Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Volz PA, Ahmad J. Makhtar
    Four areas of Malaysia were selected for the study of filamentous micro­ fungi occupying soil habitats. Ampang, Kota Bharu, Bandar Melaka, and Kuantan were examined for micro-fungi species content and diversity of isolates. Species recovered from the soils of Malaysia, represent 63 genera and four classes, according to current concepts of fungal taxonomy (Clements and Shear, 1964; Domsch and Gams, 1980). Most isolates belonged to the imperfect fungal class Deuteromycetes, a few species represented the Zygomycetes, and only isolated incidents of Mastigomycetes and Ascomycetes were found occupying the soil of these regions.
    Empat kawasan di Malaysia di pilih untuk penyelidikan pembiakan mikrofungi dipermukaan tanah. Kawasan-kawasan kajian yang mengandungi berbagai-bagai species mikro-fungi tersebut ialah Ampang, Kota Bharu, Bandar Melaka, dan Kuantan. Mengikut pengelasan konsep fungi (Clements dan Shear, 1964; Domish dan Gams, 1980) species mikro-fungi yang ditemui dipermukaan tanah Malaysia terdiri dari 63 "genera" dan empat kelas. Kebanyakannya terdiri dari kelas "Deuteromycetes", sebilangannya mewakili kelas "Zygomycetes", dan cuma sebilangan kecil sahaja terdiri dari kelas "Mastigomycetes" dan "Ascomycetes ".
  2. Senin, S.F., Rohim, R., Yusuff, A., Rozli, M.I.F., Ahmad, J.
    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a crucial scope of work in civil engineering specifically on
    monitoring the in-service and ageing coastal bridge deck concrete structure serviceability and limit
    state status performance. One of the possible natural process that pose detrimental effects to such
    structure performance monitoring is the steel rebar pitting corrosion problem. Progressive pitting
    corrosion process on the certain steel rebar area in low quality of concrete cover due to chloride
    ingression will cause local premature damage the steel rebar which obviously affect the serviceability
    performance of the structural element, i.e. displacement. However, the available displacement
    monitoring methods become an issue when it comes to engineering practicality and costs
    considerations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to monitor and analyze the vertical
    displacement of an undamaged and damage reinforced concrete beam using the digital signal
    processing technology, Digital Image Correlation, (DIC) that use Sony camera and MATLAB scripts,
    and compared to a traditional method, Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDT) at two
    points bending tests setup. It was concluded, that the quantified displacement for corrosion-damage
    RC via DIC method is higher than the normal reinforced concrete beam by 2 to 46 percent of error to
    LVDT measurements. Based on two tailed paired t-test analysis, DIC method was concluded to be as
    good as the LVDT method of measuring the beam’s displacement. The developed method has the
    potential implementation on monitoring the any beam deflection on current real civil engineering
    related projects.
  3. George E, Adeeb N, Ahmad J
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Dec;35(2):129-30.
    PMID: 7266404
    Serum ferritin concentration has been measured in pregnant women at their first antenatal visit. Results were analysed according to trimesters. With progression of the pregnancy there is a fall in serum ferritin concentrations. Haemoglobin and red cell indices cannot be used to predict iron status supplemental iron therapy raised the serum ferritin levels.
  4. Dony JF, Ahmad J, Yap KT
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2004;84(1-2):8-18.
    PMID: 14670341 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2003.08.002
    The objectives in this epidemiology review are to measure and report the extent of morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB), the proportion of new sputum smear positive cases in districts and the status of cohort analysis as of 1999. As for leprosy, the main objective is to determine morbidity and the treatment outcomes of Multiple Drug Therapy (MDT). Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive action plan for prevention, control and monitoring of tuberculosis and leprosy cases and patients is being produced and implemented throughout the state. The analysis concentrated on patients diagnosed at all out-patient units and admitted in all of the state's hospitals. The patient particulars were recorded using a standardized format based on TB and Leprosy Health Management Information System (TB HMIS). TB was the second highest by notification of communicable diseases in Malaysia in 2001. 