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  1. Al-Haddad A, Che Ab Aziz ZA
    Int J Biomater, 2016;2016:9753210.
    PMID: 27242904 DOI: 10.1155/2016/9753210
    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.
  2. Alarami N, Sulaiman E, Al-Haddad A
    Am J Dent, 2017 Aug;30(4):197-200.
    PMID: 29178701
    PURPOSE: To evaluate fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically-treated mandibular molars restored with different intra-radicular techniques.

    METHODS: 75 human mandibular molars were randomly divided into five equal groups. Teeth were standardized, endodontically-treated and restored according the assigned group as follows: amalgam core only, prefabricated titanium post in the distal canal and amalgam core, composite core only; fiber post in the distal canal and composite core. One group of untreated sound teeth was used as a control. Non-precious metal crowns were fabricated and cemented on the prepared specimens with Rely X U200 resin cement. All specimens were subjected to a compressive load at crosshead speed 0.5 mm/minute, 25° to the long axis of the tooth. Failure loads and modes were recorded.

    RESULTS: Mean failure loads among the groups were significantly different (P= 0.035). Post-hoc multiple pair-wise comparisons revealed the amalgam core and composite core groups produced significantly lower fracture resistance than the control group (P= 0.041 and P= 0.025, respectively) and no significant differences among the different intra-radicular techniques (P> 0.05). The composite core with fiber post and amalgam core with titanium posts showed the highest percentage of favorable failures (67%) and non-favorable failures (87%) respectively.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The composite core with fiber post is the most appropriate intraradicular restoration in cases of severely compromised molars.

  3. Al-Haddad A, Abu Kasim NH, Che Ab Aziz ZA
    Dent Mater J, 2015;34(4):516-21.
    PMID: 26235718 DOI: 10.4012/dmj.2015-049
    This study evaluated and compared the sealer thickness and interfacial adaptation of bioceramic sealers (Sankin Apatite III, MTA Fillapex(®), EndoSequence(®) BC) to root dentin against AH Plus(®) sealer. Sixty extracted single-root premolars were prepared and equally divided into four groups. Sealers were labeled with 0.1% Rhodamine B fluorescent dye. Roots were dissected along the transverse plane at 1 mm (apical), 3 mm (middle), and 6 mm (coronal) levels. Sealer-to-whole canal area ratio was evaluated. Percentage of gap-containing region to canal circumference was calculated using a confocal laser microscope. Sealer thickness was significantly higher at apical and middle levels than at coronal level. EndoSequence BC had the significantly highest thickness compared with MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. The coronal level had significantly less interfacial gaps compared with apical and middle levels. Bioceramic sealers showed more gaps compared with AH Plus, with no significant differences among them.
  4. Sulaiman E, Alarami N, Wong YI, Lee WH, Al-Haddad A
    Dent Med Probl, 2018 10 18;55(3):275-279.
    PMID: 30328305 DOI: 10.17219/dmp/94656
    BACKGROUND: There is no sufficient literature on the effect of post location on endodontically treated premolar teeth with 2 roots.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post location on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated premolars with 2 roots.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty extracted maxillary first premolars with 2 roots were divided randomly into 5 groups. Group 1 was comprised of sound teeth, which received only metal crowns (control). Teeth from groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were decoronated 2 mm above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and were endodontically treated. No post was placed in group 2 teeth. Teeth from groups 3, 4 and 5 were given a fiber post placed in the buccal canal, palatal canal, and both buccal and palatal canals, respectively. All teeth in groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were built up with composite and full coverage metal crowns. A compressive static load was applied at an angle of 25° to the crowns with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, until fracture.

    RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences among the groups (p = 0.002). A post hoc test showed significantly lower fracture resistance of group 4 compared to group 5 (p = 0.011). Furthermore, group 2 had significantly less fracture resistance compared to group 1 (p = 0.021) and group 5 (p = 0.002). According to Fisher's exact test, different post locations are non-significantly associated with fracture mode (p = 0.256).

