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  1. Aleng NA, Sung YY, MacRae TH, Abd Wahid ME
    PLoS One, 2015;10(8):e0135603.
    PMID: 26288319 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135603
    Mild heat stress promotes thermotolerance and protection against several different stresses in aquatic animals, consequences correlated with the accumulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) of the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, an aquatic species of commercial value, promoted the production of Hsp70 and enhanced its resistance to stresses. Initially, the LT50 and LHT for P. viridis were determined to be 42°C and 44°C, respectively, with no heat shock induced death of mussels at 40°C or less. Immunoprobing of western blots revealed augmentation of constitutive (PvHsp70-1) and inducible (PvHsp70-2) Hsp70 in tissue from adductor muscle, foot, gill and mantel of P. viridis exposed to 38°C for 30 min followed by 6 h recovery, NLHS conditions for this organism. Characterization by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that PvHsp70-1 and PvHsp70-2 respectively corresponded most closely to Hsp70 from P. viridis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. Priming of adult mussels with NLHS promoted thermotolerance and increased resistance to V. alginolyticus. The induction of Hsp70 in parallel with enhanced thermotolerance and improved protection against V. alginolyticus, suggests Hsp70 functions in P. viridis as a molecular chaperone and as a stimulator of the immune system.
  2. Wan Afifudeen CL, Aziz A, Wong LL, Takahashi K, Toda T, Abd Wahid ME, et al.
    Phytochemistry, 2021 Dec;192:112936.
    PMID: 34509143 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112936
    The non-model microalga Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 is a potential species for biodiesel production. However, low biomass productivity hinders it from passing the life cycle assessment for biodiesel production. Therefore, the current study was aimed at uncovering the differences in the transcriptome profiles of the microalgae at early exponential and early stationary growth phases and dissecting the roles of specific differential expressed genes (DEGs) involved in cell division during M. gracile cultivation. The transcriptome analysis revealed that the photosynthetic integral membrane protein genes such as photosynthetic antenna protein were severely down-regulated during the stationary growth phase. In addition, the signaling pathways involving transcription, glyoxylate metabolism and carbon metabolism were also down-regulated during stationary growth phase. Current findings suggested that the coordination between photosynthetic integral membrane protein genes, signaling through transcription and carbon metabolism classified as prominent strategies during exponential growth stage. These findings can be applied in genetic improvement of M. gracile for biodiesel application.
  3. Ab Rahman NS, Abd Majid FA, Abd Wahid ME, Zainudin AN, Zainol SN, Ismail HF, et al.
    Drug Metab Lett, 2018;12(1):62-67.
    PMID: 29542427 DOI: 10.2174/1872312812666180314112457
    BACKGROUND: SynacinnTM contains five standardized herbal extracts of Orthosiphon Stamineus (OS), Syzygium polyanthum (SZ), Curcuma xantorrizza (CX), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) and is standardized against phytochemical markers of rosmarinic acid, gallic acid, curcumin, catechin and andrographolide respectively. This herbal medicine has been used as health supplement for diabetes. SynacinnTM is recommended to be consumed as supplement to the diabetic drugs. However, herb-drug interaction of SynacinnTM polyherbal with present drugs is unknown.

    METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the effect of SynacinnTM and its individual biomarkers on drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam), CYP3A4 (Testosteron)), to assess its herb-drug interaction potential through cytochrome P450 inhibition assay. This study was conducted using liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) using probe substrates using human liver microsomes against CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron).

    RESULTS: Result showed that SynacinnTM at maximum concentration (5000 µg/ml) 100% inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (Midazolam) and CYP3A4 (Testosteron). IC50 values determined were 0.23, 0.60, 0.47, 0.78, 1.23, 0.99, 1.01, and 0.91 mg/ml for CYP 1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4 (midazolam) and 3A4 (testosterone), respectively. Meanwhile, all individual biomarkers showed no, less or moderate inhibitory effect towards all the tested CYP450 except for curcumin that showed inhibition of CYP2C8 (91%), CYP2C9 (81%) and CYP2C19 (72%) at 10µM.

    CONCLUSION: Curcumin was found to be an active constituent that might contribute to the inhibition of SynacinnTM against CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. It can be suggested that SynacinnTM can be consumed separately from a drug known to be metabolized by all tested CYP450 enzymes.

  4. Anirudhan A, Okomoda VT, Mimi Iryani MT, Andriani Y, Abd Wahid ME, Tan MP, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2021 Feb;109:97-105.
    PMID: 33352338 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.12.011
    Plants and herbal extracts are indispensable for controlling the spread of disease-causing bacteria, including those that infect aquatic organisms used in aquaculture. The use of plant or herbal extract is expected to be safe for aquatic animals and less harmful to the environment, as opposed to conventional therapeutic alternatives such as antibiotics that promote the occurrence of potential antibiotic-resistant bacteria when used improperly. The efficacy of Pandanus tectorius fruit extract in the regulation of Hsp70 expression, pro-phenoloxidase (ProPO), peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and transglutaminase, all immune peptides essential for Vibrio tolerance in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was investigated in this study, which included the determination of the safety levels of the extract. Tolerance of shrimp against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a pathogenic bacteria that causes Acute Hepatopancreas Necrosis Disease (AHPND), was assessed on the basis of median lethal dose challenge survival (LD50 = 106 cells/ml). Mortality was not observed 24 h after exposure of 0.5-6 g/L of the fruit extract, indicating that P. tectorius was not toxic to shrimp at these concentrations. A 24-h incubation of 2-6 g/L of the fruit extract increased shrimp tolerance to V. parahaemolyticus, with survival doubled when the maximum dose tested in this study was used. Concomitant with a rise in survival was the increase in immune-related proteins, with Hsp70, ProPO, peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and transglutaminase increased 10, 11, 11, 0.4, 8 and 13-fold respectively. Histological examination of the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of Vibrio-infected shrimp primed with P. tectorius extract revealed reduced signs of histopathological degeneration, possibly due to the accumulation of Hsp70, a molecular chaperone crucial to cellular protein folding, tissue repair and immune response of living organisms, including Penaeid shrimp.
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