Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Adam T, Hashim U
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 May 15;67:656-61.
    PMID: 25453738 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2014.10.005
    The study demonstrates the development of a liquid-based gate-control silicon nanowire biosensor for detection of specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. The sensor was fabricated using conventional photolithography coupled with an inductively coupled plasma dry etching process. Prior to the application of DNA to the device, its linear response to pH was confirmed by serial dilution from pH 2 to pH 14. Then, the sensor surface was silanized and directly aminated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane to create a molecular binding chemistry for biofunctionalization. The resulting Si‒O‒Si‒ components were functionalized with receptor ssDNA, which interacted with the targeted ssDNA to create a field across the silicon nanowire and increase the current. The sensor shows selectivity for the target ssDNA in a linear range from target ssDNA concentrations of 100 pM to 25 nM. With its excellent detection capabilities, this sensor platform is promising for detection of specific biomarkers and other targeted proteins.
  2. Adam T, U H
    Curr Nanosci, 2014 Oct;10(5):695-699.
    PMID: 25237290
    An aqueous ferric nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3.9H2O) and magnesium oxide (MgO) were mixed and deposited on silicon nanowires (SiNWs), the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by the concentration of Fe3O4/MgO catalysts with the mole ratio set at 0.15:9.85 and 600°C had diameter between 15.23 to 90nm with high-density distribution of CNT while those with the mole ratio set at 0.45:9.55 and 730°C had diameter of 100 to 230nm. The UV/Vis/NIR and FT-IR spectroscopes clearly confirmed the presence of the silicon-CNTs hybrid structure. UV/Vis/NIR, FT-IR spectra and FESEM images confirmed the silicon-CNT structure exists with diameters ranging between 15-230nm. Thus, the study demonstrated cost effective method of silicon-CNT composite nanowire formation via Iron-oxide Catalyze synthesis.
  3. Cross AT, van der Ent A, Wickmann M, Skates LM, Sumail S, Gebauer G, et al.
    Ann Bot, 2022 Dec 31;130(7):927-938.
    PMID: 36306274 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcac134
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While isotopic enrichment of nitrogen (15N) and carbon (13C) is often used to determine whether carnivorous plant species capture and assimilate nutrients from supplemental sources such as invertebrate prey or mammal excreta (heterotrophic nutrition), little is known about how successful the different strategies deployed by carnivorous plants are at obtaining supplemental nutrition. The collection of mammalian faeces by Nepenthes (tropical pitcher plants) is the result of a highly specialized biological mutualism that results in heterotrophic nitrogen gain; however, it remains unknown how effective this strategy is in comparison to Nepenthes species not known to collect mammalian faeces.

    METHODS: We examined how isotopic enrichment varied in the diverse genus Nepenthes, among species producing pitchers for invertebrate capture and species exhibiting mutualisms for the collection of mammal excreta. Enrichment factors were calculated from δ15N and δ13C values from eight Nepenthes species and naturally occurring hybrids along with co-occurring reference (non-carnivorous) plants from three mountain massifs in Borneo: Mount Kinabalu, Mount Tambuyukon and Mount Trus Madi.

    RESULTS: All Nepenthes examined, except N. edwardsiana, were significantly enriched in 15N compared to co-occurring non-carnivorous plants, and 15N enrichment was more than two-fold higher in species with adaptations for the collection of mammal excreta compared with other Nepenthes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The collection of mammal faeces clearly represents a highly effective strategy for heterotrophic nitrogen gain in Nepenthes. Species with adaptations for capturing mammal excreta occur exclusively at high elevation (i.e. are typically summit-occurring) where previous studies suggest invertebrate prey are less abundant and less frequently captured. As such, we propose this strategy may maximize nutritional return by specializing towards ensuring the collection and retention of few but higher-value N sources in environments where invertebrate prey may be scarce.

