Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

  1. Reidpath D, Allotey P, 166 signatories
    Science, 2020 May 15;368(6492):725.
    PMID: 32409468 DOI: 10.1126/science.abc2677
  2. Long Q, He M, Tang X, Allotey P, Tang S
    Diabet Med, 2017 01;34(1):120-126.
    PMID: 27472098 DOI: 10.1111/dme.13193
    AIM: This study aims to investigate the medical expenditure of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chongqing, China; to explore factors that contribute to the expenditure; and to examine the financial burden placed on households, particularly poor households.
    METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted with a sample of people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2014. Of the 664 people eligible, 76% were interviewed. Descriptive statistics and log-linear regression were used to examine respondents' age, sex and level education, location of residence, income and type of health insurance associated with out-of-pocket expenditure on accessing diabetes mellitus care.
    RESULTS: In a year, average out-of-pocket expenditure on the purchase of drugs from pharmacies and having outpatient care were US $333 and US $310, respectively. The average out-of-pocket expenditure on accessing inpatient care was 3.7 times (US $1159) that of accessing outpatient care. After adjusting for age and sex, out-of-pocket expenditure on diabetes care was significantly higher for people covered by the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance programme and those enrolled in the identified priority diseases reimbursement programme, which provided higher reimbursement rates for outpatient and (or) inpatient care. Out-of-pocket expenditures on the purchase of drugs from pharmacies, having outpatient and inpatient care, respectively, were 9.8%, 16.2% and 62.6% of annual household income in low-income group.
    CONCLUSION: Even with health insurance coverage, poor people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus suffered from significant financial hardship. This has significant implications for models of care and healthcare financing in China with the growing burden of diabetes.
    Study site: Township or community health centres, Chongqing, China
  3. Davey TM, Allotey P, Reidpath DD
    Public Health, 2013 Dec;127(12):1057-62.
    PMID: 24268545 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.09.008
    Effective population-level solutions to the obesity pandemic have proved elusive. In low- and middle-income countries the problem may be further challenged by the perceived internal tension between economic development and sustainable solutions which create the optimal conditions for human health and well-being. This paper discusses some of the ecological obstacles to addressing the growing problem of obesity in 'aspiring' economies, using Malaysia as a case study. The authors conclude that current measures to stimulate economic growth in Malaysia may actually be exacerbating the problem of obesity in that country. Public health solutions which address the wider context in which obesity exists are needed to change the course of this burgeoning problem.
  4. Reidpath DD, Masood M, Allotey P
    Int J Public Health, 2014 Jun;59(3):503-7.
    PMID: 24045784 DOI: 10.1007/s00038-013-0510-1
    OBJECTIVES: Four metrics to characterise population overweight are described.

    METHODS: Behavioural Risk Factors Surveillance System data were used to estimate the weight the US population needed to lose to achieve a BMI 

  5. Allotey P, Reidpath DD, Pokhrel S
    Health Res Policy Syst, 2010 Oct 21;8:32.
    PMID: 20961461 DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-8-32
    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control.Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms.In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control.
  6. Reidpath DD, Allotey P, Pokhrel S
    Health Res Policy Syst, 2011 Jan 06;9:1.
    PMID: 21210997 DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-9-1
    BACKGROUND: There are strong arguments for social science and interdisciplinary research in the neglected tropical diseases. These diseases represent a rich and dynamic interplay between vector, host, and pathogen which occurs within social, physical and biological contexts. The overwhelming sense, however, is that neglected tropical diseases research is a biomedical endeavour largely excluding the social sciences. The purpose of this review is to provide a baseline for discussing the quantum and nature of the science that is being conducted, and the extent to which the social sciences are a part of that.

    METHODS: A bibliographic analysis was conducted of neglected tropical diseases related research papers published over the past 10 years in biomedical and social sciences. The analysis had textual and bibliometric facets, and focussed on chikungunya, dengue, visceral leishmaniasis, and onchocerciasis.

    RESULTS: There is substantial variation in the number of publications associated with each disease. The proportion of the research that is social science based appears remarkably consistent (<4%). A textual analysis, however, reveals a degree of misclassification by the abstracting service where a surprising proportion of the "social sciences" research was pure clinical research. Much of the social sciences research also tends to be "hand maiden" research focused on the implementation of biomedical solutions.

    CONCLUSION: There is little evidence that scientists pay any attention to the complex social, cultural, biological, and environmental dynamic involved in human pathogenesis. There is little investigator driven social science and a poor presence of interdisciplinary science. The research needs more sophisticated funders and priority setters who are not beguiled by uncritical biomedical promises.

