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  1. Low, K.H., Zain, S.M., Abas, M.R., Ali Mohd, M.
    ASM Science Journal, 2009;3(1):71-76.
    MyJurnal
    Fractional factorial design was utilized to evaluate the effect of combinations of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and water for microwave digestion of fish muscle. Upon digestion, copper, iron and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. H2O2 and HCl volumes were found to be the most significant parameters which resulted in good metal recoveries. This is especially so for the effect of HCl on Fe recovery. The results indicated that the combination of 4 mL 65% HNO3, 2 mL 30% H2O2 and 2 mL 30% HCl gave the most satisfactory percentage recovery. There was good agreement between measured and certified values for all metals with respect to the DORM-3 fish protein.
  2. Veerasingam SA, Ali Mohd M
    J Water Health, 2013 Jun;11(2):311-23.
    PMID: 23708578 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2013.151
    The presence of endocrine disruptors in source water is of great concern because of their suspected adverse effects on humans, even when present at very low levels. As the main source of potable water supply, rivers in Malaysia are highly susceptible to contamination by various endocrine disruptors originating from anthropogenic activities. In this study, the contamination levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rivers of Selangor were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from sites representing source water for 18 drinking water treatment plants in Selangor between July 2008 and July 2009. DDT and its metabolites were detected in only 14% of the 192 samples analysed at levels ranging from 0.6 to 14.6 ng/L. Meanwhile DEHP was detected in 96.8% of the samples at levels ranging from below quantitation level (18 ng/L) to 970 ng/L. The detected levels of DDTs and DEHP were lower than the WHO and Malaysian Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Data obtained from this study should also serve as a reference point for future surveillance on these endocrine disruptors.
  3. Tan BL, Ali Mohd M
    Talanta, 2003 Nov 4;61(3):385-91.
    PMID: 18969198 DOI: 10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00281-9
    A total of seven pesticides and eight alkylphenols were monitored using this method for the determination of their trace levels in human cord blood. The pesticides are lindane, diazinon, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlorpyrifos and endrin; while the alkylphenols are 4-n-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, nonylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol and bisphenol A. The pesticides and alkylphenols in the cord blood samples were extracted with solid phase extraction IST C18 cartridges and analyzed by selected ion monitoring mode using quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Trace levels of pesticide and alkylphenols in the range of non-detectable to 15.17 ng ml(-1), were detected in the human cord blood samples. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in blood samples is consistent, reliable and cost effective while reducing wastage of time and solvents.
  4. Najib Nik A Rahman N, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Ali Mohd M
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1999 Mar;64(3):249-54.
    PMID: 10363840
    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species.
  5. Hod R, Kouidhi W, Ali Mohd M, Husain R
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016;25(1):89-96.
    PMID: 26965767 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.02
    Epidemiological studies indicate lower prevalences of breast and prostate cancers and cardiovascular disease in Southeast Asia where vegetarianism is popular and diets are traditionally high in phytoestrogens. This study assessed plasma isoflavones in vegetarian and non-vegetarian Malaysian men according to age. Daidzein, genistein, equol (a daidzein metabolite), formononetin, biochanin A, estrone, estradiol and testosterone were measured by validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Plasma isoflavone and sex hormone concentrations were measured in 225 subjects according to age (18-34, 35-44 and 45-67 years old). In all age groups, vegetarians had a higher concentration of circulating isoflavones compared with non-vegetarians especially in the 45-67 year age group where all isoflavones except equol, were significantly higher in vegetarians compared with omnivores. By contrast, the 18-34 year group had a significantly higher concentration of daidzein in vegetarians and significantly higher testosterone and estrone concentrations compared with non-vegetarians. In this age group there were weak correlations between estrone, estradiol and testosterone with some of the isoflavones. This human study provides the first Malaysian data for the phytoestrogen status of vegetarian and nonvegetarian men.
  6. Sakai N, Mohd Yusof R, Sapar M, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 Apr 01;548-549:43-50.
    PMID: 26799806 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.040
    Beta-agonists and sulfonamides are widely used for treating both humans and livestock for bronchial and cardiac problems, infectious disease and even as growth promoters. There are concerns about their potential environmental impacts, such as producing drug resistance in bacteria. This study focused on their spatial distribution in surface water and the identification of pollution sources in the Langat River basin, which is one of the most urbanized watersheds in Malaysia. Fourteen beta-agonists and 12 sulfonamides were quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to visualize catchment areas of the sampling points, and source profiling was conducted to identify the pollution sources based on a correlation between a daily pollutant load of the detected contaminant and an estimated density of human or livestock population in the catchment areas. As a result, 6 compounds (salbutamol, sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxazole) were widely detected in mid catchment areas towards estuary. The source profiling indicated that the pollution sources of salbutamol and sulfamethoxazole were from sewage, while sulfadiazine was from effluents of cattle, goat and sheep farms. Thus, this combination method of quantitative and spatial analysis clarified the spatial distribution of these drugs and assisted for identifying the pollution sources.
