Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

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  1. Mortaza N, Abu Osman NA, Mehdikhani N
    Eur J Phys Rehabil Med, 2014 Dec;50(6):677-91.
    PMID: 24831570
    Fall is a common and a major cause of injuries. It is important to find elderlies who are prone to falls. The majority of serious falls occur during walking among the older adults. Analyzing the spatio-temporal parameters of walking is an easy way of assessment in the clinical setting, but is it capable of distinguishing a faller from a non-faller elderly? Through a systematic review of the literature, the objective of this systematic review was to identify and summarize the differences in the spatio-temporal parameters of walking in elderly fallers and non-fallers and to find out if these parameters are capable of distinguishing a faller from a non-faller. All original research articles which compared any special or temporal walking parameters in faller and non-faller elderlies were systematically searched within the Scopus and Embase databases. Effect size analysis was also done to standardize findings and compare the gait parameters of fallers and non-fallers across the selected studies. The electronic search led to 5381 articles. After title and abstract screening 30 articles were chosen; further assessment of the full texts led to 17 eligible articles for inclusion in the review. It seems that temporal measurements are more sensitive to the detection of risk of fall in elderly people. The results of the 17 selected studies showed that fallers have a tendency toward a slower walking speed and cadence, longer stride time, and double support duration. Also, fallers showed shorter stride and step length, wider step width and more variability in spatio-temporal parameters of gait. According to the effect size analysis, step length, gait speed, stride length and stance time variability were respectively more capable of differentiating faller from non-faller elderlies. However, because of the difference of methodology and number of studies which investigated each parameter, these results are prone to imprecision. Spatio-temporal analysis of level walking is not sufficient and cannot act as a reliable predictor of falls in elderly individuals.
  2. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
  3. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:810368.
    PMID: 24955419 DOI: 10.1155/2014/810368
    Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.
  4. Mohd Safee MK, Abu Osman NA
    Occup Ther Int, 2021;2021:4357473.
    PMID: 34707468 DOI: 10.1155/2021/4357473
    Muscle fatigue is a decline in muscle maximum force during contraction and can influence the fall risk among people. This study is aimed at identifying the effect of fatigue on prospective fall risk in transfemoral amputees (TFA). Fourteen subjects were involved in this study with TFA (34.7 ± 8.1 yrs, n = 7) and normal subjects (31.1 ± 7.4 yrs, n = 7). Fatigue of lower limb muscles was induced with the fatigue protocol. Subjects were tested prefatigue and postfatigue using the standardized fall risk assessment. All results were calculated and compared between pre- and postfatigue to identify fatigue's effect on both groups of subjects. The results showed that the fall risk increased significantly during pre- and postfatigue for TFA (p = 0.018), while there were no significant differences in normal subjects (p = 0.149). Meanwhile, the fall risk between TFA and normal subjects for prefatigue (p = 0.082) and postfatigue (p = 0.084) also showed no significant differences. The percentage (%) of increased fall risk for TFA was 19.2% compared to normal subjects only 16.7%. However, 61.4% increased of % fall risk in TFA after fatigue by using the baseline of the normal subject as the normalized % of fall risk. The increasing fall risks for TFA after fatigue are three times higher than the potential fall risk in normal subjects. The result indicates that they need to perform more precautions while prolonging lower limb activities. These results showed the implications of fatigue that can increase the fall risk due to muscle fatigue from repetitive and prolonged activities. Therefore, rehabilitation programs can be done very safely and precisely so that therapists can pursue fitness without aggravating existing injuries.
  5. Daneshjoo A, Abu Osman NA, Sahebozamani M, Yusof A
    PLoS One, 2015;10(11):e0143323.
    PMID: 26599336 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143323
    PURPOSE: Running at high speed and sudden change in direction or activity stresses the knee. Surprisingly, not many studies have investigated the effects of sprinting on knee's kinetics and kinematics of soccer players. Hence, this study is aimed to investigate indices of injury risk factors of jumping-landing maneuvers performed immediately after sprinting in male soccer players.

