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  1. Vigneswari S, Murugaiyah V, Kaur G, Abdul Khalil HPS, Amirul AA
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Sep 01;66:147-155.
    PMID: 27207048 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.102
    The main focus of this study is the incorporation of collagen peptides to fabricate P(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] nano-fiber construct to further enhance surface wettability and support cell growth while harbouring desired properties for biodegradable wound dressing. Simultaneous electrospinning of nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct was carried out using dual syringe system. The wettability of the constructs increased with the increase in 4HB molar fraction from 20mol% 4HB [53.2°], P(3HB-co-35mol%4HB)[48.9°], P(3HB-co-50mol%4HB)[44.5°] and P(3HB-co-82mol%4HB) [37.7°]. In vitro study carried out using mouse fibroblast cells (L929) grown on nanofiber P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct showed an increase in cell proliferation. In vivo study using animal model (Sprague Dawley rats) showed that nanofibrous P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct had a significant effect on wound contractions with the highest percentage of wound closure of 79%. Hence, P(3HB-co-4HB)/collagen peptides construct suitable for wound dressing have been developed using nano-fabrication technique.
  2. Islam MN, Dungani R, Abdul Khalil H, Alwani MS, Nadirah WW, Fizree HM
    Springerplus, 2013;2:592.
    PMID: 25674417 DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-592
    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and impregnated into the OPTL by vacuum-pressure method. The treated OPTL samples were exposed to natural weathering for the period of 6 and 12 months in West Java, Indonesia according to ASTM D1435-99 standard. Physical and mechanical tests were done for analyzing the changes in phenol formaldehyde-nanoparticles impregnated (PF-NPI) OPTL. FT-IR and SEM studies were done to analyze the morphological changes. The results showed that both exposure time of weathering and concentration of PF-NPI had significant impact on physical and mechanical properties of OPTL. The longer exposure of samples to weathering condition reduced the wave numbers during FT-IR test. However, all these physical, mechanical and morphological changes were significant when compared with the untreated samples or only PF impregnated samples. Thus, it can be concluded that PF-NP impregnation into OPTL improved the resistance against natural weathering and would pave the ground for improved products from OPTL for outdoor conditions.
  3. Ismail I, Arliyani, Jalil Z, Mursal, Olaiya NG, Abdullah CK, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 28;12(10).
    PMID: 32998404 DOI: 10.3390/polym12102236
    Conventionally, panel boards are produced with material flex or microparticle with P.U. or U.F. as adhesives. However, in this study, nanoparticle with epoxy resin as an adhesive was used to produce nanoboard. Coconut shell nanoparticle composite with epoxy resin as an adhesive was prepared using a compression molding technique. The coconut shell particles were originally 200 mesh size and then milled mechanically with a ball mill for the duration of 10, 20, 30, and 40 h (milling times) to produce nanoparticles. The composition ratio of the composite is 85 vol.% of coconut shell and 15 vol.% of epoxy resin. The formation of nanoparticles was observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical, physical, and microstructure properties of the composite were examined with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and universal testing machine. The results established that the properties of the composite (microstructures, mechanical, and physical) are influenced by the duration of milling of coconut shell particles. The modulus and flexural strength of the composite improved with an increase in the milling time. The density, thickness swelling, and porosity of the composite were also influenced by the milling times. The result suggested that the composite properties were influenced by the particle size of the coconut shell. The coconut shell nanoparticle composite can be used in the manufacturing of hybrid panels and board.
  4. Rizal S, Ikramullah, Gopakumar DA, Thalib S, Huzni S, Abdul Khalil HPS
    Polymers (Basel), 2018 Nov 28;10(12).
    PMID: 30961241 DOI: 10.3390/polym10121316
    Natural fiber composites have been widely used for various applications such as automotive components, aircraft components and sports equipment. Among the natural fibers Typha spp have gained considerable attention to replace synthetic fibers due to their unique nature. The untreated and alkali-treated fibers treated in different durations were dried under the sun for 4 h prior to the fabrication of Typha fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The chemical structure and crystallinity index of composites were examined via FT-IR and XRD respectively. The tensile, flexural and impact tests were conducted to investigate the effect of the alkali treated Typha fibers on the epoxy composite. From the microscopy analysis, it was observed that the fracture mechanism of the composite was due to the fiber and matrix debonding, fiber pull out from the matrix, and fiber damage. The tensile, flexural and impact strength of the Typha fiber reinforced epoxy composite were increased after 5% alkaline immersion compared to untreated Typha fiber composite. From these results, it can be concluded that the alkali treatment on Typha fiber could improve the interfacial compatibility between epoxy resin and Typha fiber, which resulted in the better mechanical properties and made the composite more hydrophobic. So far there is no comprehensive report about Typha fiber reinforcing epoxy composite, investigating the effect of the alkali treatment duration on the interfacial compatibility, and their effect on chemical and mechanical of Typha fiber reinforced composite, which plays a vital role to provide the overall mechanical performance to the composite.