29% or about one-third of the national TB cases are from Sabah. However, it has been noted that there was an average decline of 2.6% in annual notification since 10 years ago to date. There was also a reduction of 11.4% in 2001 as compared to annual notification in 2000. Immigrants contribute more than 24% in detection of new cases since 1990. Treatment success rate in term of completion of treatment to date is 82%. Mortality rate has steadily declined from 14 deaths to 7 deaths per 100,000 population. Leprosy in Sabah also contributes to 30% of the yearly total caseload of Malaysia and has the highest notification rate of 2 per every 100,000 population as compared to other states. The average registered leprosy cases over the past 5 years are 239 cases and the prevalence rate is 0.7/10,000 population. The state has successfully achieved its goal to decrease leprosy as per the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of yearly overall prevalence rate of less than 1 case for every 10,000 population. However, the districts of Kudat, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kota Kinabalu and Semporna are still within the prevalence rate of more than one per 10,000 population. This review highlights some interesting findings which can be incorporated into the State and Districts action plans and strategies. It is also noted that in order to translate National Plans and Strategies into effective action at the community level, health workers need relevant up-to-date knowledge of the pattern of health and disease, and of their determinants, in each district. The Sabah Health Department continues to organize and support programs related to management and control of tuberculosis and leprosy to progressively reduce the incidence of these diseases in the community by breaking the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively.
    Study site: outpatient clinics, inpatients, hospitals, Sabah, Malaysia
  5. Fathurrahman L, Hajar AH, Sakinah DW, Nurhazwani Z, Ahmad J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 15;16(22):1517-23.
    PMID: 24511694
    One of the main limitations of productivity in photobioreactor is the inefficient conversion of the available light into biomass. Photoautotrophic cells such as microalgae only absorb a small fraction of supplied illumination due to limitation of its photosystem's (PS) absorbing rate. However, phenomenon of Flashing Light Effect (FLE) allows microalgae to utilize strong light exceptionally through intermittent exposure. Exposure of strong light at correct frequency of light and dark photoperiod would allow two pigment-protein complexes, PSI and PSII to be at the equilibrium mid-point potential to allow efficient light conversion. Narrow range of optimum frequency is crucial since overexposure to strong light would injured photosynthetic apparatus whereas longer dark period would contributed to loss of biomass due to triacylglycerol metabolism. The behaviour of microalgae towards various illumination conditions of FLE was determined at batch Photobioreactor (PBR) by varying the aeration flow rate: 16.94, 33.14 and 49.28 mL sec(-1) which yield, respectively the light exposure time of 3.99, 1.71 and 1.1 seconds per cycle. Maximum cell density in FLE-PBR was significantly higher at the exponential phase as compared to the continuously illuminated culture (p = 5.62 x 10(-5), a = 0.05) under the flow rate of 25.07 mL sec(-1). Maximum cell density yield of FLE-PBR and continuously illuminated PBR was, respectively 3.1125 x 10(7) and 2.947 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Utilization of FLE as an innovative solution to increase the efficiency of microalgae to convert light into chemical energy would revolutionize the microalgae culture, reduce the time for cultivation and produce higher maximum biomass density.
  6. Mohd Asihin MA, Bajuri MY, Ahmad J, Syed Kamaruddin SF
    Ceylon Med J, 2018 03 31;63(1):11-16.
    PMID: 29754479
    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonographic examination in predicting 4-strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendon (4S-STG) autograft size preoperatively in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and to evaluate the use of anthropometric measurement to predict the 4-strand semitendinosus and gracilis tendons (4S-STG) autograft size pre-operatively in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Method: Twenty-seven patients were included in this study conducted from 1st January to 31st December 2013. All patients were skeletally mature and scheduled to undergo primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using 4S-STG autograft. Ultrasonographic examination of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons to measure the cross sectional area was conducted and anthropometric data (weight, height, leg length and thigh circumference) was measured one day prior to surgery. True autograft diameters were measured intraoperatively using closed-hole sizing block in 0.5 mm incremental size.

