Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Ahmed F, Urooj A, Karim AA
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2013 Apr;9(34):130-4.
    PMID: 23772108 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.111265
    Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) bark is a rich source of phenolic compounds known to possess potential antioxidant activity offering numerous health benefits.
  2. Kuan YH, Bhat R, Karim AA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2011 Apr 27;59(8):4111-8.
    PMID: 21401213 DOI: 10.1021/jf104050k
    The physicochemical and functional properties of ultraviolet (UV)-treated egg white protein (EW) and sodium caseinate (SC) were investigated. UV irradiation of the proteins was carried out for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. However, the SC samples were subjected to extended UV irradiation for 4 and 6 h as no difference was found on the initial UV exposure time. Formol titration, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR analyses indicated that UV irradiation could induce cross-linking on proteins and led to improved emulsifying and foaming properties (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the UV-irradiated EW and SC could be used as novel emulsifier and foaming agents in broad food systems for stabilizing and foaming purposes.
  3. Chan HT, Bhat R, Karim AA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Jul 8;57(13):5965-70.
    PMID: 19489606 DOI: 10.1021/jf9008789
    The effects of oxidation by ozone gas on some physicochemical and functional properties of starch (corn, sago, and tapioca) were investigated. Starch in dry powder form was exposed to ozone for 10 min at different ozone generation times (OGTs). Carboxyl and carbonyl contents increased markedly in all starches with increasing OGTs. Oxidation significantly decreased the swelling power of oxidized sago and tapioca starches but increased that of oxidized corn starch. The solubility of tapioca starch decreased and sago starch increased after oxidation. However, there was an insignificant changed in the solubility of oxidized corn starch. Intrinsic viscosity [eta] of all oxidized starches decreased significantly, except for tapioca starch oxidized at 5 min OGT. Pasting properties of the oxidized starches followed different trends as OGTs increased. These results show that under similar conditions of ozone treatment, the extent of starch oxidation varies among different types of starch.
  4. Md Naziri S.Z., Abu Bakar S.N., Alias A., Ibrahim A., Mohamed Swarhib D.M.J., Mohd Nor F.
    Introduction: Hanging is one of the most common methods of suicide in Malaysia, and to date, there is a rise in the number of deaths by hanging among adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of hanging in Malaysia from the year 2000 till 2009. Methods: The sample comprised 108 cases received at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, and five parameters, namely, age, sex, racial affiliation, marital status, and medical history were studied. Results: Of the 108 cases, 56% was reported to be Chinese. Suicide by hanging was more predominant in males (81%), and a high number of cases were seen in age groups of 21 to 30, 31 to 40 and 41 to 50 years. Of the cases studied, half of them were married, and previous history of physical and mental illness and alcohol intoxication were reported. Conclusions: In brief, this data would help the higher authorities in detecting the causes of suicide by hanging, as well as detecting the high risk groups with suicidal tendencies. In this way, suicide can be prevented and thus, the rate of suicide by hanging could be reduced in Malaysian.
  5. Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Dec;91(15):2731-9.
    PMID: 21987075 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4454
    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
  6. Fazilah A, Azemi MN, Karim AA, Norakma MN
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Feb 25;57(4):1527-31.
    PMID: 19166335 DOI: 10.1021/jf8028013
    Hemicelluloses from oil palm frond (OPF) were extracted using 3 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 4 h at 40 degrees C with stirring at 400 rpm to obtain hemicelluloses A and B. The total yield of the hemicellulose isolated from OPF was 33% (dry weight). Both hemicelluloses A and B were then subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 121 degrees C and 1.03 x 10(5) Pa for 10, 30, and 50 min. Physicochemical characterizations of hydrothermally treated hemicelluloses, such as Klason lignin content and reducing sugar content, were performed to study the effect of autohydrolysis processing on OPF-derived hemicelluloses. It was shown that Klason lignin content in hemicellulose A was higher than that in hemicellulose B and decreased after hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment enhanced the solubility of hemicelluloses, which reflects their higher reducing sugar content. Monosaccharide analysis using HPLC showed that xylose was the predominant monosaccharide for both hemicelluloses A and B.
  7. Alias A, Grimshaw RH, Khusnutdinova KR
    Chaos, 2013 Jun;23(2):023121.
