METHODS: The Areca catechu nut collected from Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia was grounded into powder and used for Soxhlet extraction. The chemical analysis of the extracts and their structures were identified using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Shimadzu) system. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Chemistry WebBook, Standard Reference Database 69 (https://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/) and PubChem (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), the two databases used to retrieve the synonyms, molecular formula, molecular weight, and 2-dimensional (2D) structure of chemical compounds. Next, following WHO procedures for larval bioassays, the extracts were used to asses larvicidal activity against early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.
RESULTS: The larvicidal activities were observed against early 4th stage larvae with different concentrations in the range from 200 mg/L to 1600 mg/L. The LC50 and LC95 of Aedes aegypti were 621 mg/L and 2264 mg/L respectively; whereas the LC50 and LC95 of Aedes albopictus were 636 mg/L and 2268 mg/L respectively. Mortality was not observed in the non-target organism test. The analysis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer recovered several chemical compounds such as Arecaidine, Dodecanoic acid, Methyl tetradecanoate, Tetradecanoic acid , and n-Hexadecanoic acid bioactive components. These chemical constituents were used as additive formulations in pesticides, pest control, insect repellent, and insecticidal agents.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed significant outcomes from the extract of Areca catechu nut and it deserves further investigation in relation to chemical components and larvicidal actions between different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Even though all these findings are fundamental, it may have some interesting potentials to be developed as natural bio-larvicidal products.