Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Anuar, N., Idris, N.S.
    Malaysian Family Physician, 2018;13(3):27-28.
    We report a case of acute gonococcal conjunctivitis in a 36-year-old woman who presented with
    eye redness and a history of discharge for one month. Prior to presenting to us, she was treated for
    bacterial conjunctivitis with three courses of local antibiotics by three different clinics after brief
    assessments and without improvement. The final diagnosis of gonococcal conjunctivitis was made
    after a complete history was elicited and supported by the presence of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in
    the eye swab culture test. She and her sexual partner were treated successfully with intramuscular
    Ceftriaxone and oral Azithromycin. This case highlights the importance of complete history taking,
    including sexual history, which translates into early recognition and treatment, thus preventing
    complications. (Copied from article).
  2. Azhari, N. A. M., Markom, M., Ismail, I., Anuar, N.
    Polygonum minus is a plant rich with bioactive components that contribute to food, pharmaceutical, and perfume industries. However, high moisture content in fresh plants will allow
    microbial activity that leads to the degradation of plant quality. This can be prevented by
    drying the fresh plants to preserve the characteristics of their bioactive components. The
    present work was conducted to determine the effect of different drying methods such as
    air-drying, oven-drying (40 and 60°C), and freeze-drying on essential oil (EO) yield and
    chemical compounds of P. minus roots. For comparison purposes, all samples were extracted
    by maceration with n-hexane at room temperature. Then, the samples were analysed and
    identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest EO yield
    extract was obtained from freeze-drying (4.15 ± 0.5), followed by air-drying (3.79 ± 0.19). EO
    yield from oven-drying at 40 and 60°C was 3.4 ± 0.14 and 0.86 ± 0.04, respectively. Results
    showed that by increasing the drying temperature, the EO yield would decrease and cause a
    loss of major chemical compounds in the P. minus root. Air-drying was found to be the best
    method in preserving the presence of important chemical compound in P. minus roots such as
    β-caryophyllene (1.43%), pentadecane (4.34%), hexadecanoic acid (3.91%) and oleic acid
  3. Anuar N, Idris NS
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(3):27-28.
    PMID: 30800230
    We report a case of acute gonococcal conjunctivitis in a 36-year-old woman who presented with eye redness and a history of discharge for one month. Prior to presenting to us, she was treated for bacterial conjunctivitis with three courses of local antibiotics by three different clinics after brief assessments and without improvement. The final diagnosis of gonococcal conjunctivitis was made after a complete history was elicited and supported by the presence of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae in the eye swab culture test. She and her sexual partner were treated successfully with intramuscular Ceftriaxone and oral Azithromycin. This case highlights the importance of complete history taking, including sexual history, which translates into early recognition and treatment, thus preventing complications.
  4. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Feb;175(4):1868-78.
    PMID: 25427593 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1410-4
    The mechanisms of action of AN5-1 against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were investigated by evaluations of the intracellular content leakage and by microscopic observations of the treated cells. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used for this investigation. Measurements of DNA, RNA, proteins, and β-galactosidase were taken, and the results showed a significant increase in the cultivation media after treatment with AN5-1 compared with the untreated cells. The morphological changes of treated cells were shown using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The observations showed that AN5-1 acts against E. coli and against S. aureus in similar ways, by targeting the cell wall, causing disruptions; at a high concentration (80 AU/ml), these disruptions led to cell lysis. The 3D AFM imaging system showed that at a low concentration of 20 AU/ml, the effect of AN5-1 is restricted to pore formation only. Moreover, a separation between the cell wall and the cytoplasm was observed when Gram-negative bacteria were treated with a low concentration (20 AU/ml) of AN5-1.
  5. Jaapar SZ, Kalil MS, Anuar N
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2009 Sep 15;12(18):1253-9.
    PMID: 20384278
    Photo fermentation is a biological process that can be applied for hydrogen production. The process is environmental friendly which is operated under mild conditions using renewable resources. In order to increase yield of H2 produced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, some experimental factors that may enhance H2 production were studied. The effect of operating parameters including agitation, aeration and light on hydrogen production using R. sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 was investigated. Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 was grown in 100 mL serum bottle containing growth medium with maliec acid as the sole organic carbon source. The cultures were incubated anaerobically at 30 degrees C with tungsten lamp (100 W) as the light source (3.8 klux) and argon gas was purged for maintaining anaerobic condition. The results show that maximum hydrogen produced was higher (54.37 mL) in static culture with 69.98% of H2 in the total gas compared with shake culture (11.57 mL) with 57.86% of H2. By using static culture, H2 produced was five times higher compared with non-static in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. It was found that growth and H2 production with fluorescent lamp showed better results than growth and H2 production with tungsten light.
  6. Anuar N, Williams SE, Cumming J
    Eur J Sport Sci, 2017 Nov;17(10):1319-1327.
    PMID: 28950801 DOI: 10.1080/17461391.2017.1377290
    The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; Mage = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ2(174) = 263.87, p 
  7. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA, Sani AA
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Apr;30(4):1377-85.
