Previously, studies have demonstrated that topical application of simvastatin can promote wound healing in diabetic mice via augmentation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This study aimed to formulate and characterize simvastatin in alginate-based composite film wound dressings. Biopolymers used for composite films were sodium alginate blended with pectin or gelatin. The films were prepared and characterized based on their physical properties, surface morphology, mechanical strength and rheology. Then, in vitro drug releases from the films were investigated and, finally, the cell viability assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity profile. From the pre-formulation studies, alginate/pectin composite film showed to possess desirable wound dressing properties and superior mechanical properties. The in vitro drug release profile revealed that alginate/pectin film produced a controlled release drug profile, and cell viability assay showed that the film was non-toxic. In summary, alginate/pectin composite film is suitable to be formulated with simvastatin as a potential wound dressing.
The emerging problems posed by antibiotic resistance complicate the treatment regime required for wound infections and are driving the need to develop more effective methods of wound management. There is growing interest in the use of alternative, broad spectrum, pre-antibiotic antimicrobial agents such as essential oils (e.g., tea tree oil, TTO) and metal ions (e.g., silver, Ag⁺). Both TTO and Ag⁺ have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and act on multiple target sites, hence reducing the likelihood of developing resistance. Combining such agents with responsive, controlled release delivery systems such as hydrogels may enhance microbiocidal activity and promote wound healing. The advantages of using chitosan to formulate the hydrogels include its biocompatible, mucoadhesive and controlled release properties. In this study, hydrogels loaded with TTO and Ag⁺ exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. Combining TTO and Ag⁺ into the hydrogel further improved antimicrobial activity by lowering the effective concentrations required, respectively. This has obvious advantages for reducing the potential toxic effects on the healthy tissues surrounding the wound. These studies highlight the feasibility of delivering lower effective concentrations of antimicrobial agents such as TTO and Ag⁺ in ionically crosslinked chitosan hydrogels to treat common wound-infecting pathogens.
Biofilms comprise bacteria attached to wound surfaces and are major contributors to non-healing wounds. It was found that the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics allows wound infections to persist chronically in spite of antibiotic therapy. In this study, the reduced form of graphene oxide (rGO) was explored as plausible antibiofilm agents. The rGO was synthesized via reducing the functional groups of GO. Then, rGO were characterized using zetasizer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and FESEM. The rGO were then formulated into sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) hydrogels to form rGO hydrogel and tested for antibiofilm activities in vitro using XTT test, and in vivo biofilm formation assay using nematodes C. elegans. Reduced GO hydrogel was successfully formed by reducing the functional groups of GO, and a reduction of up to 95% of functional groups was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. XTT tests confirmed that rGO hydrogels reduced biofilm formation by S. aureus (81-84%) and P. aeruginosa (50-62%). Fluorescence intensity also confirmed that rGO hydrogel can inhibit biofilm bacteria in C. elegans experiments. This study implied that rGO hydrogel is an effective antibiofilm agent for infected wounds.
Hydrocortisone (HC) is a topical glucocorticoid for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD); the local as well as systemic side effects limit its use. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a polyphenol present in olive oil that has strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. HC-HT coloaded chitosan nanoparticles (HC-HT CSNPs) were therefore developed to improve the efficacy against AD. In this study, HC-HT CSNPs of 235 ± 9 nm in size and with zeta potential +39.2 ± 1.6 mV were incorporated into aqueous cream (vehicle) and investigated for acute dermal toxicity, dermal irritation, and repeated dose toxicity using albino Wistar rats. HC-HT CSNPs exhibited LD50 > 125 mg/body surface area of active, which is 100-fold higher than the normal human dose of HC. Compared with the commercial formulation, 0.5 g of HC-HT CSNPs did not cause skin irritation, as measured by Tewameter®, Mexameter®, and as observed visually. Moreover, no-observed-adverse-effect level was observed with respect to body weight, organ weight, feed consumption, blood hematological and biochemical, urinalysis, and histopathological parameters at a dose of 1000 mg/body surface area per day of HC-HT CSNPs for 28 days. This in vivo study demonstrated that nanoencapsulation significantly reduced the toxic effects of HC and this should allow further clinical investigations.
