Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Abdul Ghani R, Norazmi MK, Norlaila M
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):254-7.
    PMID: 16898326 MyJurnal
    Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-secreting tumour typically arising within the adrenal medulla. It may occur sporadically or be associated as part of a tumour syndrome including Von Hippel Lindau (VHL), Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) 2 and Neurofibromatosis Type 1. VHL is associated with multi-organ involvement of benign and malignant tumours characterized by the presence of retinal angiomas, hemangioblastomas of the cerebellum and spinal cord, renal cell carcinomas, pheochromocytomas and other cystic lesions in the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. It is a rare disorder with prevalence estimated at 2-3 per 100,000. This case report describes a 37 years old Chinese gentleman who presented to our institution for further management of bilateral pheochromocytoma and retinal angioblastoma with problems of duodenal ulcer and anaemia. There was no family history of similar problems. With these features the criteria for the diagnosis of von Hippel Lindau disease was established.
  2. Ibrahim M, Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Abdul Ghani R
    J Nutr Metab, 2018;2018:8406193.
    PMID: 30524759 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8406193
    Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading and the most critical type of chronic disease. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CVD. Inflammation has been progressively acknowledged as a vital and central player in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit of the island of Borneo. It was obtained from Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia. In our previous studies, B. angulata did not only increase antioxidant enzyme activities, but also slowed the lipid peroxidation process in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. It was hypothesized that B. angulata fruit would exert an anti-inflammatory effect. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating and comparing the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses on 11 serum inflammatory biomarkers of atherosclerosis.

    Methods: Thirty-five male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into seven groups (n=5). Group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only, group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.0 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, group N was fed standard pellet only, group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.5 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice, and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.0 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice for 12 weeks.

    Results: The administration of the various juices reduced the concentrations of induced serum inflammatory biomarkers.

    Conclusion: This protective effect of B. angulata fruit against cardiovascular risk might be due to its polyphenol content.