  7. Aborigo RA, Allotey P, Reidpath DD
    Soc Sci Med, 2015 May;133:59-66.
    PMID: 25841096 DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.046
    Traditional medical systems in low income countries remain the first line service of choice, particularly for rural communities. Although the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is recognised in many primary health care systems in low income countries, other types of traditional practitioners have had less traction. We explored the role played by traditional healers in northern Ghana in managing pregnancy-related complications and examined their relevance to current initiatives to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. A grounded theory qualitative approach was employed. Twenty focus group discussions were conducted with TBAs and 19 in-depth interviews with traditional healers with expertise in managing obstetric complications. Traditional healers are extensively consulted to manage obstetric complications within their communities. Their clientele includes families who for either reasons of access or traditional beliefs, will not use modern health care providers, or those who shop across multiple health systems. The traditional practitioners claim expertise in a range of complications that are related to witchcraft and other culturally defined syndromes; conditions for which modern health care providers are believed to lack expertise. Most healers expressed a willingness to work with the formal health services because they had unique knowledge, skills and the trust of the community. However this would require a stronger acknowledgement and integration within safe motherhood programs.
  8. Wong YS, Allotey P, Reidpath DD
    PMID: 29868204 DOI: 10.1017/gheg.2016.8
    Universal health coverage is a key health target in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that has the means to link equitable social and economic development. As a concept firmly based on equity, it is widely accepted at international and national levels as important for populations to attain 'health for all' especially for marginalised groups. However, implementing universal coverage has been fraught with challenges and the increasing privatisation of health care provision adds to the challenge because it is being implemented in a health system that rests on a property regime that promotes inequality. This paper asks the question, 'What does an equitable health system look like?' rather than the usual 'How do you make the existing health system more equitable?' Using an ethnographic approach, the authors explored via interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation a health system that uses the commons approach such as which exists with indigenous peoples and found features that helped make the system intrinsically equitable. Based on these features, the paper proposes an alternative basis to organise universal health coverage that will better ensure equity in health systems and ultimately contribute to meeting the SDGs.
  9. Allotey-Reidpath KD, Allotey P, Reidpath DD
    Reprod Health Matters, 2018 Dec;26(52):1451173.
    PMID: 29651926 DOI: 10.1080/09688080.2018.1451173
    Recent globally compiled evidence suggests that one-quarter of pregnancies end in abortions. However, abortions remain illegal in many countries, resulting in unsafe practices. Debates have largely stalled with the pro-life, pro-choice epithets. To provide further arguments in support of legalising abortion services, we argue that the state cannot demand of a woman that she maintains an unwanted pregnancy because that demand places her in a state of involuntary servitude. Involuntary servitude would put states in breach of international human rights law (Article 8 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights). Furthermore, we argue that the fact that a life may be forfeit when a woman withdraws her service is no basis for enforcing the servitude. We draw on the 13th Amendment of the US Constitution as an example to extend the argument and highlight the need to test involuntary servitude in international human rights law through mechanisms offered in the international periodic review of member states. This could provide a robust approach to support and strengthen access to safe abortion services.
  10. Allotey P, Allotey-Reidpath C, Reidpath DD
    PLoS One, 2017;12(5):e0177386.
    PMID: 28493948 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177386
    BACKGROUND: Gender bias in medical journals can affect the science and the benefit to patients. It has never been investigated in clinical case reports. The oversight is important because of the role clinical case reports play in hypothesis generation and medical education. We investigated contemporary gender bias in case reports for the highest ranked journals in general and internal medicine.

    METHODS: PubMed case reports data from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, the Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. The gender of the patients were identified and a text analysis of the Medical Subject Headings conducted.

    RESULTS: A total of 2,742 case reports were downloaded and 2,582 (95.6%) reports contributed to the final analysis. A pooled analysis showed a statistically significant gender bias against female case reports (0.45; 95%CI: 0.43-0.47). The Annals of Internal Medicine was the only journal with a point estimate (non significant) in the direction of a bias against male patients. The text analysis identified no substantive difference in the focus of the case reports and no obvious explanation for the bias.

    CONCLUSION: Gender bias, previously identified in clinical research and in clinical authorship, extends into the patients presented in clinical case reports. Whether it is driven by authors or editors is not clear, but it likely contributes to and supports an overall male bias of clinical medicine.

  11. Singh SK, Enzhong L, Reidpath DD, Allotey P
    Public Health, 2017 Mar;144:78-85.
    PMID: 28274388 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2016.11.022
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the initiating factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) among youth.

    STUDY DESIGN: The analytic framework for this scoping review was performed using the methodology outlined by Arksey and O'Malley, which includes identification of the research question, study selection, charting the data, collating, summarizing and reporting the results that were primarily guided by the research question; 'what is known about the initiation of shisha smoking among youth?'

    METHODS: Electronic databases such as Cochrane, MEDLINE and PsycINFO were used to search for relevant articles. Articles included were all in English and published within the year of 2006 to 2015. Inclusion criteria; i) age range of 10 to 29 years; ii) examined the reasons why youth started or tried WTS; iii) in full text. Therefore, 26 articles were included in this scoping review.

    RESULTS: This review has identified and classified the initiating factors of WTS among youth in four subtopics: individual factors, interpersonal influences, cigarettes and alcohol use, and media influences. Individual factors and interpersonal influences played an important role in initiation factors of WTS among youth.

    CONCLUSION: This study concludes that public health professionals within the Southeast Asia region need to promote innovative preventive measures through peer-to-peer led interventions that are also easily assessable on social media platforms. The public health messages need to address the misconceptions of risk associated to WTS use.
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