The study was intended to develop a new intra-gastric floating in situ microballoons system for controlled delivery of rabeprazole sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose based low density microballoons systems were fabricated by employing varying concentrations of Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, to which varying concentrations of drug was added, and formulated by stirring at various speed and time to optimize the process and formulation variable. The formulation variables like concentration and ratio of polymers significantly affected the in vitro drug release from the prepared floating device. The validation of the gastro-retentive potential of the prepared microballoons was carried out in rabbits by orally administration of microballoons formulation containing radio opaque material. The developed formulations showed improved buoyancy and lower ulcer index as compared to that seen with plain drugs. Ulcer protective efficacies were confirmed in ulcer-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, greater compatibility, higher gastro-retention and higher anti-ulcer activity of the presently fabricated formulations to improve potential of formulation for redefining ulcer treatment are presented here. These learning exposed a targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of prepared microballoons in gastric region for ulcer therapeutic intervention as corroborated by in vitro and in vivo findings and, thus, deserves further attention for improved ulcer treatment.
The cluster-determinant 44 (CD44) receptor has a high affinity for hyaluronic acid (HA) binding and is a desirable receptor for active targeting based on its overexpression in cancer cells compared with normal body cells. The nanocarrier affinity can be increased by conjugating drug-loaded carriers with HA, allowing enhanced cancer cell uptake via the HA-CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. In this review, we discuss recent advances in HA-based nanocarriers and micelles for cancer therapy. In vitro and in vivo experiments have repeatedly indicated HA-based nanocarriers to be a target-specific drug and gene delivery platform with great promise for future applications in clinical cancer therapy.
Dendrimers are hyperbranched nanoparticle structures along with its surface modifications can to be used in dental biomaterials for biomimetic remineralisation of enamel and dentin. The review highlights the therapeutic applications of dendrimers in the field of dentistry. It addresses the possible mechanisms of enhancement of mechanical properties of adhesives and resins structure. Dendrimers due to its unique construction of possessing inner hydrophobic and outer hydrophilic structure can act as drug carrier for delivery of antimicrobial drugs for treatment of periodontal diseases and at peripheral dental implant areas. Dendrimers due to its hyperbranched structures can provides a unique drug delivery vehicle for delivery of a drug at specific site for sustained release for therapeutic effects. Thus, dendrimers can be one of the most important constituents which can be incorporated in dental biomaterials for better outcomes in dentistry.
Breast cancer (BC) is the commonest cause of cancer deaths among Women. It is known to be caused due to mutations in certain receptors, viz. estrogens or progesterones. The most frequently used conventional treatment strategies against BC include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and partial or entire mastectomy, however, these strategies are often associated with multiple adverse effects, thus reducing patient compliance. Advancement of nanotechnology in the medical application has been made to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness with a significant reduction in the unintended side-effects associated with incorporated anticancer drugs against cancer. The surface engineering technology of the nanocarriers is more pronounced in delivering the therapeutics specifically to target cells. Consequently, folic acid, a small molecular ligand for the folate receptor overexpressed cells, has shown immense response in treating BC cells. Folic acid conjugated nanocarriers have shown remarkable efficiency in targeting overexpressed folate receptors on the surface of BC cells. Binding of these target-specific folate-conjugated nanocarriers substantially improves the internalization of chemotherapeutics in BC cells, without much exposing the other parts of the body. Simultaneously, these folate-- conjugated nanocarriers provide imaging for regular monitoring of targeted drug delivery systems and their responses to an anticancer therapy. Therefore, this review demonstrates the potential of folate-conjugated nanotherapeutics for the treatment and theranostic approaches against BC along with the significant challenges to anticancer therapy, and the prospective insights into the clinical importance and effectiveness of folate conjugate nanocarriers.