    METHODS: Twenty-three collegiate male soccer players (22.1±1.7 years) were tested in four conditions; vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump immediately after slow running (VJSR), vertical jump immediately after sprinting (VJFR) and double horizontal jump immediately after sprinting (HJFR). The kinematics and kinetics data were measured using Vicon motion analyzer (100Hz) and two Kistler force platforms (1000Hz), respectively.

    RESULTS: For knee flexion joint angle, (p = 0.014, η = 0.15) and knee valgus moment (p = 0.001, η = 0.71) differences between condition in the landing phase were found. For knee valgus joint angle, a main effect between legs in the jumping phase was found (p = 0.006, η = 0.31), which suggests bilateral deficit existed between the right and left lower limbs.

    CONCLUSION: In brief, the important findings were greater knee valgus moment and less knee flexion joint angle proceeding sprint (HJFR & VJFR) rather than no sprint condition (VJ) present an increased risk for knee injuries. These results seem to suggest that running and sudden subsequent jumping-landing activity experienced during playing soccer may negatively change the knee valgus moment. Thus, sprinting preceding a jump task may increase knee risk factors such as moment and knee flexion joint angle.

  6. El-Sayed AM, Hamzaid NA, Abu Osman NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(12):23724-41.
    PMID: 25513823 DOI: 10.3390/s141223724
    Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0-100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types.
  7. Abd Razak NA, Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H, Ali S
    Biomed Eng Online, 2014;13:134.
    PMID: 25208636 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-13-134
    Understanding of kinematics force applied at the elbow is important in many fields, including biomechanics, biomedical engineering and rehabilitation. This paper provides a comparison of a mathematical model of elbow joint using three different types of prosthetics for transhumeral user, and characterizes the forces required to overcome the passive mechanical of the prosthetics at the residual limb.
  8. Farzadi A, Solati-Hashjin M, Asadi-Eydivand M, Abu Osman NA
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e108252.
    PMID: 25233468 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108252
    Powder-based inkjet 3D printing method is one of the most attractive solid free form techniques. It involves a sequential layering process through which 3D porous scaffolds can be directly produced from computer-generated models. 3D printed products' quality are controlled by the optimal build parameters. In this study, Calcium Sulfate based powders were used for porous scaffolds fabrication. The printed scaffolds of 0.8 mm pore size, with different layer thickness and printing orientation, were subjected to the depowdering step. The effects of four layer thicknesses and printing orientations, (parallel to X, Y and Z), on the physical and mechanical properties of printed scaffolds were investigated. It was observed that the compressive strength, toughness and Young's modulus of samples with 0.1125 and 0.125 mm layer thickness were more than others. Furthermore, the results of SEM and μCT analyses showed that samples with 0.1125 mm layer thickness printed in X direction have more dimensional accuracy and significantly close to CAD software based designs with predefined pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity.
  9. Pramanik S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Cho J, Abu Osman NA
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jul 28;4:5843.
    PMID: 25068570 DOI: 10.1038/srep05843
    The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
  10. El-Sayed AM, Hamzaid NA, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:297431.
    PMID: 25110727 DOI: 10.1155/2014/297431
    Several studies have presented technological ensembles of active knee systems for transfemoral prosthesis. Other studies have examined the amputees' gait performance while wearing a specific active prosthesis. This paper combined both insights, that is, a technical examination of the components used, with an evaluation of how these improved the gait of respective users. This study aims to offer a quantitative understanding of the potential enhancement derived from strategic integration of core elements in developing an effective device. The study systematically discussed the current technology in active transfemoral prosthesis with respect to its functional walking performance amongst above-knee amputee users, to evaluate the system's efficacy in producing close-to-normal user performance. The performances of its actuator, sensory system, and control technique that are incorporated in each reported system were evaluated separately and numerical comparisons were conducted based on the percentage of amputees' gait deviation from normal gait profile points. The results identified particular components that contributed closest to normal gait parameters. However, the conclusion is limitedly extendable due to the small number of studies. Thus, more clinical validation of the active prosthetic knee technology is needed to better understand the extent of contribution of each component to the most functional development.
  11. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e94520.