    Results: There is a statistically significant correlation between the measured combined cross sectional area (semitendinosus and gracilis tendons) and 4S-STG autograft diameter (p = 0.023). An adequate autograft size (at least 7 mm) can be obtained when the combined cross sectional area is at least 15 mm2. There was no correlation with the anthropometric data except for thigh circumference (p = 0.037). Autograft size of at least 7 mm can be obtained when the thigh circumference is at least 41 mm.

    Conclusions: Both combined cross sectional area (semitendinosus and gracilis tendons) and thigh circumference can be used to predict an adequate 4S-STG autograft size.

  7. Fairus FZ, Joseph LH, Omar B, Ahmad J, Sulaiman R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Mar;23(2):21-7.
    PMID: 27547111 MyJurnal
    The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults.
  8. Ahmad J, Abdul Halim SN, How FN
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2015 Jun 1;71(Pt 6):o410-1.
    PMID: 26090195 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989015009159
    The title compound, Ph3(PhCH2)P(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, was obtained unintentionally as the product of an attempted synthesis of a silver di-thio-carbamate complex using benzyl-tri-phenyl-phospho-nium as the counter-ion. The asymmetric unit consists of a phospho-nium cation and a chloride anion, and a water mol-ecule of crystallization. In the crystal, the chloride ion is linked to the water mol-ecule by an O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bond. The three units are further linked via C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯ π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.
  9. Ahangar FA, Rashid U, Ahmad J, Tsubota T, Alsalme A
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Nov 16;13(22).
    PMID: 34833251 DOI: 10.3390/polym13223952
    In this study, a novel idea was proposed to convert the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste drinking-water bottles into activated carbon (AC) to use for waste cooking oil (WCO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) feasibility to convert into esters. The acidic and basic char were prepared by using the waste PET bottles. The physiochemical properties were determined by employing various analytical techniques, such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and temperature-programmed desorption - ammonia/carbon dioxide (TPD-NH3/CO2). The prepared PET H3PO4 and PET KOH showed the higher surface area, thus illustrating that the surface of both materials has enough space for impregnation of foreign precursors. The TPD-NH3 and TPD-CO2 results depicted that PET H3PO4 is found to have higher acidity, i.e., 18.17 mmolg-1, due to the attachment of phosponyl groups to it during pretreatment, whereas, in the case of PET KOH, the basicity increases to 13.49 mmolg-1. The conversion results show that prepared materials can be used as a support for an acidic and basic catalyst for the conversion of WCO and PFAD into green fuel.
  10. Amin L, Ahmad J, Jahi JM, Nor AR, Osman M, Mahadi NM
    Public Underst Sci, 2011 Sep;20(5):674-89.
    PMID: 22164706
    Despite considerable research in advanced countries on public perceptions of and attitudes to modern biotechnology, limited effort has been geared towards developing a structural model of public attitudes to modern biotechnology. The purpose of this paper is to identify the relevant factors influencing public attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) soybean, and to analyze the relationship between all the attitudinal factors. A survey was carried out on 1,017 respondents from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey have confirmed that attitudes towards complex issues such as biotechnology should be seen as a multifaceted process. The most important factors predicting support for GM soybean are the specific application-linked perceptions about the benefits, acceptance of risk and moral concern while risk and familiarity are significant predictors of benefit and risk acceptance. Attitudes towards GM soybean are also predicted by several general classes of attitude.
  11. Maj MK, Ar AH, Faisal SA, Ahmad J, Das S
    Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove), 2010;53(4):247-9.
    PMID: 21400986
    Discoid meniscus is the commonest anatomical aberration of the knee joint, among rare cases such as bilateral separated lateral meniscus, accessory lateral meniscus, partial deficiency of the lateral meniscus and double-layered lateral meniscus. An 11-year-old girl presented with history of chronic pain in her right knee for the last 6 months. The problem disturbed her involvement in the sport activities at school. Clinical examination revealed a clicking sensation on knee extension with lateral joint line tenderness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her right knee showed torn posterior horn of lateral meniscus. Arthroscopy examination revealed a discoid meniscus with absence posterior horn. Posterior horn deficient discoid meniscus is a rare form of a congenital meniscus anomaly. We as clinicians believe that the abnormal shaped meniscus may pose a diagnostic challenge clinically and radiologically. Presentation of this case may be beneficial for orthopaedicians in their daily clinical practice.
  12. Khairil OA, Zulfiqar A, Thambidorai CR, Nizam JM, Ahmad JT, Jamil MA
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Oct;60(4):469-74.
    PMID: 16570709
    In the initial clinical examination of a child with ambiguous genitalia an accurate measurement of the corporeal length is needed. Most often the corporeal length is measured with a ruler from the symphysis pubis to the tip of the glans of a stretched penis. More recently, ultrasound has been successfully used to measure corporeal length. This study aimed to (i) establish normal values for corporeal length in normal male newborns using ultrasound measurement, (ii) compare these measurements to stretched corporeal measurements, (iii) compare the corporeal length of newborns of different races, and (iv) determine the relationship between corporeal length and birth weight, birth length and head circumference. This was a prospective study of 141 newborns. Ultrasound imaging was done in an oblique parasagittal plane such that the corpus could be included in a single image and measured, Stretched corporeal length was measured with the penis stretched alongside a wooden spatula and the length from the pubic bone to the tip of the glans was marked on the spatula and measured. By ultrasound measurement the mean corporeal length of the normal newborn was 3.18 +/- 0.56cm. There was no significant difference in the mean corporeal length when determined by ultrasound and by stretched corporeal measurement. There was no significant difference in the mean corporeal length of the different races when the length was determined by either ultrasound or stretched corporeal measurement. There was a positive correlation between ultrasound length and birth weight and birth length. However, there was no correlation between ultrasound length and head circumference. There was no significant correlation between the stretched length and either birth weight, birth length or head circumference.
