This study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive and oncologic outcomes of patients diagnosed with Ovarian Germ Cell Malignancy (OGCM) who underwent fertility preserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy treated in Gynaecology Oncology Unit, Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital, Kedah, Malaysia.
Medication error is a major issue in healthcare industry and significant efforts have been taken in recent years to comprehend factors that influence errors in medication. Therefore, the present study aims to examine individual factors that contribute to medication errors as perceived by nurses. 255 registered nurses working in different Jordanian public hospitals have been chosen as samples to collect the study data from. They were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the perceived individual factors, specifically, on nursing mathematical calculation skills and training as well as knowledge on medication treatment as factors contributing to medication errors. The current study found that the nurses' mathematical calculation skills, training and their knowledge on medication treatment have significant relationship with medication error. This was proven as the study framework is able to explain 45.6% of the total variance. Consequently, it is recommended that healthcare authorities and hospitals in Jordan should focus on nursing knowledge in medication treatment and the nurses' ability to perform drug calculation in order to improve the medication system in Jordan.
Near-shore surface sediment was collected from five stations off Redang Island located on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Freeze-dried sediments were Soxhlet extracted and then fractionated using column chromatography into aliphatic and polar fractions. Determination of these fractions was carried out using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentration of total resolved aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments ranged from 157 to 308 ng/g. The distribution of aliphatic fraction showed the presence of n-alkanes ranging from nC15 to nC33 with a minor odd-to-even predominance exhibiting carbon maximum, depending on station, at nC17, nC26, nC29 or nC31. Calculation of Carbon Preference Index (CPI) for CPI(15-33) gave values ranging from 1.09 to 1.46. n-Alkanol in all sediment exhibits even-to-odd carbon predominance ranging from nC16 to nC28 and maximising at nC22. n-Fatty acids distribution ranged from nC14 to nC24 with a dominant maximum at nC16 and exhibiting high values of short chain fatty acids (≤nC20) to long chain fatty acids (>nC20) ratios. Unsaturated fatty acids, particularly nC16:1 and nC18:1 is also ubiquitous in all samples. Cholesterol is the most abundant compound amongst the sterol group ranging from 42.8 to 62.6% of the total sterols. β-Sitosterol, brassicasterol and stigmasterol, are also present but of relatively lower amount. These observations suggest that the aliphatic lipids and sterols in the study area originate, mainly, from biogenic sources of marine microbial with minor contribution from epiticular waxes of terrestrial plants.
The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (ISSRs) to assess genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Sixteen ISSR primers generated 139 amplified fragments, of which 77% had high polymorphism among these varieties. These markers were used to estimate genetic similarity among the varieties using Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The similarity matrix was used to construct a dendrogram, and a principal component plot was developed to examine genetic relationships among varieties. Similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.40 to 0.58 (with a mean of 0.5) among the five varieties. The mean value of number of observed alleles, number of effective alleles, mean Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 8.69, 1.48, 0.29, and 0.43, respectively.
An immunocompetent 5 year-old girl presented with pyrexia of unknown origin associated with headache. Initial investigations showed leukocytosis and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A Widal-Weil Felix test, blood film for malarial parasites, mycoplasma IgM antibody, cultures from blood and urine, full blood picture, Mantoux test, and chest x-ray were all negative. A lumbar puncture was done as part of a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin. Cryptococcus neoformans was seen on India ink examination and confirmed on culture. She was treated with 10 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 weeks of fluconazole. Further immunological tests did not reveal any defect in the cell-mediated immune system. C. neoformans meningitis may present with non-specific symptoms and should be considered in a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin.
Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis typically arises distally from a thrombophlebitic extension in the pelvis or the lower extremities. It may also occur from propagation of an ovarian vein thrombosis as a result of gynaecological disorders such as pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis or from pelvic surgeries. In this report, we present an interesting case of a tubo-ovarian abscess with an ectopic IVC thrombus. The approach to management in such cases is also highlighted.
This data belongs to a sample of 347 diplomatic officers from two different locations which are the National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN) in Johor and Terengganu. This data consists of the demographic characteristics of the sample and three main variables. Each variable has sub-dimension which are (1) presenteeism: ability to complete a task and avoid disturbance, (2) job demand: workload, emotional and cognitive demand, (3) job insecurity: the importance and probability of an event to take place. The data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire via paper-and-pencil mode and was analyzed using SPSS version 22. Pearson correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between avoiding disturbance (sub-dimension of presenteeism) and the probability of an event happening (sub-dimension of job insecurity) and no significant correlation between other variables. Analyses of the data can provide insights into determinants of presenteeism that may be useful for researchers in the field and policymakers that are interested in this area. It may serve as a reference to expand research and to develop interventions to facilitate productivity and well-being in the workplace.
Kemunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) from the Myrtaceae family, is native to Malaysia. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various illnesses and possesses significant antibacterial properties. In addition, it has great potential as ornamental in landscape design. Genetic variability studies are important for the rational management and conservation of genetic material. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 18 R. tomentosa populations collected from ten states of Peninsular Malaysia. The 11 primers selected generated 173 bands that ranged in size from 1.6 kb to 130 bp, which corresponded to an average of 15.73 bands per primer. Of these bands, 97.69% (169 in total) were polymorphic. High genetic diversity was documented at the species level (H(T) = 0.2705; I = 0.3973; PPB = 97.69%) but there was a low diversity at population level (H(S) = 0.0073; I = 0 .1085; PPB = 20.14%). The high level of genetic differentiation revealed by G(ST) (73%) and analysis of molecular variance (63%), together with the limited gene flow among population (N(m) = 0.1851), suggests that the populations examined are isolated. Results from an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis clearly grouped the populations into two geographic groups. This clear grouping can also be demonstrated by the significant Mantel test (r = 0.581, P = 0.001). We recommend that all the R. tomentosa populations be preserved in conservation program.
The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (SSRs) to elucidate genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of Curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Of the primers tested, 8 (of 17) SSR primers were selected for their reproducibility and high rates of polymorphism. The number of presumed alleles revealed by the SSR analysis ranged from two to six alleles, with a mean value of 3.25 alleles per locus. The values of HO and HE ranged from 0 to 0.8 (mean value of 0.2) and 0.1837 to 0.7755 (mean value of 0.5102), respectively. Eight SSR primers yielded 26 total amplified fragments and revealed high rates of polymorphism among the varieties studied. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.26 to 0.73. Dice's similarity coefficient was calculated for all pairwise comparisons and used to construct an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. Similarity coefficient values from 0.2105 to 0.6667 (with an average of 0.4386) were found among the five varieties examined. A cluster analysis of data using a UPGMA algorithm divided the five varieties/hybrids into 2 groups.
A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L(-1)) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L(-1)) after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L(-1) thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) IBA produced more numbers of roots.
The effects of eight different doses (0, 10, 20, 25, 35, 40, 60, and 100 Gy) of acute gamma irradiation on 44 (three varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia: Chiang Mai Red, Sweet Pink, Kimono Pink, and one Curcuma hybrid (Doi Tung 554) individual plants were investigated. Radiation sensitivity tests revealed that the LD50 values of the varieties were achieved at 21 Gy for Chiang Mai Red, 23 Gy for Sweet Pink, 25 Gy for Kimono Pink, and 28 Gy for Doi Tung 554. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), significant variations were observed for vegetative traits, flowering development, and rhizome characteristics among the four varieties of Curcuma alismatifolia and dose levels as well as the dose × variety interaction. In irradiated plants, the leaf length, leaf width, inflorescence length, the number of true flowers, the number of pink bracts, number of shoots, plant height, rhizome size, number of storage roots, and number of new rhizomes decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as the radiation dose increased. The cophenetic correlation coefficient (CCC) between genetic dissimilarity matrix estimated from the morphological characters and the UPGMA clustering method was r = 0.93, showing a proof fit. In terms of genetic variation among the acutely irradiated samples, the number of presumed alleles revealed by simple sequence repeats ranged from two to seven alleles with a mean value of 3.1, 4.5, and 5.3 alleles per locus for radiation doses of 0, 10, and 20 Gy, respectively. The average values of the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 2.5-3.2, 0.51-0.66, and 0.9-1.3, respectively. The constructed dendrogram grouped the entities into seven clusters. Principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering results. Consequently, it was concluded that irradiation with optimum doses of gamma rays efficiently induces mutations in Curcuma alismatifolia varieties.