    PMID: 24827560 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094520
    The suction sockets that are commonly prescribed for transtibial amputees are believed to provide a better suspension than the pin/lock systems. Nevertheless, their effect on amputees' gait performance has not yet been fully investigated. The main intention of this study was to understand the potential effects of the Seal-in (suction) and the Dermo (pin/lock) suspension systems on amputees' gait performance.
  12. Abd Razak NA, Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H, Ali S
    Biomed Eng Online, 2014;13:49.
    PMID: 24755242 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-13-49
    The design and performance of a new development prosthesis system known as biomechatronics wrist prosthesis is presented in this paper. The prosthesis system was implemented by replacing the Bowden tension cable of body powered prosthesis system using two ultrasonic sensors, two servo motors and microcontroller inside the prosthesis hand for transradial user.
  13. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2014 Sep;93(9):809-23.
    PMID: 24743451 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000094
    The purpose of this study was to find the scientific evidence pertaining to various transfemoral suspension systems to provide selection criteria for clinicians. To this end, databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect were explored. The following key words, as well as their combinations and synonyms, were used for the search: transfemoral prosthesis, prosthetic suspension, lower limb prosthesis, above-knee prosthesis, prosthetic liner, transfemoral, and prosthetic socket. The study design, research instrument, sampling method, outcome measures, and protocols of articles were reviewed. On the basis of the selection criteria, 16 articles (11 prospective studies and 5 surveys) were reviewed. The main causes of reluctance to prosthesis, aside from energy expenditure, were socket-related problems such as discomfort, perspiration, and skin problems. Osseointegration was a suspension option, yet it is rarely applied because of several drawbacks, such as extended rehabilitation process, risk for fracture, and infection along with excessive cost. In conclusion, no clinical evidence was found as a "standard" system of suspension and socket design for all transfemoral amputees. However, among various suspension systems for transfemoral amputees, the soft insert or double socket was favored by most users in terms of function and comfort.
  14. Das NS, Usman J, Choudhury D, Abu Osman NA
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e100028.
    PMID: 24927127 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100028
    Cricket has over the years gained much popularity in Asia, thus the number of cricket players has also grown in tandem. However, cricket players are not as fortunate as other athletes as they do not always have a standard cricket infrastructure to practice; therefore, the injury prevalence is expected to be high. Unfortunately, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the nature and pattern of cricket injuries prevalent to cricketers in this region. Therefore, a prospective cohort injury surveillance study was conducted during the Asian Cricket Council (ACC) Under-19 Elite Cup held in June 2013 in order to gather more data on the type of injuries sustained by cricket players. Overall, 31 injuries occurred to 28 players throughout the tournament, of which 7 injuries happened during practice sessions. The overall injury incidence rate (IIR) was 292.0 per 10,000 player hours (95% CI 176.9-407.1) and 10.4 per 10,000 balls faced and 2.6 per 1000 overs bowled delivered during batting and bowling, respectively. Injuries to the lower limb (IIR: 146; 95% CI 1.8-98.2) were the most frequent, followed by injuries to the upper limb (97.3;95% CI 30.2-164.5) and to the trunk and back (IIR: 36.5;95% CI 0.0-77.7). Sprain/strains (IIR 109.5;95% CI 38.4-180.7) to muscle/tendon and joint/ligament were the most commonly reported nature of injury. This is the first study investigating injury incidence among the players of the ACC. It provides an overview of injuries sustained by elite players' under-19 years of age from 10 Asian countries. The overall IIR is similar to earlier studies conducted in well-established cricket playing nations.
  15. Arifin N, Abu Osman NA, Ali S, Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Eng Online, 2014;13(1):23.
    PMID: 24597518 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-13-23
    Achieving independent upright posture has known to be one of the main goals in rehabilitation following lower limb amputation. The purpose of this study was to compare postural steadiness of below knee amputees with visual alterations while wearing three different prosthetic feet.
  16. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S, Razak NA
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon), 2014 Jan;29(1):87-97.
