biocompatibility, is well established, but their role in reducing bacterial attachment and growth is less explored or not well-understood. Natural sulfur-based compounds, i.e. sulfide, sulfoxide and sulfinic groups, have shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Hence, we mimicked these surfaces by plasma polymerizing thiophene (ppT) and air-plasma treating this ppT to achieve coatings with S of similar oxidation states as natural compounds (ppT-air). In addition, the effects of these N and S groups from ppT-air were also compared with the biocompatible amine-amide from n-heptylamine plasma polymer. Crystal violet assay and live and dead fluorescence staining of E. coli and S. aureus showed that all the N and S coated surfaces generated, including ppHA, ppT and ppT-air, produced similarly potent, growth reduction of both bacteria by approximately 65% at 72 h compared to untreated glass control. The ability of osteogenic differentiation in Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) were also used to test the cell biocompatibility of these surfaces. Alkaline phosphatase assay and scanning electron microscopy imaging of these WJ-MSCs growths indicated that ppHA, and ppT-air were cell-friendly surfaces, with ppHA showing the highest osteogenic activity. In summary, the N and S containing surfaces could reduce bacteria growth while promoting mammalian cell growth, thus serve as potential candidate surfaces to be explored further for biomaterial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology; Biocompatible Materials/chemistry*
  17. Gaaz TS, Sulong AB, Akhtar MN, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB, Al-Amiery AA
    Molecules, 2015;20(12):22833-47.
    PMID: 26703542 DOI: 10.3390/molecules201219884
    The aim of this review was to analyze/investigate the synthesis, properties, and applications of polyvinyl alcohol-halloysite nanotubes (PVA-HNT), and their nanocomposites. Different polymers with versatile properties are attractive because of their introduction and potential uses in many fields. Synthetic polymers, such as PVA, natural polymers like alginate, starch, chitosan, or any material with these components have prominent status as important and degradable materials with biocompatibility properties. These materials have been developed in the 1980s and are remarkable because of their recyclability and consideration of the natural continuation of their physical and chemical properties. The fabrication of PVA-HNT nanocomposites can be a potential way to address some of PVA's limitations. Such nanocomposites have excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability. PVA-HNT nanocomposites have been reported earlier, but without proper HNT individualization and PVA modifications. The properties of PVA-HNT for medicinal and biomedical use are attracting an increasing amount of attention for medical applications, such as wound dressings, drug delivery, targeted-tissue transportation systems, and soft biomaterial implants. The demand for alternative polymeric medical devices has also increased substantially around the world. This paper reviews individualized HNT addition along with crosslinking of PVA for various biomedical applications that have been previously reported in literature, thereby showing the attainability, modification of characteristics, and goals underlying the blending process with PVA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  18. Lim CK, Halim AS, Lau HY, Ujang Z, Hazri A
    J Appl Biomater Biomech, 2007 May-Aug;5(2):82-7.
    PMID: 20799177
    Chitosan (beta-1, 4-D-glucosamine) is a deacetylated form of chitin with excellent biological properties in wound management. The natural properties of chitosan have the physical and chemical limitations to be widely used in biomedical fields. The improvement of the physical and chemical properties of chitosan with some additional chemicals will alter its biocompatibility. Therefore, the biological attribute of the modified chitosan must be evaluated. In this study, the cytotoxicity of oligo-chitosan (OC) and N, O- carboxymethyl-chitosan (NO-CMC) derivatives (O-C 1%, O-C 5%, NO-CMC 1% and NO-CMC 5%) was evaluated using primary normal human epidermal keratinocyte (pNHEK) cultures as an in vitro toxicology model at standardized cell passages (fourth passages). 3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used as a cell viability assay. The O-C 1% is one of the most compatible chitosan derivatives because it steadily sustained >70% of viable cells until 72 hr post-treatment. This was followed by O-C 5%, NO-CMC 5% and NO-CMC 1%. Therefore, oligo-chitosan had the ideal properties of a biocompatible material compared to N, O- carboxymethyl-chitosan in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  19. Habib Ullah M, Mahadi WN, Latef TA
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:12868.
    PMID: 26238975 DOI: 10.1038/srep12868
    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) has become a potential candidate, similar to polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), for use as an organic plastic material due to its outstanding mechanical properties as well as high thermal deformation characteristics. A new composition of silica aerogel nanoparticles extracted from rice waste with PBS is proposed for use as a dielectric (εr = 4.5) substrate for microwave applications. A microstrip patch antenna was fabricated on the proposed dielectric substrate for multi-resonant ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The performance characteristics of the proposed biomaterial-based antenna were investigated in a far-field measurement environment. The results indicate that the proposed biocompatible material-based antenna covered a bandwidth of 9.4 (2.3-11.7) GHz with stop bands from 5.5 GHz to 5.8 GHz and 7.0 GHz to 8.3 GHz. Peak gains of 9.82 dBi, 7.59 dBi, 8.0 dBi and 7.68 dBi were measured at resonant frequencies of 2.7 GHz, 4.6 GHz, 6.3 GHz and 9.5 GHz, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
  20. Omar M. Isa
    Medical Health Reviews, 2009;2009(2):47-58.
    The consequence of postoperative infections associated with orthopaedic or biomaterial-associated implants is devastating to both the patients and the surgeons. Bacterial microcolonies adhere to the surface of implants, forming biofilms and then detaching part of itself into free-floating planktonic forms may be the cause of recurrent and persistent infections. These bacteria are very resistant towards antibiotics and require a higher drug concentration than usual in order to eradicate them. Quorem-sensing is regarded as one mechanism of communication or integration between these microorganisms in the biofilm and may even be in the transfer of resistant genes. Disruption of this pathway is regarded as one method of inhibiting its growth and formation. Implant design, technique and stability of fixation as well as the surface characteristics, the material and its biocompatibility may also influence bacterial adhesion. It has been suggested that multi-prong strategies such as prevention and disruption of biofilm formation, parenteral antibiotics, use of antibiotic-impregnated construction materials and altering the intrinsic properties of the implant surface may help to eradicate this menace.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biocompatible Materials
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