Effect of losartan was assessed on systemic haemodynamic responses to angiotensin II (Ang II) and adrenergic agonists in the model of high-fructose-fed rat. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed for 8 weeks either 20% fructose solution (FFR) or tap water (C) ad libitum. FFR or C group received losartan (10mg/kg/day p.o.) for 1 week at the end of feeding period (FFR-L and L) respectively, then the vasopressor responses to Ang II, noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) and methoxamine (ME) were determined. The responses (%) to NA, PE, ME and Ang II in FFR were lower (P<0.05) than C (FFR vs. C; 22±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 9±1 vs. 13±1, 10±1 vs. 17±1) respectively. L group had blunted (P<0.05) responses to NA, PE, ME and Ang II compared to C (L vs. C; 26±2 vs. 32±2, 30±3 vs. 40±3, 7±0.7 vs. 13±1, 5±0.4 vs. 17±1) respectively. FFR-L group had aggravated (P<0.05) response to NA and ME, but blunted response to Ang II compared to FFR (FFR-L vs. FFR; 39±3 vs. 22±2, 11±1 vs. 9±1, 3±0.4 vs. 10±1) respectively. Fructose intake for 8 weeks results in smaller vasopressor response to adrenergic agonists and Ang II. Data also demonstrated an important role played by Ang II in the control of systemic haemodynamics in FFR and point to its interaction with adrenergic neurotransmission.
A 21-year-old lady diagnosed with Stage 3 ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) underwent primary cytoreductive fertility sparing surgery, followed by conventional courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and etoposide. Recurrence at cul-da-sac was noted after a short period of remission and secondary debulking performed followed by four cycles of conventional chemotherapy. The patient's disease progressed despite courses of treatments. A joint team management including a hematologist was commenced following the failure of conventional chemotherapies. Two cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with ifosfamide/cisplatin/etoposide (ICE) regimen, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) were given. With this salvage treatment, she remained in complete remission and disease-free for more than 30 months, while maintaining her reproductive function. These approaches appear to be effective as a salvage treatment in selected cases of patients with ovarian germ cell tumor, especially those who failed primary conventional chemotherapy.
Curculin, a sweet protein found in Curculigo latifolia fruit has great potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This protein interestingly has been found to have both sweet taste and taste-modifying capacities comparable with other natural sweeteners. According to our knowledge this is the first reported case on the isolation of microsatellite loci in this genus. Hence, the current development of microsatellite markers for C. latifolia will facilitate future population genetic studies and breeding programs for this valuable plant. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were developed using 3' and 5' ISSR markers. The primers were tested on 27 accessions from all states of Peninsular Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with allele size ranging from 141 to 306 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00-0.65 and 0.38-0.79, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and the Shannon's information index ranged from 0.82 to 1.57. These developed polymorphic microsatellites were used for constructing a dendrogram by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis using the Dice's similarity coefficient. Accessions association according to their geographical origin was observed. Based on characteristics of isolated microsatellites for C. latifolia accessions all genotype can be distinguished using these 11 microsatellite markers. These polymorphic markers could also be applied to studies on uniformity determination and somaclonal variation of tissue culture plantlets, varieties identification, genetic diversity, analysis of phylogenetic relationship, genetic linkage maps and quantitative trait loci in C. latifolia.
1 The present study investigated the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in rat renal resistance vessels. 2 Studies on renal haemodynamics were carried out 7 days after the last streptozotocin. Changes in renal blood flow were recorded in response to electrical stimulation of the renal nerve (RNS) and a range of adrenergic agonists; noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) and methoxamine (MTX), either in the absence or the presence of nitrendipine (Nit), 5-methylurapidil (MEU), chlorethylclonidine (CEC) or BMY 7378. 3 In non-diabetic animals, Nit, MEU and BMY 7378 significantly attenuated renal vasoconstriction induced by adrenergic agonists, while CEC showed a significant accentuation in RNS-induced responses without having a significant effect on responses to adrenergic agonists. In diabetic rats, renal vasoconstriction was also significantly reduced in Nit-, MEU- and BMY 7378-treated groups and CEC potentiated RNS-induced contractions caused a change similar to that observed in non-diabetic rats. BMY 7378 significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the PE- and MTX-induced vasoconstrictions but did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) alteration in the RNS- and NA-induced responses. 4 The results showed functional co-existence of alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors in the renal vasculature of SD rats irrespective of the presence of diabetes. A possible minor contribution of prejunctional alpha-adrenoceptor subtype has also been suggested in either experimental group, particularly possible functional involvement of alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor subtypes in non-diabetic SD rats.