    PMID: 24315710 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.10.013
    Today a number of prosthetic suspension systems are available for transtibial amputees. Consideration of an appropriate suspension system can ensure that amputee's functional needs are satisfied. The higher the insight to suspension systems, the easier would be the selection for prosthetists. This review attempted to find scientific evidence pertaining to various transtibial suspension systems to provide selection criteria for clinicians.
  17. Ku PX, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA
    Gait Posture, 2014 Feb;39(2):672-82.
    PMID: 24331296 DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.006
    Postural control has been widely evaluated for the normal population and different groups over the past 20 years. Numerous studies have investigated postural control in quiet standing posture among amputees. However, a comprehensive analysis is lacking on the possible contributing factors to balance. The present systematic review highlights the current findings on variables that contribute to balance instability for lower extremity amputees. The search strategy was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL and then followed by additional manual searching via reference lists in the reviewed articles. The quality of the articles was evaluated using a methodological quality assessment tool. This review included and evaluated a total of 23 full-text articles. Despite the inconsistencies in the methodological design of the studies, all articles scored above the acceptable level in terms of quality. A majority of the studies revealed that lower extremity amputees have increased postural sway in the standing posture. Asymmetry in body weight, which is mainly distributed in the non-amputated leg, was described. Aside from the centre of pressure in postural control, sensory inputs may be a related topic for investigation in view of evidence on their contribution, particularly visual input. Other balance-related factors, such as stump length and patients' confidence level, were also neglected. Further research requires examination on the potential factors that affect postural control as the information of standing postural is still limited.
  18. Arifin N, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA
    J Appl Biomech, 2014 Apr;30(2):300-4.
    PMID: 23878204 DOI: 10.1123/jab.2013-0130
    The measurements of postural balance often involve measurement error, which affects the analysis and interpretation of the outcomes. In most of the existing clinical rehabilitation research, the ability to produce reliable measures is a prerequisite for an accurate assessment of an intervention after a period of time. Although clinical balance assessment has been performed in previous study, none has determined the intrarater test-retest reliability of static and dynamic stability indexes during dominant single stance. In this study, one rater examined 20 healthy university students (female=12, male=8) in two sessions separated by 7 day intervals. Three stability indexes--the overall stability index (OSI), anterior/posterior stability index (APSI), and medial/ lateral stability index (MLSI) in static and dynamic conditions--were measured during single dominant stance. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Test-retest ICCs for OSI, APSI, and MLSI were 0.85, 0.78, and 0.84 during static condition and were 0.77, 0.77, and 0.65 during dynamic condition, respectively. We concluded that the postural stability assessment using Biodex stability system demonstrates good-to-excellent test-retest reliability over a 1 week time interval.
  19. Mortaza N, Abu Osman NA, Jamshidi AA, Razjouyan J
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e64308.
    PMID: 23717593 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064308
    Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg) and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg) were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves). Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1),180°.s(-1)) were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05). Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been some enhancement regarding the extension peak torques and power generating capacity of the ACL-deficient subjects that could be helpful in reducing the bilateral asymmetry in these patients.
  20. Chan BT, Lim E, Ong CW, Abu Osman NA
    PMID: 23521137 DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2013.779683
    Despite the advancement of cardiac imaging technologies, these have traditionally been limited to global geometrical measurements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a reliable tool that provides flow field information and other variables essential for the assessment of the cardiac function. Extensive studies have shown that vortex formation and propagation during the filling phase acts as a promising indicator for the diagnosis of the cardiac health condition. Proper setting of the boundary conditions is crucial in a CFD study as they are important determinants, that affect the simulation results. In this article, the effect of different transmitral velocity profiles (parabolic and uniform profile) on the vortex formation patterns during diastole was studied in a ventricle with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The resulting vortex evolution pattern using the uniform inlet velocity profile agreed with that reported in the literature, which revealed an increase in thrombus risk in a ventricle with DCM. However the application of a parabolic velocity profile at the inlet yields a deviated vortical flow pattern and overestimates the propagation velocity of the vortex ring towards the apex of the ventricle. This study highlighted that uniform inlet velocity profile should be applied in the study of the filling dynamics in a left ventricle because it produces results closer to that observed experimentally.
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