Displaying all 5 publications

  1. Amin HU, Malik AS, Ahmad RF, Badruddin N, Kamel N, Hussain M, et al.
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2015 Mar;38(1):139-49.
    PMID: 25649845 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-015-0333-x
    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate.
  2. Ahmad RF, Malik AS, Kamel N, Reza F, Abdullah JM
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2016 Jun;39(2):363-78.
    PMID: 27043850 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0438-x
    Memory plays an important role in human life. Memory can be divided into two categories, i.e., long term memory and short term memory (STM). STM or working memory (WM) stores information for a short span of time and it is used for information manipulations and fast response activities. WM is generally involved in the higher cognitive functions of the brain. Different studies have been carried out by researchers to understand the WM process. Most of these studies were based on neuroimaging modalities like fMRI, EEG, MEG etc., which use standalone processes. Each neuroimaging modality has some pros and cons. For example, EEG gives high temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution. On the other hand, the fMRI results have a high spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution. For a more in depth understanding and insight of what is happening inside the human brain during the WM process or during cognitive tasks, high spatial as well as high temporal resolution is desirable. Over the past decade, researchers have been working to combine different modalities to achieve a high spatial and temporal resolution at the same time. Developments of MRI compatible EEG equipment in recent times have enabled researchers to combine EEG-fMRI successfully. The research publications in simultaneous EEG-fMRI have been increasing tremendously. This review is focused on the WM research involving simultaneous EEG-fMRI data acquisition and analysis. We have covered the simultaneous EEG-fMRI application in WM and data processing. Also, it adds to potential fusion methods which can be used for simultaneous EEG-fMRI for WM and cognitive tasks.
  3. Ahmad RF, Malik AS, Kamel N, Reza F, Amin HU, Hussain M
    Technol Health Care, 2017;25(3):471-485.
    PMID: 27935575 DOI: 10.3233/THC-161286
    BACKGROUND: Classification of the visual information from the brain activity data is a challenging task. Many studies reported in the literature are based on the brain activity patterns using either fMRI or EEG/MEG only. EEG and fMRI considered as two complementary neuroimaging modalities in terms of their temporal and spatial resolution to map the brain activity. For getting a high spatial and temporal resolution of the brain at the same time, simultaneous EEG-fMRI seems to be fruitful.

    METHODS: In this article, we propose a new method based on simultaneous EEG-fMRI data and machine learning approach to classify the visual brain activity patterns. We acquired EEG-fMRI data simultaneously on the ten healthy human participants by showing them visual stimuli. Data fusion approach is used to merge EEG and fMRI data. Machine learning classifier is used for the classification purposes.

    RESULTS: Results showed that superior classification performance has been achieved with simultaneous EEG-fMRI data as compared to the EEG and fMRI data standalone. This shows that multimodal approach improved the classification accuracy results as compared with other approaches reported in the literature.

    CONCLUSIONS: The proposed simultaneous EEG-fMRI approach for classifying the brain activity patterns can be helpful to predict or fully decode the brain activity patterns.

  4. Zafar R, Kamel N, Naufal M, Malik AS, Dass SC, Ahmad RF, et al.
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2018 Sep;41(3):633-645.
    PMID: 29948968 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0656-5
    Neuroscientists have investigated the functionality of the brain in detail and achieved remarkable results but this area still need further research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is considered as the most reliable and accurate technique to decode the human brain activity, on the other hand electroencephalography (EEG) is a portable and low cost solution in brain research. The purpose of this study is to find whether EEG can be used to decode the brain activity patterns like fMRI. In fMRI, data from a very specific brain region is enough to decode the brain activity patterns due to the quality of data. On the other hand, EEG can measure the rapid changes in neuronal activity patterns due to its higher temporal resolution i.e., in msec. These rapid changes mostly occur in different brain regions. In this study, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) is used both for EEG and fMRI data analysis and the information is extracted from distributed activation patterns of the brain. The significant information among different classes is extracted using two sample t test in both data sets. Finally, the classification analysis is done using the support vector machine. A fair comparison of both data sets is done using the same analysis techniques, moreover simultaneously collected data of EEG and fMRI is used for this comparison. The final analysis is done with the data of eight participants; the average result of all conditions are found which is 65.7% for EEG data set and 64.1% for fMRI data set. It concludes that EEG is capable of doing brain decoding with the data from multiple brain regions. In other words, decoding accuracy with EEG MVPA is as good as fMRI MVPA and is above chance level.
  5. Zafar R, Kamel N, Naufal M, Malik AS, Dass SC, Ahmad RF, et al.
    J Integr Neurosci, 2017;16(3):275-289.
    PMID: 28891512 DOI: 10.3233/JIN-170016
    Decoding of human brain activity has always been a primary goal in neuroscience especially with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. In recent years, Convolutional neural network (CNN) has become a popular method for the extraction of features due to its higher accuracy, however it needs a lot of computation and training data. In this study, an algorithm is developed using Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and modified CNN to decode the behavior of brain for different images with limited data set. Selection of significant features is an important part of fMRI data analysis, since it reduces the computational burden and improves the prediction performance; significant features are selected using t-test. MVPA uses machine learning algorithms to classify different brain states and helps in prediction during the task. General linear model (GLM) is used to find the unknown parameters of every individual voxel and the classification is done using multi-class support vector machine (SVM). MVPA-CNN based proposed algorithm is compared with region of interest (ROI) based method and MVPA based estimated values. The proposed method showed better overall accuracy (68.6%) compared to ROI (61.88%) and estimation values (64.17%).
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