  5. M H, Chong EWN, Jafarzadeh S, Paridah MT, Gopakumar DA, Tajarudin HA, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Jan 26;11(2).
    PMID: 30960194 DOI: 10.3390/polym11020210
    This study aimed to compare the performance of fabricated microbially induced precipitated calcium carbonate⁻ (MB⁻CaCO₃) based red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) bio-polymer film and commercial calcium carbonate⁻ (C⁻CaCO₃) based red seaweed bio-film with the conventional biodegradable mulch film. To the best of our knowledge, there has been limited research on the application of commercial CaCO₃ (C⁻CaCO₃) and microbially induced CaCO₃ (MB⁻CaCO₃) as fillers for the preparation of films from seaweed bio-polymer and comparison with biodegradable commercial plasticulture packaging. The results revealed that the mechanical, contact angle, and biodegradability properties of the polymer composite films incorporated with C⁻CaCO₃ and MB⁻CaCO₃ fillers were comparable or even superior than the conventional biodegradable mulch film. The seaweed polymer film incorporated with MB⁻CaCO₃ showed the highest contact angle of 100.94°, whereas conventional biodegradable mulch film showed a contact angle of 90.25°. The enhanced contact angle of MB⁻CaCO₃ resulted in high barrier properties, which is highly desired in the current scenario for plasticulture packaging application. The water vapor permeability of MB⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed films was low (2.05 ± 1.06 g·m/m²·s·Pa) when compared to conventional mulch film (2.68 ± 0.35 g·m/m²·s·Pa), which makes the fabricated film an ideal candidate for plasticulture application. The highest tensile strength (TS) was achieved by seaweed-based film filled with commercial CaCO₃ (84.92% higher than conventional mulch film). SEM images of the fractured surfaces of the fabricated films revealed the strong interaction between seaweed and fillers. Furthermore, composite films incorporated with MB⁻CaCO₃ promote brighter film, better water barrier, hydrophobicity, and biodegradability compared to C⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed polymer film and conventional mulch film. From this demonstrated work, it can be concluded that the fabricated MB⁻CaCO₃ based seaweed biopolymer film will be a promising candidate for plasticulture and agricultural application.
  6. Olaiya NG, Surya I, Oke PK, Rizal S, Sadiku ER, Ray SS, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Oct 11;11(10).
    PMID: 31614623 DOI: 10.3390/polym11101656
    This paper presents a comparison on the effects of blending chitin and/or starch with poly(lactic acid) (PLA). Three sets of composites (PLA-chitin, PLA-starch and PLA-chitin-starch) with 92%, 94%, 96% and 98% PLA by weight were prepared. The percentage weight (wt.%) amount of the chitin and starch incorporated ranges from 2% to 8%. The mechanical, dynamic mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties were analyzed. The results from the tensile strength, yield strength, Young's modulus, and impact showed that the PLA-chitin-starch blend has the best mechanical properties compared to PLA-chitin and PLA-starch blends. The dynamic mechanical analysis result shows a better damping property for PLA-chitin than PLA-chitin-starch and PLA-starch. On the other hand, the thermal property analysis from thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) shows no significant improvement in a specific order, but the glass transition temperature of the composite increased compared to that of neat PLA. However, the degradation process was found to start with PLA-chitin for all composites, which suggests an improvement in PLA degradation. Significantly, the morphological analysis revealed a uniform mix with an obvious blend network in the three composites. Interestingly, the network was more significant in the PLA-chitin-starch blend, which may be responsible for its significantly enhanced mechanical properties compared with PLA-chitin and PLA-starch samples.
  7. Iqhrammullah M, Marlina, Hedwig R, Karnadi I, Kurniawan KH, Olaiya NG, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Apr 13;12(4).
