AIMS: This study carried out from June 2008 to March 2009 to find the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, stress and miscarriage and preterm births.
METHODS: A total of 33 subjects consisted of multiparous pregnant women that were in their early third trimester were chosen for this investigation. Subjects were divided into test group women with adverse pregnancy outcome, control group women with successful pregnancy. Four ml of unstimulated whole saliva were collected. The concentrations of cotinine and cortisol were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kit.
RESULTS: Pregnancies in which the average standardized cortisol during history of previous miscarriage(s) which occurred within 6th-27th week or/and history of preterm labor which occurred within 28th-36th weeks of gestation, demonstrated higher cortisol level (1.0201 ± 0.1855 ng/ml) compared to control group 0.9757 ± 0.2860 ng/ml (P = 0.323); statistical analysis showed no significant differences. Women of control group were more likely to be environmental tobacco smoke exposed (1.2714 ± 1.7639 ng/ml) than women with miscarriage and preterm births (0.9889 ± 0.5498 ng/ml).
CONCLUSION: The results from this primarily study demonstrated no association between cotinine, cortisol, miscarriage and preterm births.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.
RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).
CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomised control clinical trial at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. A total of 66 obese patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated into the treatment group (n=33) who received NSPT, while the control group (n=33) received no treatment. Four participants (2 from each group) were non-contactable 12 weeks post intervention. Therefore, their data were removed from the final analysis. The protocol involved questionnaires (characteristics and OHRQoL (Oral Health Impact Profile-14; OHIP-14)) and a clinical examination.
RESULTS: The OHIP prevalence of impact (PI), overall mean OHIP severity score (SS) and mean OHIP Extent of Impact (EI) at baseline and at the 12-week follow up were almost similar between the two groups and statistically not significant at (p=0.618), (p=0.573), and (p=0.915), respectively. However, in a within-group comparison, OHIP PI, OHIP SS, and OHIP EI showed a significant improvement for both treatment and control groups and the p values were ((0.002), (0.008) for PI), ((0.006) and (0.004) for SS) and ((0.006) and (0.002) for EI) in-treatment and control groups, respectively.
CONCLUSION: NSPT did not significantly affect the OHRQoL among those obese with CP. Regardless, NSPT, functional limitation and psychological discomfort domains had significantly improved.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ( NCT02508415 ). Retrospectively registered on 2nd of April 2015.
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the antimicrobial effects of MP, AV, and MP + AV in comparison with Ca(OH)2 against E. faecalis, as an intracanal medicament.
Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of MP, AV, MP + AV, Ca(OH)2, and dimethyl sulfoxide was tested against E. faecalis using antimicrobial sensitivity testing, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with Mann-Whitney post hoc test and repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test (P < 0.05).
Results: For agar well-diffusion method, MP + AV gave maximum inhibition zone diameter (mean: 8.11 ± 0.015 mm), MP (mean: 6.21 ± 0.046 mm, Ca(OH)2 (mean: 5.5 ± 0.006), and AV (mean: 5.05 ± 0.012) with P < 0.05. MIC for MP + AV was 2 mg/ml, MP at 8 mg/ml, Ca(OH)2 at 8 mg/ml, and AV at 16 mg/ml. The MBC for MP + AV is at 4 mg/ml, MP at 16 mg/ml, Ca(OH)2 at 16 mg/ml, and AV at 32 mg/ml.
Conclusion: The combination of MP and AV consistently showed better antimicrobial activity compared to MP and AV alone against E. faecalis. The findings suggest that MP and AV used in combination may be an ideal intracanal medicament in FET and PET.