    CONCLUSIONS: Fiber post location has a significant effect on fracture resistance of severely damaged, endodontically treated maxillary premolars with 2 roots. However, post placement in the palatal root is preferred, as it maintains the restorability of the tooth.

  5. Kohli S, Al-Haddad A, Siew AY, Nam WL, Hamdan HD, Roslan QA
    Am J Dent, 2021 04;34(2):75-79.
    PMID: 33940663
    PURPOSE: To compare the bleaching efficacy of in-office (Opalescence), professional home (LumiBrite), over the counter (WhiteLight) and natural (strawberry extract) bleaching agents.

    METHODS: 80 teeth were selected and divided into two groups which were stained with black coffee and red wine respectively. The stained specimens were subdivided into four subgroups to be bleached with Opalescence, LumiBrite, WhiteLight and strawberry extract. Color measurements were made using spectrophotometer at baseline level, after staining, after bleaching and 1 week after bleaching. The ΔE₀₀ was calculated post bleaching (ΔE₀₀1), after 1-week follow up (ΔE₀₀2) and color changes between 1-week follow up and baseline (ΔE₀₀3). Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA with a significant difference of P< 0.05.

    RESULTS: Paired t-test showed significant differences in ΔE₀₀1 and ΔE₀₀2 for both stained specimens (P< 0.001). For black coffee stained specimens, Whitelight had significantly higher ΔE₀₀2 compared to the other bleaching agents (P< 0.05). For red wine stain, Whitelight also showed the significantly lowest ΔE₀₀1 (P< 0.001) and the highest ΔE₀₀2 (P< 0.001) compared to other groups. LumiBrite showed the significantly lowest ΔE₀₀3 for red wine stained specimens (P< 0.05). Whitelight had the poorest bleaching efficacy with deterioration effect after 1-week follow up. Opalescence, LumiBrite and strawberry extract had clinically perceptible and comparable bleaching efficacy. Strawberry extract appeared to be a potential natural bleaching agent with a desirable effect.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Commercial tooth bleaching agents can cause several undesirable side effects such as damage to enamel, hypersensitivity and even affecting the pulp. Strawberry extract is a natural, effective bleaching agent that may have reduced side effects.

  6. Kohli S, Bhatia S, Al-Haddad A, Pulikkotil SJ, Jamayet NB
    J Prosthodont, 2022 Feb;31(2):102-114.
    PMID: 34516686 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.13433
    PURPOSE: This is a systematic review to identify the incidence of pulp necrosis and/or periapical changes among vital teeth which are used as an abutment for crown and fixed partial dentures (FPDs).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched two electronic databases, PubMed and Scopus. The search was complemented from references of included studies and published reviews. Studies published in the English language through January 2021 that had assessed and documented the clinical and radiographic failure of crown or FPD in vital permanent teeth due to pulpal or periapical pathology with a follow-up of at least 12 months were selected. Data screening, data collection and extraction of data was performed. Quality of studies involved was analyzed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. Meta-analysis was done using random effects model. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.

    RESULTS: Electronic searches provided 10,075 records among which 20 studies were selected for systematic review and 7 studies were selected for meta-analysis. With respect to quality assessment, all the studies involved were considered as high quality as the score in scale ranged between 6 and 9 as per the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. The meta-analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of the loss of pulp vitality or pulp necrosis through clinical and radiographic examination with the follow up period of 5 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I2 = 77.84%; 10 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.88-0.95, I2 = 93.59%; 15 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.92-0.96, I2 = 94.83%; and 20 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.94-0.96, I2 = 95.01%.

    CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis revealed clinical and radiographic success rate ranging between 92% to 98% at different follow up periods ranging between 5 years and 20 years. Future high-quality randomized clinical controlled trials with a larger population are required to confirm the evidence as only observational studies were considered in this paper.

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