    PMID: 32294999 DOI: 10.3390/polym12040903
    The use of polymeric material in heavy metal removal from wastewater is trending. Heavy metal removal from wastewater of the industrial process is of utmost importance in green/sustainable manufacturing. Production of absorbent materials from a natural source for industrial wastewater has been on the increase. In this research, polyurethane foam (PUF), an adsorbent used by industries to adsorb heavy metal from wastewater, was prepared from a renewable source. Castor oil-based polyurethane foam (COPUF) was produced and modified for improved adsorption performance using fillers, analyzed with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The fillers (zeolite, bentonite, and activated carbon) were added to the COPUF matrix allowing the modification on its surface morphology and charge. The materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), while their adsorption performance was studied by comparing the LIBS spectra. The bentonite-modified COPUF (B/COPUF) gave the highest value of the normalized Pb I (405.7 nm) line intensity (2.3), followed by zeolite-modified COPUF (Z/COPUF) (1.9), and activated carbon-modified COPUF (AC/COPUF) (0.2), which indicates the adsorption performance of Pb2+ on the respective materials. The heavy metal ions' adsorption on the B/COPUF dominantly resulted from the electrostatic attraction. This study demonstrated the potential use of B/COPUF in adsorption and LIBS quantitative analysis of aqueous heavy metal ions.
  8. Mohamed A, Ardyani T, Abu Bakar S, Sagisaka M, Umetsu Y, Hamon JJ, et al.
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018 Apr 15;516:34-47.
    PMID: 29360058 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2018.01.041
    HYPOTHESIS: Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be dispersed in natural rubber matrices using surfactants. The stability and properties of these composites can be optimized by the choice of surfactants employed as stabilizers. Surfactants can be designed and synthesized to have enhanced compatibility with GNPs as compared to commercially available common surfactants. Including aromatic groups in the hydrophobic chain termini improves graphene compatibility of surfactants, which is expected to increase with the number of aromatic moieties per surfactant molecule. Hence, it is of interest to study the relationship between molecular structure, dispersion stability and electrical conductivity enhancement for single-, double-, and triple-chain anionic graphene-compatible surfactants.

    EXPERIMENTS: Graphene-philic surfactants, bearing two and three chains phenylated at their chain termini, were synthesized and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. These were used to formulate and stabilize dispersion of GNPs in natural rubber latex matrices, and the properties of systems comprising the new phenyl-surfactants were compared with commercially available surfactants, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study structural properties of the materials. Electrical conductivity measurements and Zeta potential measurements were used to assess the relationships between surfactant architecture and nanocomposite properties. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study self-assembly structure of surfactants.

    FINDINGS: Of these different surfactants, the tri-chain aromatic surfactant TC3Ph3 (sodium 1,5-dioxo-1,5-bis(3-phenylpropoxy)-3-((3phenylpropoxy)carbonyl) pentane-2-sulfonate) was shown to be highly graphene-compatible (nanocomposite electrical conductivity = 2.22 × 10-5 S cm-1), demonstrating enhanced electrical conductivity over nine orders of magnitude higher than neat natural rubber-latex matrix (1.51 × 10-14 S cm-1). Varying the number of aromatic moieties in the surfactants appears to cause significant differences to the final properties of the nanocomposites.

  9. Ardyani T, Mohamed A, Abu Bakar S, Sagisaka M, Umetsu Y, Hafiz Mamat M, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Jan 15;228:115376.
    PMID: 31635739 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115376
    The effect of incorporating common dodecyl anionic and cationic surfactants such as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), dodecylethyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide and nanocellulose are described. The stabilization and electrical properties of the nanocomoposites of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and nanofibrillated kenaf cellulose (NFC) were characterized using four-point probe electrical conductivity measurements. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate dispersion morphology and the quality of RGO inside the NFC matrices. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the aggregation behavior of the aqueous surfactant systems and RGO dispersions. The cationic surfactant DTAB proved to be the best choice for stabilization of RGO in NFC, giving enhanced electrical conductivity five orders of magnitude higher than the neat NFC. The results highlight the effects of hydrophilic surfactant moieties on the structure, stability and properties of RGO/NFC composites.
  10. Nuryawan A, Abdullah CK, Hazwan CM, Olaiya NG, Yahya EB, Risnasari I, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Apr 27;12(5).