  3. Abdul Ghani R, Mohamed Shah FZ, Hanafiah M, Abdul Aziz M
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Feb 01;12(2).
    PMID: 30709882 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-225687
    A 30-year-old ex-smoker with a background history of childhood asthma presented with worsening shortness of breath despite receiving high doses of oral corticosteroid for pemphigus vulgaris which was diagnosed 5 years earlier. A high-resolution CT examination of the thorax reported non-specific bronchiectatic changes and revealed an incidental suprarenal mass. A subsequent CT scan confirmed a large adrenal mass with areas of necrosis and calcification. Serum renin and aldosterone, urinary catecholamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were within normal limits. Surgical intervention was delayed due to difficulty in optimising preoperative respiratory functions. He finally underwent a midline laparotomy for removal of the tumour. Histopathological examinations revealed extrapulmonary inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour arising from the periadrenal soft-tissue, with presence of normal adrenal gland. He showed immediate improvements of his asthmatic symptoms and pemphigus vulgaris following the surgery. His oral steroid was rapidly reduced and he achieved complete remission 2 months later.
  4. Abdul Ghani R, Zainudin S, Kamaruddin NA, Kong NC
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Jan;50(1):e32-4.
    PMID: 19224067
    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis is a well-recognised and important reversible cause of acute renal failure. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-gamma agonists, such as rosiglitazone, have been proven to be safe in chronic kidney disease patients. We describe a 65-year-old man with long-standing diabetes mellitus and hypertension, presenting with a five-day history of fluid overload and uraemic symptoms. There was no ingestion of analgesics, alternative medicine and other nephrotoxic drugs, the only new prescription being rosiglitazone, which was commenced during his last clinic follow-up two weeks prior to presentation. He required haemodialysis with minimal improvement in renal profile, despite cessation of the offending drug. Renal biopsy revealed findings consistent with acute interstitial nephritis. An episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with bleeding duodenal ulcer limited the use of steroids. He was treated with a course of mycophenolate mofetil which showed good gradual response and he remained stable with residual renal impairment.
  5. Alareqi LMQ, Mahdy MAK, Lau YL, Fong MY, Abdul-Ghani R, Mahmud R
    Acta Trop, 2016 Oct;162:174-179.
    PMID: 27343362 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.06.016
    Since 2005, artesunate (AS) plus sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) combination has been adopted as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Yemen in response to the high level of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine (CQ). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the frequency distribution of molecular markers associated with resistance to CQ and AS plus SP combination among P. falciparum isolates from a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate, Yemen. Fifty P. falciparum isolates were collected during a cross-sectional study in Mawza district, Taiz, in the period from October 2013 to April 2014. The isolates were investigated for drug resistance-associated molecular markers in five genes, including P. falciparum CQ resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) 86Y as markers of resistance to CQ, mutations in the Kelch 13 (K13) propeller domain for resistance to AS, and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes for resistance to SP. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify target genes in DNA extracts of the isolates followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism for detecting 76T and 86Y mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1, respectively, and by DNA sequencing for detecting mutations in K13, pfdhfr and pfdhps. All the investigated isolates from Mawza district were harboring the pfcrt 76T mutant and the pfmdr1 N86 wild-type alleles. The pfdhfr 51I/108N double mutant allele was found in 2.2% (1/45) of the isolates; however, no mutations were detected at codons 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613 of pfdhps. All P. falciparum isolates that were successfully sequenced (n=47) showed the K13 Y493, R539, I543 and C580 wild-type alleles. In conclusion, the pfcrt 76T mutant allele is fixed in the study area about six years after the official withdrawal of CQ, possibly indicating its over-the-counter availability and continued use as a self-medication in the study area. However, the almost predominant wild-type alleles of the genes associated with resistance to AS and SP among P. falciparum isolates in the present study indicates the sustained efficacy of the currently adopted first-line treatment of AS plus SP in the study area.
  6. Wan Muhamad Hatta SF, Hamdan MF, Md Ali SA, Abdul Ghani R
    BMJ Case Rep, 2016 Sep 09;2016.
    PMID: 27613264 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2016-216395
    Idiopathic granulomatous hypophysitis (GH) is an uncommon inflammatory disease of the pituitary with impairment of pituitary gland function due to infiltration by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with worsening of headaches for 1 month and blurring of vision over 5 days. An MRI revealed a homogeneous supra-sellar mass evoking a pituitary tumour with bulky pituitary stalk extending into the left and right cavernous sinuses. Hormonal investigations showed anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies; meanwhile histopathological examination revealed an aspect of hypophysitis. Clinical and radiological remission occurred immediately postglucocorticoid therapy with the addition of a steroid-sparing agent later in view of recurrence of symptoms on glucocorticoid dose reduction. GH has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications, as clinical and radiological features ameliorate via medical treatment. With further understanding and recognition of the disease, we hope to highlight a case of GH, in which signs and symptoms improved after initiation of corticosteroids.
  7. Hasbullah FY, Mohd Yusof BN, Abdul Ghani R, Mat Daud Z', Appannah G, Abas F, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Dec 14;19(24).
    PMID: 36554678 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192416797
    While it is known that women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM) have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), evidence of lifestyle practices from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is still scarce. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM. This cross-sectional study involved 157 women post-GDM (mean age 34.8 ± 5.6 years) sampled from Selangor, Malaysia. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics and obstetric history. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. MetS was diagnosed according to the 2009 Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 22.3%. Western dietary pattern consumption was correlated with MetS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and triglyceride levels. Independent factors associated with MetS were lower education level (odds ratio, OR 4.017, p = 0.007), pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.192, p = 0.002), and Caesarean delivery (OR 3.798, p = 0.009). The study identified the maternal and dietary factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM in Malaysia. Community-based interventions that include dietary modification are warranted to prevent MetS and its complications, thus helping to reduce the overall disease burden.
  8. Shyam S, Arshad F, Abdul Ghani R, Wahab NA, Safii NS, Nisak MY, et al.
    Nutr J, 2013;12:68.
    PMID: 23705645 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-68
    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and weight management is recommended to reduce the risk. Conventional dietary recommendations (energy-restricted, low fat) have limited success in women with previous GDM. The effect of lowering Glycaemic Index (GI) in managing glycaemic variables and body weight in women post-GDM is unknown.

    To evaluate the effects of conventional dietary recommendations administered with and without additional low-GI education, in the management of glucose tolerance and body weight in Asian women with previous GDM.

    Seventy seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM, between 20- 40y were randomised into Conventional healthy dietary recommendation (CHDR) and low GI (LGI) groups. CHDR received conventional dietary recommendations only (energy restricted, low in fat and refined sugars, high-fibre). LGI group received advice on lowering GI in addition. Fasting and 2-h post-load blood glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HPP) were measured at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Anthropometry and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, three and six months after intervention. The study is registered at the Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR) with Research ID: 5183.