    PMID: 23822486 DOI: 10.1063/1.4808249
    In the weakly nonlinear limit, oceanic internal solitary waves for a single linear long wave mode are described by the KdV equation, extended to the Ostrovsky equation in the presence of background rotation. In this paper we consider the scenario when two different linear long wave modes have nearly coincident phase speeds and show that the appropriate model is a system of two coupled Ostrovsky equations. These are systematically derived for a density-stratified ocean. Some preliminary numerical simulations are reported which show that, in the generic case, initial solitary-like waves are destroyed and replaced by two coupled nonlinear wave packets, being the counterpart of the same phenomenon in the single Ostrovsky equation.
  8. Grimshaw R, Stepanyants Y, Alias A
    PMID: 26997887
    It is well known that the Ostrovsky equation with normal dispersion does not support steady solitary waves. An initial Korteweg-de Vries solitary wave decays adiabatically through the radiation of long waves and is eventually replaced by an envelope solitary wave whose carrier wave and envelope move with different velocities (phase and group velocities correspondingly). Here, we examine the same initial condition for the Ostrovsky equation with anomalous dispersion, when the wave frequency increases with wavenumber in the limit of very short waves. The essential difference is that now there exists a steady solitary wave solution (Ostrovsky soliton), which in the small-amplitude limit can be described asymptotically through the solitary wave solution of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, based at that wavenumber where the phase and group velocities coincide. Long-time numerical simulations show that the emergence of this steady envelope solitary wave is a very robust feature. The initial Korteweg-de Vries solitary wave transforms rapidly to this envelope solitary wave in a seemingly non-adiabatic manner. The amplitude of the Ostrovsky soliton strongly correlates with the initial Korteweg-de Vries solitary wave.
  9. Saravanan C, Alias A, Mohamad M
    J Affect Disord, 2017 10 01;220:108-116.
    PMID: 28618312 DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.037
    BACKGROUND: Students who go to other countries for higher education face various psychological problems, particularly homesickness and depression. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify differences between students who did and did not receive brief individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression to reduce homesickness; (b) identify whether brief individual CBT for depression reduces the level of homesickness in students between pre-, post- and follow-up assessment; and (c) compare the scores of students experiencing only homesickness and those experiencing both homesickness and depression.

    METHOD: The sample consisted of 520 first-year undergraduate international students. The experimental group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received seven sessions of brief individual CBT for depression to reduce homesickness. The control group contained students who were diagnosed with depression and homesickness and received one session of advice and suggestions. The comparison group contained students who experienced only homesickness and did not receive any interventions. The study used the comparison group to determine if an interaction effect existed between students experiencing only homesickness and students experiencing both homesickness and depression.

    RESULTS: Students who received brief individual CBT displayed a significant reduction in their homesickness and depression scores compared to the scores of students in the control group. Students who experienced only homesickness exhibited a significant reduction in the scores on homesickness in the post-assessment compared to the control group's post-assessment homesickness scores.

    LIMITATION: The results of this study cannot be generalized as data were collected from three universities in Malaysia. The follow-up assessment was conducted six months after the post-assessment, which also limits generalizability beyond six months.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, homesickness is considered a normal reaction. Brief individual CBT for depression is effective in reducing homesickness and depression among international students.

  10. Abdullah B, Alias A, Hassan S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Oct;16(4):50-4.
    PMID: 22135512 MyJurnal
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a non-lymphomatous, squamous cell carcinoma that occurs in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, an area that shows varying degrees of differentiation. Although relatively rare worldwide, NPC has substantial incidence and mortality in populations in Southeast Asia and in people with Southern Chinese ancestry. In Malaysia, NPC is a leading cancer type. In the clinic, NPC presents on a very wide spectrum. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion on the part of the clinician and an increased awareness by the patient is essential for the recognition of an early lesion. Early detection of the cancer is important as it affects the patient's prognosis and the mode of treatment. Managing patients with NPC is very challenging as patients usually present late when the cancer is already in an advanced stage. Here, we review the challenges in the management of NPC.
  11. Alias AM, Shahruniza AS, Sulaiman H
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):456-458.
    PMID: 31649232
    Fosfomycin (FMT) was first isolated in 1969 and has gained popularity in the past few decades, specifically in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective study was undertaken to study the pattern of FMT use in our outpatient clinics. Subjects were divided into guideline compliant (GC) and non-guideline compliant (NGC) groups, based on available guidelines. More than half of the subjects (51, 51%) fall in the NGC group. Diabetes was an independent risk factor for inappropriate FMT prescription. This represented an opportunity for antimicrobial stewardship in treating diabetic patients with uncomplicated UTI when this agent is chosen.
  12. Leong XF, Choy KW, Alias A
    Front Pharmacol, 2021;12:758929.