  4. Adam T, Dhahi TS, Gopinath SCB, Hashim U
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2022;52(8):1913-1929.
    PMID: 34254863 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2021.1925523
    Nanowires have been utilized widely in the generation of high-performance nanosensors. Laser ablation, chemical vapor, thermal evaporation and alternating current electrodeposition are in use in developing nanowires. Nanowires are in a great attention because of their submicron feature and their potentials in the front of nanoelectronics, accelerated field effect transistors, chemical- and bio-sensors, and low power consuming light-emitting devices. With the control of nanowire size and concentration of dopant, the electrical sensitivity and other properties of nanowires can be tuned for the reproducibility. Nanowires comprise of arrays of electrodes that form a nanometer electrical circuit. One of advantages of nanowires is that they can be fabricated in nanometer-size for various applications in different approaches. Several studies have been conducted on nanowires and researchers discovered that nanowires have the potential in the applications with material properties at the nanometer scale. The unique electrical properties of nanowires have made them to be promising for numerous applications. Nowadays, for example, MOS field-effect transistors are largely used as fundamental building elements in electronic circuits. Also, the dimension of MOS transistors is gradually decreasing to the nanoscale based on the prediction made by Moor's law. However, their fabrication is challenging. This review summarized different techniques in the fabrication of nanowires, global nanowire prospect, testing of nanowires to understand the real electrical behavior using higher resolution microscopes, and brief applications in the detection of biomolecules, disease such as corona viral pandemic, heavy metal in water, and applications of nanowires in agriculture.
  5. Abd Rahman RN, Ali MS, Sugiyama S, Leow AT, Inoue T, Basri M, et al.
    Protein Pept Lett, 2015;22(2):173-9.
    PMID: 25329331
    Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., which produces a putative thermostable lipase, represents a novel species, with type strain T1. The characterisation of this intrinsically thermostable T1 lipase either physicochemically or structurally is an important task. The crystallisation of T1lipase in space was carried out using a High-Density Protein Crystal Growth (HDPCG) apparatus with the vapour diffusion method, and X-ray diffraction data were collected. The microgravity environment has improved the size and quality of the crystals as compared to earth grown crystal. The effect of microgravity on the crystallisation of T1 lipase was clearly evidenced by the finer atomic details at 1.35 A resolution. Better electron densities were observed overall compared with the Earth-grown crystals, and comparison shows the subtle but distinct conformations around Na(+) ion binding site stabilized via cation-π interactions. This approach could be useful for solving structure and function of lipases towards exploiting its potentials to various industrial applications.
  6. Olatomiwa AL, Adam T, Edet CO, Adewale AA, Chik A, Mohammed M, et al.
    Heliyon, 2023 Mar;9(3):e14279.
    PMID: 36950613 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e14279
    Graphene has received tremendous attention among diverse 2D materials because of its remarkable properties. Its emergence over the last two decades gave a new and distinct dynamic to the study of materials, with several research projects focusing on exploiting its intrinsic properties for optoelectronic devices. This review provides a comprehensive overview of several published articles based on density functional theory and recently introduced machine learning approaches applied to study the electronic and optical properties of graphene. A comprehensive catalogue of the bond lengths, band gaps, and formation energies of various doped graphene systems that determine thermodynamic stability was reported in the literature. In these studies, the peculiarity of the obtained results reported is consequent on the nature and type of the dopants, the choice of the XC functionals, the basis set, and the wrong input parameters. The different density functional theory models, as well as the strengths and uncertainties of the ML potentials employed in the machine learning approach to enhance the prediction models for graphene, were elucidated. Lastly, the thermal properties, modelling of graphene heterostructures, the superconducting behaviour of graphene, and optimization of the DFT models are grey areas that future studies should explore in enhancing its unique potential. Therefore, the identified future trends and knowledge gaps have a prospect in both academia and industry to design future and reliable optoelectronic devices.
  7. Uda MNA, Gopinath SCB, Hashim U, Halim NH, Parmin NA, Uda MNA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14688.
    PMID: 34282233 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-94145-0
    Arsenic is a major global threat to the ecosystem. Here we describe a highly accurate sensing platform using silica nanoparticles/graphene at the surface of aluminum interdigitated electrodes (Al IDE), able to detect trace amounts of arsenic(III) in rice grain samples. The morphology and electrical properties of fabricated Al IDEs were characterized and standardized using AFM, and SEM with EDX analyses. Micrometer scale Al IDEs were fabricated with silicon, aluminum, and oxygen as primary elements. Validation of the bare Al IDE with electrolyte fouling was performed at different pH levels. The sensing surface was stable with no electrolyte fouling at pH 7. Each chemical modification step was monitored with current-volt measurement. The surface chemical bonds were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and revealed different peaks when interacting with arsenic (1600-1000 cm-1). Both silica nanoparticles and graphene presented a sensitive limit of detection as measured by slope calibration curves at 0.0000001 pg/ml, respectively. Further, linear regression was established using ΔI (A) = 3.86 E-09 log (Arsenic concentration) [g/ml] + 8.67 E-08 [A] for silica nanoparticles, whereas for graphene Y = 3.73 E-09 (Arsenic concentration) [g/ml] + 8.52 E-08 on the linear range of 0.0000001 pg/ml to 0.01 pg/ml. The R2 for silica (0.96) and that of graphene (0.94) was close to the maximum (1). Modification with silica nanoparticles was highly stable. The potential use of silica nanoparticles in the detection of arsenic in rice grain extract can be attributed to their size and stability.
  8. Mohammed M, Oleiwi JK, Jawad AJM, Mohammed AM, Osman AF, Rahman R, et al.
    Heliyon, 2023 Sep;9(9):e20051.
    PMID: 37809763 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e20051
    Due to environmental concerns and budgetary constraints associated with synthetic fibers, natural fibers (NFr) are becoming increasingly popular as reinforcement in polymer composites (PCs) for structural components and construction materials. The surface treatment (ST) method is a well-established technique for enhancing the strength of interfacial bonding between NFr and the polymer matrix (PM). As a result, this research aims to determine the effect of ST with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the flexural properties of unsaturated polyester (UPE)/kenaf fiber (KF) nanocomposites. The hand lay-up technique was employed to produce KF-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (KF/UPE) for this investigation. UPE/KF-ZnONPs composites were made with varying NFr loadings (weight percent), ranging from 10 to 40%. KF was treated with five distinct amounts of ZnONPs (from 1 to 5% weight percent). According to the findings of the investigation, the composite samples incorporating ZnONPs displayed superior optimum flexural properties compared to the untreated KF composite. It was found that 2% ZnONPs was optimal, and ST with ZnONPs could produce robust KF with improved flexural properties.
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