    After 6 months, significant reductions in body weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were observed only in LGI group (P<0.05). Mean BMI changes were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: -0.6 vs. 0 kg/m2, P= 0.03). More subjects achieved weight loss ≥5% in LGI compared to CHDR group (33% vs. 8%, P=0.01). Changes in 2HPP were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: median (IQR): -0.2(2.8) vs. +0.8 (2.0) mmol/L, P=0.025). Subjects with baseline fasting insulin≥2 μIU/ml had greater 2HPP reductions in LGI group compared to those in the CHDR group (-1.9±0.42 vs. +1.31±1.4 mmol/L, P<0.001). After 6 months, LGI group diets showed significantly lower GI (57±5 vs. 64±6, P<0.001), GL (122±33 vs. 142±35, P=0.04) and higher fibre content (17±4 vs.13±4 g, P<0.001). Caloric intakes were comparable between groups.

    In women post-GDM, lowering GI of healthy diets resulted in significant improvements in glucose tolerance and body weight reduction as compared to conventional low-fat diets with similar energy prescription.
  9. Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Abdul-Ghani R, Saif-Ali R, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Eryani SM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0151265.
    PMID: 26966902 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151265
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a debilitating, often fatal disease caused by Leishmania donovani complex; however, it is a neglected tropical disease. L. donovani complex comprises two closely related species, L. donovani that is mostly anthroponotic and L. infantum that is zoonotic. Differentiation between these two species is critical due to the differences in their epidemiology and pathology. However, they cannot be differentiated morphologically, and their speciation using isoenzyme-based methods poses a difficult task and may be unreliable. Molecular characterization is now the most reliable method to differentiate between them and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. The present study aims to characterize Leishmania species isolated from bone marrows of Yemeni pediatric patients using sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene. Out of 41 isolates from Giemsa-stained bone marrow smears, 25 isolates were successfully amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced in both directions. Phylogenetic analysis using neighbor joining method placed all study isolates in one cluster with L. donovani complex (99% bootstrap). The analysis of ITS1 for microsatellite repeat numbers identified L. infantum in 11 isolates and L. donovani in 14 isolates. These data suggest the possibility of both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission of VL-causing Leishmania species in Yemen. Exploring the possible animal reservoir hosts is therefore needed for effective control to be achieved.
  10. Alareqi LM, Mahdy MA, Lau YL, Fong MY, Abdul-Ghani R, Ali AA, et al.
    Malar J, 2016 Jan 28;15:49.
    PMID: 26821911 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1103-2
    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method.
  11. Mohamed Shah FZ, Mohamad AF, Zainordin NA, Eddy Warman NA, Wan Muhamad Hatta SF, Abdul Ghani R
    Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2021 Apr;64:102240.
    PMID: 33868680 DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102240
    Introduction: Insulinoma is a functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor primarily leading due to hypoglycemia due to hypersecretion of insulin. This case illustrates the real challenges faced in the detection of an occult insulinoma, which resulted in a protracted course of the disease.

    Case presentation: A 33-year-old female presented with recurrent hypoglycemia. Endogenous hyperinsulinemia was confirmed by a prolonged fast, however serial imaging was negative. Incidental finding of an ovarian mass gave rise to the suspicion of an insulin-producing ovarian tumor. Subsequent multimodality pancreatic imaging remained negative, requiring more invasive investigations. The tumor was localized by specialized arteriography using calcium stimulation to support the diagnosis of an insulinoma. However, repeated negative imaging led to further delays in definitive management, with worsening hypoglycemia. The surgery was finally performed three years after the initial presentation with successful removal of the tumor using intra-operative ultrasound.

    Clinical discussion: It is important to emphasize that preoperative radiological imaging is useful to localize pancreatic lesions. However, most insulinomas could only be detected intraoperatively. The absence of suggestive radiological evidence should not deter surgeons from proceeding with definitive surgical intervention.

    Conclusion: The case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of a complicated case.

  12. Mahdy MA, Alareqi LM, Abdul-Ghani R, Al-Eryani SM, Al-Mikhlafy AA, Al-Mekhlafi AM, et al.
    Infect Dis Poverty, 2017 Feb 13;6(1):26.
    PMID: 28190399 DOI: 10.1186/s40249-017-0243-0
    BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic coccidian parasite causing morbidity and mortality. In Yemen, T. gondii infection has been reported among pregnant women seeking healthcare in the main cities. However, no data are available on the prevalence of T. gondii infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of the country. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and identify its risk factors among pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz governorate, Yemen.

    METHODS: A total of 359 pregnant women living in the rural communities of Taiz governorate were enrolled in this study by house-to-house visits. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire, and blood samples were collected and tested for the detection of anti- T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of T. gondii infection among pregnant women in this study was 46.2% (166/359). Bivariate analysis identified the age of  ≥ 30 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.65, P = 0.019) and unimproved water sources (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.10-4.55, P = 0.023) as factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women. The multivariable analysis, however, identified unimproved water sources as an independent risk factor (adjusted OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.16-5.0, P = 0.018) associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women in the rural communities of Taiz, Yemen are at high risk of contracting T. gondii infection. Unimproved water sources (wells, water streams and water tanks) are significantly associated with T. gondii infection and should be considered in prevention and control strategies, especially among pregnant women.