  7. Sakai N, Sakai M, Mohamad Haron DE, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Chemosphere, 2016 Dec;165:183-190.
    PMID: 27654221 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.022
    Fourteen beta-agonists were quantitatively analyzed in cattle, chicken and swine liver specimens purchased at 14 wet markets in Selangor State, Malaysia, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol residues in the Malaysian population were assessed based on quantitative data and meat consumption statistics in Malaysia. Wastewater samples collected at swine farms (n = 2) and cattle/cow farms (n = 2) in the Kuala Langat district were analyzed for the presence for the 14 compounds. Wastewater in chicken farms was not collected because there was negligible discharge during the breeding period. The environmental impacts caused by beta-agonists discharged from livestock farms were spatially assessed in the Langat River basin using a geographic information system (GIS). As a result, 10 compounds were detected in the liver specimens. Ractopamine, which is a permitted compound for swine in Malaysia, was frequently detected in swine livers; also, 9 other compounds that are prohibited compounds could be illegally abused among livestock farms. The health risks of ractopamine and clenbuterol were assessed to be minimal as their hazard quotients were no more than 7.82 × 10(-4) and 2.71 × 10(-3), respectively. Five beta-agonists were detected in the wastewater samples, and ractopamine in the swine farm resulted in the highest contamination (30.1 μg/L). The environmental impacts of the beta-agonists in the Langat River basin were generally concluded to be minimal, but the ractopamine contamination released from swine farms was localized in coastal areas near the estuary of the Langat River basin because most swine farms were located in that region.
  8. Kouidhi W, Thannimalay L, Soon CS, Ali Mohd M
    Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2017 Jul 14;30(5):743-750.
    PMID: 28584331 DOI: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00917
    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis.

    RESULTS: Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide the first evidence that workers in a molding factory in Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750.

  9. Sakai N, Dayana E, Abu Bakar A, Yoneda M, Nik Sulaiman NM, Ali Mohd M
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Oct;188(10):592.
    PMID: 27679511
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.
  10. Sakai N, Shirasaka J, Matsui Y, Ramli MR, Yoshida K, Ali Mohd M, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2017 Apr;172:234-241.
    PMID: 28081507 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.139
    Five homologs (C10-C14) of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were quantitated in surface water collected in the Langat and Selangor River basins using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to spatially analyze the occurrence of LAS in both river basins, and the LAS contamination associated with the population was elucidated by spatial analysis at a sub-basin level. The LAS concentrations in the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) and 4 fractions separated by particle size (<0.1 μm, 0.1-1 μm, 1-11 μm and >11 μm) were analyzed to elucidate the environmental fate of LAS in the study area. The environmental risks of the observed LAS concentration were assessed based on predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) normalized by a quantitative structure-activity relationship model. The LAS contamination mainly occurred from a few populated sub-basins, and it was correlated with the population density and ammonia nitrogen. The dissolved phase was less than 20% in high contamination sites (>1000 μg/L), whereas it was more than 60% in less contaminated sites (<100 μg/L). The environmental fate of LAS in the study area was primarily subject to the adsorption to suspended solids rather than biodegradation because the LAS homologs, particularly in longer alkyl chain lengths, were considerably absorbed to the large size fraction (>11 μm) that settled in a few hours. The observed LAS concentrations exceeded the normalized PNEC at 3 sites, and environmental risk areas and susceptible areas to the LAS contamination were spatially identified based on their catchment areas.
  11. Sakai N, Yamamoto S, Matsui Y, Khan MF, Latif MT, Ali Mohd M, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2017 May 15;586:1279-1286.
