Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Soon G, Pingguan-Murphy B, Akbar SA
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 04;68:26-31.
    PMID: 28135639 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.01.028
    This study utilizes the technique of self-assembly to fabricate arrays of nanoislands on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates with miscut of 10° toward <110> direction. These self-assembled nanostructures were annealed at 1100°C for 5h upon doping with 10mol% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) by powder-suspension based method. X-Ray diffraction result showed that the miscut substrate after doping GDC was in the cubic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) illustrates that the nanopatterned material contains all the elements from the GDC source and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. It also demonstrates a higher surface roughness and a more hydrophilic surface. The nanostructured materials were subsequently used for an in vitro study using a human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). An improved spreading, enhanced cell proliferation and up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the nanopatterned substrates compared to the control substrates. Calcium deposits, which were stained positively by Alizarin Red S, appeared to be more abundant on the nanopatterned surfaces on day 7. The overall findings suggest that post fabrication treatment with surface modification such as creating a nanostructure (e.g. nanopatterns) can improve biocompatibility.
  2. Arafat MM, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):13613-27.
    PMID: 25072346 DOI: 10.3390/s140813613
    In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor.
  3. Arafat MM, Dinan B, Akbar SA, Haseeb AS
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(6):7207-58.
    PMID: 22969344 DOI: 10.3390/s120607207
    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research.
  4. Tan AW, Tay L, Chua KH, Ahmad R, Akbar SA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:5389-401.
    PMID: 25473278 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S72659
    Two important criteria of an ideal biomaterial in the field of stem cells research are to regulate the cell proliferation without the loss of its pluripotency and to direct the differentiation into a specific cell lineage when desired. The present study describes the influence of TiO2 nanofibrous surface structures on the regulation of proliferation and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). TiO2 nanofiber arrays were produced in situ onto Ti-6Al-4V substrate via a thermal oxidation process and the successful fabrication of these nanostructures was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and contact angle measurement. ADSCs were seeded on two types of Ti-6Al-4V surfaces (TiO2 nanofibers and flat control), and their morphology, proliferation, and stemness expression were analyzed using FESEM, AlamarBlue assay, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after 2 weeks of incubation, respectively. The results show that ADSCs exhibit better adhesion and significantly enhanced proliferation on the TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces compared to the flat control surfaces. The greater proliferation ability of TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces was further confirmed by the results of cell cycle assay. More importantly, TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly upregulate the expressions of stemness markers Sox-2, Nanog3, Rex-1, and Nestin. These results demonstrate that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces can be used to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation while simultaneously maintaining the stemness of ADSCs, thereby representing a promising approach for their potential application in the field of bone tissue engineering as well as regenerative therapies.
  5. Tharsika T, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA, Sabri MF, Hoong WY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):14586-600.
    PMID: 25116903 DOI: 10.3390/s140814586
    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
  6. Tan AW, Liau LL, Chua KH, Ahmad R, Akbar SA, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Sci Rep, 2016;6:21828.
    PMID: 26883761 DOI: 10.1038/srep21828
    One of the major challenges in bone grafting is the lack of sufficient bone vascularization. A rapid and stable bone vascularization at an early stage of implantation is essential for optimal functioning of the bone graft. To address this, the ability of in situ TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces fabricated via thermal oxidation method to enhance the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. The cellular responses of HUVECs on TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces were studied through cell adhesion, cell proliferation, capillary-like tube formation, growth factors secretion (VEGF and BFGF), and angiogenic-endogenic-associated gene (VEGF, VEGFR2, BFGF, PGF, HGF, Ang-1, VWF, PECAM-1 and ENOS) expression analysis after 2 weeks of cell seeding. Our results show that TiO2 nanofibrous surfaces significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, formation of capillary-like tube networks and growth factors secretion of HUVECs, as well as leading to higher expression level of all angiogenic-endogenic-associated genes, in comparison to unmodified control surfaces. These beneficial effects suggest the potential use of such surface nanostructures to be utilized as an advantageous interface for bone grafts as they can promote angiogenesis, which improves bone vascularization.
  7. Teh CL, Cheong YK, Wan Musa WR, Wan Mohd Akbar SA, Mat Husin N, Gun SC
    Ann Rheum Dis, 2021 05;80(5):e69.
    PMID: 32737111 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218154
  8. Arafat MM, Dinan B, Haseeb ASMA, Akbar SA, Rahman BMA, Rozali S, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2021 Sep 01;32(47).
    PMID: 34388742 DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ac1d77
    Different Ti substrates, such as particles (as-received and ball milled), plate and TEM grid were oxidized for the growth of one dimensional (1D) TiO2nanostructures. The Ti substrates were oxidized for 4 h at temperatures of 700 °C-750 °C in humid and dry Ar containing 5 ppm of O2. The effects of residual stress on the growth of 1D TiO2nanostructures were investigated. The residual stress inside the Ti particles was measured by XRD-sin2ψtechnique. The oxidized Ti substrates were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope, transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscope. Results revealed that humid environment enhances the growth of 1D TiO2nanostructures. Four different types of 1D morphologies obtained during humid oxidation, e.g. stacked, ribbon, plateau and lamp-post shaped nanostructures. The presence of residual stress significantly enhances the density and coverage of 1D nanostructures. The as-grown TiO2nanostructures possess tetragonal rutile structure having length up to 10μm along the 〈1 0 1〉 directions. During initial stage of oxidation, a TiO2layer is formed on Ti substrate. Lower valence oxides (Ti3O5, Ti2O3and TiO) then form underneath the TiO2layer and induce stress at the interface of oxide layers. The induced stress plays significant role on the growth of 1D TiO2nanostructures. The induced stress is relaxed by creating new surfaces in the form of 1D TiO2nanostructures. A diffusion based model is proposed to explain the mechanism of 1D TiO2growth during humid oxidation of Ti. The 1D TiO2nanostructures and TiO2layer is formed by the interstitial diffusion of Ti4+ions to the surface and reacts with the surface adsorbed hydroxide ions (OH-). Lower valence oxides are formed at the metal-oxide interface by the reaction between diffused oxygen ions and Ti ions.
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