    PMID: 32349385 DOI: 10.3390/polym12051007
    Using oil palm trunk (OPT) layered with empty fruit bunch (EFB), so-called hybrid plywood enhanced with palm oil ash nanoparticles, with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin as a binder, was produced in this study. The phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins filled with different loading of oil palm ash (OPA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as glue for layers of the oil palm trunk (OPT) veneer and empty fruit bunch fibre mat. The resulting hybrid plywood produced was characterised. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the hybrid plywood panels were investigated. The results obtained showed that the presence of OPA nanoparticles significantly affected the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the plywood panels. Significant improvements in dimension from water absorption and thickness swelling experiments were obtained for the plywood panels with the highest OPA nanoparticles loading in PF resin. The mechanical properties indicated that plywood composites showed improvement in flexural, shear, and impact properties until a certain loading of OPA nanoparticles in PF resin. Fracture surface morphology also showed the effectiveness of OPA nanoparticles in the reduction of layer breakage due to force and stress distribution. The thermal stability performance showed that PF filled OPA nanoparticles contributed to the thermal stability of the plywood panels. Therefore, the results obtained in this study showed that OPA nanoparticles certainly improved the characteristic of the hybrid plywood.
  11. Abdul Khalil HPS, Adnan AS, Yahya EB, Olaiya NG, Safrida S, Hossain MS, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Aug 06;12(8).
    PMID: 32781602 DOI: 10.3390/polym12081759
    Cellulose nanomaterials from plant fibre provide various potential applications (i.e., biomedical, automotive, packaging, etc.). The biomedical application of nanocellulose isolated from plant fibre, which is a carbohydrate-based source, is very viable in the 21st century. The essential characteristics of plant fibre-based nanocellulose, which include its molecular, tensile and mechanical properties, as well as its biodegradability potential, have been widely explored for functional materials in the preparation of aerogel. Plant cellulose nano fibre (CNF)-based aerogels are novel functional materials that have attracted remarkable interest. In recent years, CNF aerogel has been extensively used in the biomedical field due to its biocompatibility, renewability and biodegradability. The effective surface area of CNFs influences broad applications in biological and medical studies such as sustainable antibiotic delivery for wound healing, the preparation of scaffolds for tissue cultures, the development of drug delivery systems, biosensing and an antimicrobial film for wound healing. Many researchers have a growing interest in using CNF-based aerogels in the mentioned applications. The application of cellulose-based materials is widely reported in the literature. However, only a few studies discuss the potential of cellulose nanofibre aerogel in detail. The potential applications of CNF aerogel include composites, organic-inorganic hybrids, gels, foams, aerogels/xerogels, coatings and nano-paper, bioactive and wound dressing materials and bioconversion. The potential applications of CNF have rarely been a subject of extensive review. Thus, extensive studies to develop materials with cheaper and better properties, high prospects and effectiveness for many applications are the focus of the present work. The present review focuses on the evolution of aerogels via characterisation studies on the isolation of CNF-based aerogels. The study concludes with a description of the potential and challenges of developing sustainable materials for biomedical applications.
  12. Jamaluddin NA, Mohamed A, Bakar SA, Ardyani T, Sagisaka M, Saito H, et al.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2021 Sep 15;23(35):19313-19328.
    PMID: 34524298 DOI: 10.1039/d1cp02206g
    Previously, surfactant-assisted exfoliated graphene oxide (sEGO) formed with the triple-chain surfactant TC14 (sodium 1,4-bis(neopentyloxy)-3-(neopentylcarbonyl)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) was applied in wastewater treatment. The extent of dye-removal and the adsorption capacity of the sEGO formed with this triple-chain surfactant outperformed those of two other systems, namely, the di-chain version of TC14 (AOT14; sodium 1,2-bis-(2,2-dimethyl-propoxycarbonyl)-ethanesulfonate) and the single-chain surfactant sodium n-dodecylsulfate. In the present study, to further optimise the surfactant chemical structure, the sodium ion of TC14 was substituted with 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium (BMIM) generating surfactant ionic liquids (SAILs; 1-butyl-3-imidazolium 1,4-bis(neopentyloxy)-3-(neopentyloxycarbonyl)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate), hereafter denoted as BMIM-TC14. This SAIL, together with nanofibrillated kenaf cellulose (NFC), was used to electrochemically exfoliate graphite, yielding BMIM-TC14 sEGO/NFC composites. These highly hydrophobic polymer composites were then used for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to elucidate the structure of the synthesised SAILs. The morphologies of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Analysis using small-angle neutron scattering was performed to examine the aggregation behaviour of sEGO and custom-made SAILs. Zeta potential, surface tension, and dynamic light-scattering measurements were used to study the aqueous properties and colloidal stability of the suspension. Amongst the surfactants tested, BMIM-TC14 sEGO/NFC exhibited the highest MB adsorption ability, achieving 99% dye removal under optimum conditions. These results highlight the importance of modifying the hydrophilic moieties of amphiphilic compounds to improve the performance of sEGO/NFC composites as effective adsorbents for wastewater treatment.
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