  13. Zainordin NA, Hatta SFWM, Mohamed Shah FZ, Rahman TA, Ismail N, Ismail Z, et al.
    J Endocr Soc, 2020 Jan 01;4(1):bvz017.
    PMID: 31993550 DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvz017
    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2-I) dapagliflozin on endothelial function in patients with high-risk type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    Methods: This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of patients with T2DM with underlying ischemic heart disease who were receiving metformin and insulin therapy (n = 81). After 12-weeks of additional therapy with either dapagliflozin (n = 40) or placebo (n = 41), systemic endothelial function was evaluated by change in flow-mediated dilation (ΔFMD), change in nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (ΔNMD) and surrogate markers including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]). Glycemic and lipid profiles were also measured.

    Results: The dapagliflozin group demonstrated significant reductions of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) compared to the placebo group (ΔHbA1c -0.83 ± 1.47% vs -0.16 ± 1.25%, P = 0.042 and ΔFBG vs -0.73 ± 4.55 mmol/L vs -1.90 ± 4.40 mmol/L, P = 0.015, respectively). The placebo group showed worsening of ΔFMD while the dapagliflozin group maintained similar measurements pre- and posttherapy (P = not significant). There was a reduction in ICAM-1 levels in the dapagliflozin group (-83.9 ± 205.9 ng/mL, P < 0.02), which remained unchanged in the placebo group (-11.0 ± 169.1 ng/mL, P = 0.699). Univariate correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between HbA1c and ΔFMD within the active group.

    Conclusion: A 12-week therapy with dapagliflozin, in addition to insulin and metformin therapies, in high-risk patients resulted in significant reductions in HbA1c, FBG, and surrogate markers of the endothelial function. Although the dapagliflozin group demonstrated a significant association between reduction in HbA1c and improvement in FMD, there was no significant difference in FMD between the 2 groups.

  14. Sukahri S, Mohamed Shah FZ, Ismail AI, Koshy M, Johari B, Mohd Razali M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(6):e0253298.
    PMID: 34191823 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0253298
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), each associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to determine the relationships between severity of OSA, degree of steatosis in NAFLD and cardiovascular risk via CIMT and atherosclerosis markers ie intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) an Lipoprotein-a (Lp(a)) in a group of patients with OSA.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, single center study. A total of 110 subjects between 18 to 65 years of age and diagnosed with OSA following sleep study examinations were recruited. Exclusion criteria included seropositive Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C, and significant alcohol intake.

    RESULT: The prevalence of NAFLD was 81.8%. The mean CIMT (0.08±0.03 vs 0.06±0.01 cm, p = 0.001), ICAM-1 (334.53±72.86 vs 265.46±102.92 ng/mL, p = 0.001) and Lp(a) (85.41±52.56 vs 23.55±23.66 nmol/L, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the NAFLD group compared to the non-NAFLD group. Comparisons between the different groups showed significantly increasing levels of CIMT, ICAM-1 and Lp(a), lowest within the non-NAFLD, followed by the NAFLD 1 and NAFLD 2+3 groups. There was a significant positive correlation between degree of steatosis and the severity of OSA (r = 0.453, p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of >30 were 52.77 (CI 6.34, 439.14) times more likely to have NAFLD compared to those with mild AHI (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of NAFLD is alarmingly high in this group of OSA patients. The degree of steatosis in patients with NAFLD was significantly correlated with severity of OSA, CIMT measurements, ICAM-1 and Lp(a). Our findings underscore screening for NAFLD in patients with OSA to ensure prompt risk stratification and management.

  15. Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Ibrahim M, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MS, Abdul Ghani R, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1435-44.
    PMID: 26091909 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0961-7
    PURPOSE: The consequence of the increased demand due to the population expansion has put tremendous pressure on the natural supply of fruits. Hence, there is an unprecedented growing interest in the exploration of the potentials of underutilized fruits as alternatives to the commercially available fruits. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit widely distributed in Borneo Island of Malaysia. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of B. angulata whole fruit (WF), skin (SK) and pulp (PL) juices on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant enzymes in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet.

    METHODS: Thirty-six male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to six groups. Rabbits were fed either a standard pellet (group NC) or a high-cholesterol diet (groups HC, PC, WF, SK and PL). Groups WF, SK and PL were also given 1 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF, SK and PL juices, respectively.