    PMID: 34975474 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.758929
    Atherosclerosis poses serious health problems and increases the risk of various cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, heart failure, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Atherosclerosis patients require long-term medications to prevent complications, some of which are costly and may result in unwanted adverse reactions. Natural products have emerged as potential sources of bioactive compounds that provide health benefits in cardiovascular diseases. Increased inflammation and vascular remodeling have been associated with atherosclerosis pathogenesis. The molecules involved in signaling pathways are considered valuable targets for new treatment approaches. Therefore, this review aimed to summarize the available evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone, the major active compound isolated from Nigella sativa L., via inflammatory signaling pathways in atherosclerosis. Specifically, nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways were considered. Furthermore, the potential toxic effects elicited by thymoquinone were addressed. These findings suggest a potential role of thymoquinone in managing atherosclerosis, and further studies are required to ascertain its effectiveness and safety profile.
  13. Zi-Ni T, Rosma A, Napisah H, Karim AA, Liong MT
    J Food Sci, 2015 Apr;80(4):H875-82.
    PMID: 25739421 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12817
    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.
  14. Abedin MZ, Karim AA, Ahmed F, Latiff AA, Gan CY, Che Ghazali F, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 Mar 30;93(5):1083-8.
    PMID: 22936269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5854
    Sea cucumber (Stichopus vastus) is considered an underutilized resource, since only its stomach and intestines are eaten raw as salad in a few countries and the remaining parts, especially the integument rich in collagen, is discarded. Hence a valuable by-product having potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications is wasted. In the present investigation, pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) from the integument of S. vastus was isolated, purified and characterized.
  15. Abd Elgadir M, Akanda MJ, Ferdosh S, Mehrnoush A, Karim AA, Noda T, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Jan 09;17(1):584-97.
    PMID: 22231495 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17010584
    A binary mixture of starch-starch or starch with other biopolymers such as protein and non-starch polysaccharides could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products. In the context of food processing, a specific adjustment in the rheological properties plays an important role in regulating production processing and optimizing the applicability, stability, and sensory of the final food products. This review examines various biopolymer mixtures based on starch and the influence of their interaction on physicochemical and rheological properties of the starch-based foods. It is evident that the physicochemical and rheological characteristics of the biopolymers mixture are highly dependent on the type of starch and other biopolymers that make them up mixing ratios, mixing procedure and presence of other food ingredients in the mixture. Understanding these properties will lead to improve the formulation of starch-based foods and minimize the need to resort to chemically modified starch.
  16. Kuan YH, Bhat R, Senan C, Williams PA, Karim AA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9154-9.
    PMID: 19757813 DOI: 10.1021/jf9015625
    The impact of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the physicochemical and functional properties of gum arabic was investigated. Gum arabic samples were exposed to UV irradiation for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min; gum arabic was also treated with formaldehyde for comparison. Molecular weight analysis using gel permeation chromatography indicated that no significant changes occurred on the molecular structure on the samples exposed to UV irradiation. Free amino group analysis indicated that mild UV irradiation (30 min) could induce cross-linking on gum arabic; this result was comparable with that of samples treated with formaldehyde. However, viscosity break down was observed for samples exposed to UV irradiation for longer times (90 and 120 min). All irradiated and formaldehyde-treated samples exhibited better emulsification properties than unirradiated samples. These results indicate that UV-irradiated gum arabic could be a better emulsifier than the native (unmodified) gum arabic and could be exploited commercially.
  17. Siew-Wai L, Zi-Ni T, Karim AA, Hani NM, Rosma A
    J Agric Food Chem, 2010 Feb 24;58(4):2274-8.
    PMID: 20121195 DOI: 10.1021/jf903820s
    The in vitro fermentability of sago (Metroxylon sagu) resistant starch type III (RS(3)) by selected probiotic bacteria was investigated. Sago RS(3) with 12% RS content was prepared by enzymatic debranching of native sago starch with pullulanase enzyme, followed by autoclaving, cooling, and annealing. The fermentation of sago RS(3) by L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. casei FTCC 0442, and B. bifidum BB12 was investigated by observing the bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption profiles, pH changes, and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the fermentation media. Comparisons were made with commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), Hi-maize 1043, and Hi-maize 240. Submerged fermentations were conducted in 30 mL glass vials for 24 h at 37 degrees C in an oven without shaking. The results indicated that fermentation of sago RS(3) significantly (P < 0.05) yielded the highest count of Lactobacillus sp. accompanied by the largest reduction in pH of the medium. Sago RS(3) was significantly the most consumed substrate compared to FOS and Hi-maizes.
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