This study investigated whether the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype(s) mediating the vasoconstrictor actions of the renal sympathetic nerves were altered in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Male Wistar Kyoto rats were used and half received cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) to induce renal failure and were taken for study 7 days later. The renal blood flow reductions caused by electrical renal nerve stimulation and close intra-renal administration of noradrenaline, phenylephrine and methoxamine were determined before and after amlodopine (AMP), 5-methylurapidil (MeU), chloroethylclonidine (CEC) or BMY 7378. Water intake and creatinine clearance were decreased (P<0.05) by 40-50% while fractional excretion of sodium was increased two-fold in the cisplatin treated rats. Mean arterial pressure was higher, 110+/-2 versus 102+/-3 mmHg and renal blood flow was lower, 10.7+/-0.9 versus 18.9+/-0.1 ml/min/kg in the renal failure rats (both P<0.05). AMP, MeU and BMY 7378 decreased (all P<0.05) the adrenergically induced renal vasoconstrictor responses in the renal failure groups by 30 to 50% and in normal rats by 20 to 40%. In the presence of CEC, renal nerve stimulation and noradrenaline and methoxamine induced renal vasoconstrictor responses were enhanced (all P<0.05) in the renal failure but not in the normal rats. These data showed that alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors were the major subtypes in mediating adrenergically induced renal vasoconstriction but there was no substantial shift in subtype in renal failure. The contribution of alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor subtypes either pre- or post-synaptic appeared to be raised in the renal failure rats.
The pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced renal failure is related to reduced renal blood flow due to severe tubular damage and enhanced renovascular resistance. It is also known that alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, the major subtype of alpha-adrenoceptors in renal vasculature play the pivotal role in regulating renal hemodynamics. With this background, we have hypothesized that the altered renal hemodynamics and enhanced renovascular resistance in cisplatin-induced renal failure might be caused by the altered alpha-adrenergic responsiveness with a possible involvement of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the renal vasculature. In a unique experimental approach with anesthetized rats, this study has therefore examined if there is any shift in the renovascular responsiveness to renal nerve stimulation and a series of alpha-adrenergic agonists in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure in comparison with their body weight-matched normal controls. Thirty-two male rats of both WKY (n=16) and SHR (n=16) origin with body weight 236+/-7.9 g received cisplatin (5mg/kg i.p.). The renal failure was confirmed in terms of significantly reduced renal blood flow, reduced creatinine clearance, increased fractional excretion of sodium, increased kidney index (all P<0.05) and tubular damage. After 7 days of cisplatin, the overnight fasted rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbitone, 60 mg/kg i.p.) and renal vasoconstrictor experiments were done. The changes in the vasoconstrictor responses were determined in terms of reductions in renal blood flow caused by electrical renal nerve stimulation or intrarenal administration of noradrenaline, phenylephrine and methoxamine. It was observed that in the cisplatin-treated renal failure WKY and SHR rats there were significant (all P<0.05) reductions in the renal blood flow along with significantly (P<0.05) higher renal adrenergic responsiveness as compared with their non-renal failure controls. The data showed that in the renal failure WKY and SHR rats, the altered renal hemodynamics might be caused by an augmented renal adrenergic responsiveness. The results obtained further led us to suggest that the augmented renal adrenergic responsiveness in the cisplatin-induced renal failure rats were possibly mediated by the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors.
Product reviews are the individual's opinions, judgement or belief about a certain product or service provided by certain companies. Such reviews serve as guides for these companies to plan and monitor their business ventures in terms of increasing productivity or enhancing their product/service qualities. Product reviews can also increase business profits by convincing future customers about the products which they have interest in. In the mobile application marketplace such as Google Playstore, reviews and star ratings are used as indicators of the application quality. However, among all these reviews, hereby also known as opinions, spams also exist, to disrupt the online business balance. Previous studies used the time series and neural network approach (which require a lot of computational power) to detect these opinion spams. However, the detection performance can be restricted in terms of accuracy because the approach focusses on basic, discrete and document level features only thereby, projecting little statistical relationships. Aiming to improve the detection of opinion spams in mobile application marketplace, this study proposes using statistical based features that are modelled through the supervised boosting approach such as the Extreme Gradient Boost (XGBoost) and the Generalized Boosted Regression Model (GBM) to evaluate two multilingual datasets (i.e. English and Malay language). From the evaluation done, it was found that the XGBoost is most suitable for detecting opinion spams in the English dataset while the GBM Gaussian is most suitable for the Malay dataset. The comparative analysis also indicates that the implementation of the proposed statistical based features had achieved a detection accuracy rate of 87.43 per cent on the English dataset and 86.13 per cent on the Malay dataset.