    PMID: 28236484 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.139
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in indoor air were investigated at 39 private residences in Selangor State, Malaysia to characterize the indoor air quality and to identify pollution sources. Twenty-two VOCs including isomers (14 aldehydes, 5 aromatic hydrocarbons, acetone, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) were collected by 2 passive samplers for 24h and quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Source profiling based on benzene/toluene ratio as well as statistical analysis (cluster analysis, bivariate correlation analysis and principal component analysis) was performed to identify pollution sources of the detected VOCs. The VOCs concentrations were compared with regulatory limits of air quality guidelines in WHO/EU, the US, Canada and Japan to clarify the potential health risks to the residents. The 39 residences were classified into 2 groups and 2 ungrouped residences based on the dendrogram in the cluster analysis. Group 1 (n=30) had mainly toluene (6.87±2.19μg/m3), formaldehyde (16.0±10.1μg/m3), acetaldehyde (5.35±4.57μg/m3) and acetone (11.1±5.95μg/m3) at background levels. Group 2 (n=7) had significantly high values of formaldehyde (99.3±10.7μg/m3) and acetone (35.8±12.6μg/m3), and a tendency to have higher values of acetaldehyde (23.7±13.5μg/m3), butyraldehyde (3.35±0.41μg/m3) and isovaleraldehyde (2.30±0.39μg/m3). The 2 ungrouped residences showed particularly high concentrations of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene: 235μg/m3 in total) or acetone (133μg/m3). The geometric mean value of formaldehyde (19.2μg/m3) exceeded an 8-hour regulatory limit in Canada (9μg/m3), while those in other compounds did not exceed any regulatory limits, although a few residences exceeded at least one regulatory limit of benzene or acetaldehyde. Thus, the VOCs in the private residences were effectively characterized from the limited number of monitoring, and the potential health risks of the VOCs exposure, particularly formaldehyde, should be considered in the study area.
  12. Sakai N, Alsaad Z, Thuong NT, Shiota K, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M
    Chemosphere, 2017 Oct;184:857-865.
    PMID: 28646768 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.070
    Arsenic and 5 heavy metals (nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead) were quantitated in surface water (n = 18) and soil/ore samples (n = 45) collected from 5 land uses (oil palm converted from forest, oil palm in peat swamp, bare land, quarry and forest) in the Selangor River basin by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Geographic information system (GIS) was used as a spatial analytical tool to classify 4 land uses (forest, agriculture/peat, urban and bare land) from a satellite image taken by Landsat 8. Source profiling of the 6 elements was conducted to identify their occurrence, their distribution and the pollution source associated with the land use. The concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were also analyzed in maternal blood (n = 99) and cord blood (n = 87) specimens from 136 pregnant women collected at the University of Malaya Medical Center for elucidating maternal exposure as well as maternal-to-fetal transfer. The source profiling identified that nickel and zinc were discharged from sewage and/or industrial effluents, and that lead was discharged from mining sites. Arsenic showed a site-specific pollution in tin-tungsten deposit areas, and the pollution source could be associated with arsenopyrite. The maternal blood levels of arsenic (0.82 ± 0.61 μg/dL), cadmium (0.15 ± 0.2 μg/dL) and lead (2.6 ± 2.1 μg/dL) were not significantly high compared to their acute toxicity levels, but could have attributable risks of chronic toxicity. Those in cord blood were significantly decreased in cadmium (0.06 ± 0.07 μg/dL) and lead (0.99 ± 1.2 μg/dL) but were equivalent in arsenic (0.82 ± 1.1 μg/dL) because of the different kinetics of maternal-to-fetal transfer.
  13. Ramli MR, Yoneda M, Ali Mohd M, Mohamad Haron DE, Ahmad ED
    Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2020 01;223(1):179-186.
    PMID: 31542349 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.09.005
    For decades, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been commonly used for industrial and commercial purposes due to their water- and stain-resistant properties. Persistent pollutants that contain PFAAs have been associated with adverse health effects in humans, and many studies have documented dietary intake, indoor air inhalation, and dermal contact as the potential routes for human exposure to PFAAs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of PFAAs in the serum samples of a general population in a specific region in Malaysia. Using 219 serum samples collected from residents of Klang Valley, Malaysia, the levels of nine PFAAs were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, questionnaire surveys on the dietary habits and lifestyles of the subjects were conducted. The results showed that PFAA concentrations of up to 32.57 ng/mL were detected in all serum samples. In 82.6% of the participants, at least seven PFAAs were detected in the serum samples, with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid being the predominant PFAA (median = 8.79 ng/mL). In the adjusted regression model, the concentrations of most PFAAs were higher in men than in women and positively correlated with age, although body mass index and smoking were not significantly associated with the serum PFAA concentrations. Taking into consideration the lifestyle variables, significant associations were found between nonstick cookware and perfluorononanoic acid, between dental floss and cosmetics and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and between leather sofa and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Besides, consumption of beef was significantly associated with increased levels of serum PFUnDA, whereas consumption of lamb and chicken eggs was negatively associated with the serum levels of PFUnDA and PFDA, respectively.
  14. Wong LP, Mohd Salim SN, Alias H, Aghamohammadi N, Hoe VCW, Isahak M, et al.
    J Addict Nurs, 2020 6 4;31(2):102-109.