  13. Katayon S, Noor MJ, Asma M, Ghani LA, Thamer AM, Azni I, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2006 Sep;97(13):1455-60.
    PMID: 16213137
    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.
  14. Rashid U, Ahmad J, Ibrahim ML, Nisar J, Hanif MA, Shean TYC
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;12(14).
    PMID: 31323732 DOI: 10.3390/ma12142293
    The main purpose of this manuscript is to report the new usage of tea waste (TW) as a catalyst for efficient conversion of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to biodiesel. In this work, we investigate the potential of tea waste char as a catalyst for biodiesel production before and after sulfonation. The activated sulfonated tea waste char catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental composition (CHNS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and ammonia-temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). The activated tea waste char catalyst shows higher acid density of 31 μmol g-1 as compared to tea waste char of 16 μmol g-1 and higher surface area of 122 m2/g. The optimum fatty acid conversion conditions were found that 4 wt % of catalyst loading with 9:1 of methanol:PFAD for 90 min of reaction time at 65 °C gives 97% free fatty acid (FFA) conversion. In conclusion, the sulfonated tea waste (STW) catalyst showed an impressive catalytic activity towards the esterification of PFAD at optimum reaction conditions with significant recyclability in five successive cycles without any reactivation step.
  15. Hishan SS, Sasmoko, Khan A, Ahmad J, Hassan ZB, Zaman K, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jun;26(16):16503-16518.
    PMID: 30980369 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05056-7
    The Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is far lag behind the sustainable targets that set out in the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which is highly needed to embark the priorities by their member countries to devise sustainable policies for accessing clean technologies, energy demand, finance, and food production to mitigate high-mass carbon emissions and conserve environmental agenda in the national policy agenda. The study evaluated United Nation's SDGs for environmental conservation and emission reduction in the panel of 35 selected SSA countries, during a period of 1995-2016. The study further analyzed the variable's relationship in inter-temporal forecasting framework for the next 10 years' time period, i.e., 2017-2026. The parameter estimates for the two models, i.e., CO2 model and PM2.5 models are analyzed by Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) estimator that handle possible endogeneity issue from the given models. The results rejected the inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for CO2 emissions, while it supported for PM2.5 emissions with a turning point of US$5540 GDP per capita in constant 2010 US$. The results supported the "pollution haven hypothesis" for CO2 emissions, while this hypothesis is not verified for PM2.5 emissions. The major detrimental factors are technologies, FDI inflows, and food deficit that largely increase carbon emissions in a panel of SSA countries. The IPAT hypothesis is not verified in both the emissions; however, population density will largely influenced CO2 emissions in the next 10 years' time period. The PM2.5 emissions will largely be influenced by high per capita income, followed by trade openness, and technologies, over a time horizon. Thus, the United Nation's sustainable development agenda is highly influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors that need sound action plans by their member countries to coordinate and collaborate with each other and work for Africa's green growth agenda.
  16. Rahman WSKA, Ahmad J, Halim SNA, Jotani MM, Tiekink ERT
    Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun, 2017 Sep 01;73(Pt 9):1363-1367.
    PMID: 28932475 DOI: 10.1107/S2056989017011677
    The full mol-ecule of the binuclear title compound, [Cd2Cl2(C6H8O4)(C6H8N2)2(H2O)2], is generated by the application of a centre of inversion located at the middle of the central CH2-CH2 bond of the adipate dianion; the latter chelates a CdII atom at each end. Along with two carboxyl-ate-O atoms, the CdII ion is coordinated by the two N atoms of the chelating benzene-1,2-di-amine ligand, a Cl- anion and an aqua ligand to define a distorted octa-hedral CdClN2O3 coordination geometry with the monodentate ligands being mutually cis. The disparity in the Cd-N bond lengths is related to the relative trans effect exerted by the Cd-O bonds formed by the carboxyl-ate-O and aqua-O atoms. The packing features water-O-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) and benzene-1,2-di-amine-N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to layers that stack along the a-axis direction. The lack of directional inter-actions between the layers is confirmed by a Hirshfeld surface analysis.
  17. Abbas Khan K, Zaman K, Shoukry AM, Sharkawy A, Gani S, Sasmoko, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 May;26(14):14287-14299.
    PMID: 30864039 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04755-5
    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.
  18. Khalid SH, Liaqat I, Mallhi TH, Khan AH, Ahmad J, Khan YH
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2020 Dec;70(12(B)):2376-2382.
    PMID: 33475547 DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.370
    OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) along with myocardial infarction (MI) carries increased burden on patients in terms of morbidity, mortality and cost. Current study was aimed to investigate the impact of DM on clinico-laboratory characteristics on in-hospital treatment outcomes among MI patients.o compare the outcome of mesh hernioplasty performed under local anaesthesia in relatively young and older patients regarding wound complications and urinary retention.