    RESULTS: Baccaurea angulata had high antioxidant activities. The administration of the various juices significantly reduced (p 

  16. Ibrahim M, Mikail MA, Ahmed IA, Hazali N, Abdul Rasad MSB, Abdul Ghani R, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2018 Aug;57(5):1817-1828.
    PMID: 28516253 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-017-1466-3
    PURPOSE: Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet.

    METHODS: Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice.

    RESULTS: The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent.

    CONCLUSION: Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  17. Alyousefi TA, Abdul-Ghani R, Mahdy MA, Al-Eryani SM, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Raja YA, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2016 Oct 7;16(1):543.
    PMID: 27717333
    Yemen has witnessed several dengue fever outbreaks coincident with the social unrest and war in the country. The aim of the present study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of at-risk urban populations residing in Taiz, southwest of Yemen. In addition, factors possibly associated with poor preventive practices were investigated.
  18. Zainordin NA, Eddy Warman NA, Mohamad AF, Abu Yazid FA, Ismail NH, Chen XW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0258507.
    PMID: 34644368 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258507
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the effects of low carbohydrate diets on renal outcomes particularly in patients with underlying diabetic kidney disease. Therefore, this study determined the safety and effects of very low carbohydrate (VLCBD) in addition to low protein diet (LPD) on renal outcomes, anthropometric, metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients with T2DM and underlying mild to moderate kidney disease (DKD).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, single-center, randomized, controlled, clinical trial in patients with T2DM and DKD, comparing 12-weeks of low carbohydrate diet (<20g daily intake) versus standard low protein (0.8g/kg/day) and low salt diet. Patients in the VLCBD group underwent 2-weekly monitoring including their 3-day food diaries. In addition, Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed to estimate body fat percentages.

    RESULTS: The study population (n = 30) had a median age of 57 years old and a BMI of 30.68kg/m2. Both groups showed similar total calorie intake, i.e. 739.33 (IQR288.48) vs 789.92 (IQR522.4) kcal, by the end of the study. The VLCBD group showed significantly lower daily carbohydrate intake 27 (IQR25) g vs 89.33 (IQR77.4) g, p<0.001, significantly higher protein intake per day 44.08 (IQR21.98) g vs 29.63 (IQR16.35) g, p<0.05 and no difference in in daily fat intake. Both groups showed no worsening of serum creatinine at study end, with consistent declines in HbA1c (1.3(1.1) vs 0.7(1.25) %) and fasting blood glucose (1.5(3.37) vs 1.3(5.7) mmol/L). The VLCBD group showed significant reductions in total daily insulin dose (39(22) vs 0 IU, p<0.001), increased LDL-C and HDL-C, decline in IL-6 levels; with contrasting results in the control group. This was associated with significant weight reduction (-4.0(3.9) vs 0.2(4.2) kg, p = <0.001) and improvements in body fat percentages. WC was significantly reduced in the VLCBD group, even after adjustments to age, HbA1c, weight and creatinine changes. Both dietary interventions were well received with no reported adverse events.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that dietary intervention of very low carbohydrate diet in patients with underlying diabetic kidney disease was safe and associated with significant improvements in glycemic control, anthropometric measurements including weight, abdominal adiposity and IL-6. Renal outcomes remained unchanged. These findings would strengthen the importance of this dietary intervention as part of the management of patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  19. Abdul-Razak S, Rahmat R, Mohd Kasim A, Rahman TA, Muid S, Nasir NM, et al.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2017 Oct 16;17(1):264.
    PMID: 29037163 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-017-0694-z
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with a high risk of developing premature coronary artery disease that should be diagnosed as early as possible. Several clinical diagnostic criteria for FH are available, with the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) being widely used. Information regarding diagnostic performances of the other criteria against the DLCC is scarce. We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of the Simon-Broom (SB) Register criteria, the US Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths (US MEDPED) and the Japanese FH Management Criteria (JFHMC) compared to the DLCC.

    METHODS: Seven hundered fifty five individuals from specialist clinics and community health screenings with LDL-c level ≥ 4.0 mmol/L were selected and diagnosed as FH using the DLCC, the SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC. The sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, positive and negative predictive values of individuals screened with the SB register criteria, US MEDPED and JFHMC were assessed against the DLCC.

    RESULTS: We found the SB register criteria identified more individuals with FH compared to the US MEDPED and the JFHMC (212 vs. 105 vs. 195; p 

  20. da Silva CFA, Virgüez E, Eker S, Zdenek CN, Bergh C, Gerarduzzi C, et al.
    Science, 2023 Apr 07;380(6640):30-32.
    PMID: 37023192 DOI: 10.1126/science.adh8182
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links