    PMID: 32487936 DOI: 10.1097/JAN.0000000000000335
    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have rapidly increased in popularity within the last 2 years in Malaysia. The study aims to understand the association between e-cigarette use behaviors and salivary cotinine (a CYP2AA metabolite of nicotine) concentration to inform the development of future e-cigarette control policies. A convenience sample of saliva from 144 e-cigarette users was obtained between November and December 2015. The study participants used refill liquid containing between 0 and 12 mg/ml of nicotine. The overall median cotinine concentration of the study participants was 81.1 ng/ml (interquartile range = 8.5-195.8). Among the zero-nicotine and single e-cigarette users, the median cotinine level was 51.1 (interquartile range = 8.20-125.35) ng/ml. Factors significantly associated with a higher salivary cotinine concentration were dual use of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, regular and daily e-cigarette use, a longer duration of e-cigarette use, using a higher amount of e-liquid, and a shorter duration to finish a refill. Multivariate analysis revealed that e-cigarette use of 1-6 and 6-12 months (but not 1 month and below) was significantly associated with a higher cotinine concentration. Cotinine found in zero-nicotine e-liquids implies the importance of stringent regulatory governance for the consistency of labeled nicotine content of e-cigarette liquid in the market. Zero-nicotine e-cigarette users should also be informed of the likelihood of environmental exposure to tobacco smoke. Future studies conducted on larger samples are warranted to validate the association between duration of e-cigarette use and salivary cotinine concentration as well as to investigate underlying mechanisms.
  15. Narrima P, Paydar M, Looi CY, Wong YL, Taha H, Wong WF, et al.
    PMID: 24808916 DOI: 10.1155/2014/248103
    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.
  16. Rajandram R, Yap NY, Ong TA, Mun KS, Mohamad Wali HA, Hasan MS, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Apr;39(1):47-53.
    PMID: 28413205 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, prolonged ketamine abuse has been reported to cause urinary tract damage. However, there is little information on the pathological effects of ketamine from oral administration. We aimed to study the effects of oral ketamine on the urinary tract and the reversibility of these changes after cessation of ketamine intake.

    METHODS: Rats were fed with illicit (a concoction of street ketamine) ketamine in doses of 100 (N=12), or 300 mg/kg (N=12) for four weeks. Half of the rats were sacrificed after the 4-week feeding for necropsy. The remaining rats were taken off ketamine for 8 weeks to allow for any potential recovery of pathological changes before being sacrificed for necropsy. Histopathological examination was performed on the kidney and urinary bladder.

    RESULTS: Submucosal bladder inflammation was seen in 67% of the rats fed with 300 mg/kg illicit ketamine. No bladder inflammation was observed in the control and 100 mg/kg illicit ketamine groups. Renal changes, such as interstitial nephritis and papillary necrosis, were observed in rats given illicit ketamine. After ketamine cessation, no inflammation was observed in the bladder of all rats. However, renal inflammation remained in 60% of the rats given illicit ketamine. No dose-effect relationship was established between oral ketamine and changes in the kidneys.

    CONCLUSION: Oral ketamine caused pathological changes in the urinary tract, similar to that described in exposure to parenteral ketamine. The changes in the urinary bladder were reversible after short-term exposure.

  17. Abdul Rahman M, Mohamad Haron DE, Hollows RJ, Abdul Ghani ZDF, Ali Mohd M, Chai WL, et al.
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9304.
    PMID: 32547888 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9304
    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a significant world health problem, with approximately 600,000 new cases being diagnosed annually. The prognosis for patients with HNSCC is poor and, therefore, the identification of biomarkers for screening, diagnosis and prognostication would be clinically beneficial. A limited number of studies have used lipidomics to profile lipid species in the plasma of cancer patients. However, the profile and levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species have not been examined in HNSCC. In this study, a targeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) was used to analyse the concentration of LPA (16:0 LPA, 18:0 LPA, 18:1 LPA, 18:2 LPA and 20:4 LPA) in the plasma of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), together with healthy controls. The levels of three LPA species (18:1 LPA, 18:2 LPA and 20:4 LPA) were significantly lower in the plasma of OSCC patients, whilst the concentrations of all five LPA species tested were significantly lower in plasma from NPC patients. Furthermore, the order of abundance of LPA species in plasma was different between the control and cancer groups, with 16:0 LPA, 18:0 LPA levels being more abundant in OSCC and NPC patients. Medium to strong correlations were observed using all pairs of LPA species and a clear separation of the normal and tumour groups was observed using PCA analysis. In summary, the results of this study showed that the levels of several LPA species in the plasma of patients with OSCC and NPC were lower than those from healthy individuals. Understanding these variations may provide novel insights into the role of LPA in these cancers.
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