    METHODS: All MI patients admitted to the emergency department of Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology from April, 2016 to March, 2017 were recruited into the study. The clinico-laboratory profile and in-hospital outcomes of patients with and without DM were compared using chi-squared test or student t-test, where appropriate.

    RESULTS: A total 4063 patients (Mean age: 55.86 ± 12.37years) with male preponderance were included into the study. STEMI was most prevalent (n = 2723, 67%) type of MI among study participants. DM was present in substantial number of cases (n = 3688, 90.8%). Patients with DM presented with increased BMI, higher blood pressure, elevated levels of cholesterol, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen, when compared to the patients without DM (p<0.05). Out of 560 patients who were followed up, cardiogenic shock was frequent (n = 293, 52.3%) adverse outcome followed by heart failure (n = 114, 20.4%), atrial fibrillation (n = 78, 13.9%) and stroke (n = 75, 13.4 %). Moreover, in-hospital adverse outcomes were more prevalent among MI patients with DM than those without DM.

    CONCLUSIONS: MI patients with DM present with varying clinico laboratory characteristics as well as experience higher prevalence of adverse cardiovascular events as compared to patients without DM. These patients require individual management strategy on very first day of admission.

  19. Ude CC, Sulaiman SB, Min-Hwei N, Hui-Cheng C, Ahmad J, Yahaya NM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e98770.
    PMID: 24911365 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098770
    In this study, Adipose stem cells (ADSC) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSC), multipotent adult cells with the potentials for cartilage regenerations were induced to chondrogenic lineage and used for cartilage regenerations in surgically induced osteoarthritis in sheep model.
  20. Mohd Tariq MN, Shahar HK, Baharudin MR, Ismail SNS, Manaf RA, Salmiah MS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 09 24;21(1):1735.
    PMID: 34560858 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11719-3
    BACKGROUND: Flood disaster preparedness among the community seldom received attention. Necessary intervention must be taken to prevent the problem. Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI) was developed following the Health Belief Model, particularly in improving flood disaster preparedness among the community. The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of HEBI on improving flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor. This study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of health education-based intervention (HEBI) based on knowledge, skills, and preparedness to improve flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor.

    METHOD: A single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial will conduct at six districts in Selangor. Randomly selected respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Health education module based on Health Believed Theory will be delivered via health talks and videos coordinated by liaison officers. Data at three-time points at baseline, immediate, and 3 months post-intervention will be collected. A validated questionnaire will assess participants' background characteristics, knowledge, skill, and preparedness on disaster preparedness and perception towards disaster. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be applied for data analysis using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25. Longitudinal correlated data on knowledge, skills, preparedness, and perception score at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention will be analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    DISCUSSION: It is expected that knowledge, skills, preparedness, and flood disaster perception score are more significant in the intervention group than the control group, indicating the Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial TCTR20200202002 .

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