    PMID: 24272828 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1558-z
    A wild-type, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile bacteria has been isolated from palm oil mill sludge in Malaysia. Molecular identification using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacteria belonged to genus Paenibacillus. With 97 % similarity to P. alvei (AUG6), the isolate was designated as P. alvei AN5. An antimicrobial compound was extracted from P. alvei AN5-pelleted cells using 95 % methanol and was then lyophilized. Precipitates were re-suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), producing an antimicrobial crude extract (ACE). The ACE showed antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Escherichia coli ATCC 29522, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. By using SP-Sepharose cation exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and Tricine SDS-PAGE, the ACE was purified, which produced a ~2-kDa active band. SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound in the ACE, and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy and de novo sequencing using an automatic, Q-TOF premier system detected a peptide with the amino acid sequence F-C-K-S-L-P-L-P-L-S-V-K (1,330.7789 Da). This novel peptide was designated as AN5-2. The antimicrobial peptide exhibited stability from pH 3 to 12 and maintained its activity after being heated to 90 °C. It also remained active after incubation with denaturants (urea, SDS and EDTA).
  8. Tangahu BV, Abdullah SR, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M
    Int J Phytoremediation, 2013;15(8):814-26.
    PMID: 23819277
    Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant.
  9. Wu TY, Mohammad AW, Jahim JM, Anuar N
    J Environ Manage, 2010 Jul;91(7):1467-90.
    PMID: 20231054 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.02.008
    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances.
  10. Wu TY, Mohammad AW, Jahim JM, Anuar N
    Biotechnol Adv, 2009 Jan-Feb;27(1):40-52.
    PMID: 18804158 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2008.08.005
    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products.
  11. Al-Mansoory AF, Idris M, Abdullah SRS, Anuar N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 May;24(13):11998-12008.
    PMID: 26330312 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5261-5
    Greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the phytotoxic effects on the plant Ludwigia octovalvis in order to assess its applicability for phytoremediation gasoline-contaminated soils. Using plants to degrade hydrocarbons is a challenging task. In this study, different spiked concentrations of hydrocarbons in soil (1, 2, and 3 g/kg) were tested. The results showed that the mean efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal over a 72-day culture period was rather high. The maximum removal of 79.8 % occurred for the 2 g/kg concentration, while the removal rate by the corresponding unplanted controls was only (48.6 %). The impact of gasoline on plants included visual symptoms of stress, yellowing, growth reduction, and perturbations in the developmental parameters. The dry weight and wet weight of the plant slightly increased upon exposure to gasoline until day 42. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated change to the root and stem structure in plant tissue due to the direct attachment with gasoline contaminated compared to the control sample. The population of living microorganisms in the contaminated soil was found to be able to adapt to different gasoline concentrations. The results showed that L. octovalvis and rhizobacteria in gasoline-contaminated soil have the potential to degrade organic pollutants.
  12. Alkotaini B, Anuar N, Kadhum AA, Sani AA
    J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;40(6):571-9.
    PMID: 23508455 DOI: 10.1007/s10295-013-1259-5
    An antimicrobial substance produced by the Paenibacillus alvei strain AN5 was detected in fermentation broth. Subsequently, cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) was obtained by medium centrifugation and filtration, and its antimicrobial activity was tested. This showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. The CFCS was then purified and subjected to SDS-PAGE and infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial compound. Some de novo sequencing using an automatic Q-TOF premier system determined the amino acid sequence of the purified antimicrobial peptide as Y-S-K-S-L-P-L-S-V-L-N-P (1,316 Da). The novel peptide was designated as peptide AN5-1. Its mode of action was bactericidal, inducing cell lysis in E. coli ATCC 29522 and S. aureus, and non-cell lysis in both S. marcescens and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Peptide AN5-1 displayed stability at a wide range of pH values (2-12) and remained active after exposure to high temperatures (100 °C). It also maintained its antimicrobial activity after incubation with chemicals such as SDS, urea and EDTA.
  13. Anuar N, Sabri AH, Bustami Effendi TJ, Abdul Hamid K
    Heliyon, 2020 Jul;6(7):e04570.
    PMID: 32775730 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04570
    Lipophilic compounds constitute a majority of therapeutics in the pipeline of drug discovery. Despite possessing enhanced efficacy and permeability, some of these drugs suffer poor solubility necessitating the need of a suitable drug delivery system. Nanoemulsion is a drug delivery system that provides enhanced solubility for poorly soluble drugs in an attempt to improve the oral bioavailability. The purpose of this study is to develop a nanoemulsion system using ibuprofen as a model drug in order to investigate the potential of this colloidal system to enhance the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Ibuprofen loaded-nanoemulsion with different drug concentrations (1.5, 3 and 6% w/w) were formulated from olive oil, sucrose ester L-1695 and glycerol using D-phase emulsification technique. A pseudoternary phase diagram was utilised to identify the optimal excipient composition to formulate the nanoemulsion system. In vitro diffusion chamber studies using rodent intestinal linings highlighted improved absorption profile when ibuprofen was delivered as nanoemulsion in comparison to microemulsions and drug-in-oil systems. This was further corroborated by in vivo studies using rat model that highlighted a two-fold increase in ibuprofen absorption when the drug was administered as a nanoemulsion relative to drug-in-oil system. On the other hand, when ibuprofen was administered as microemulsions, only a 1.5-fold increase in absorption was observed relative to drug-in-oil system. Thus, this study highlights the potential of using nanoemulsion as a drug delivery system to enhance the oral bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs.
  14. Jawahir S, Mohamad Anuar NN, Sheikh Abdullah SF, Silvernayagam S, Tan EH
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 Jan;76(1):73-79.
    PMID: 33510113
    INTRODUCTION: Positive professional practice environments are crucial to safeguard a healthy and safe working conditions for health workforce, including nurses; so as to ensure provision of quality healthcare and safety of patient.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study to assess nurses' perceptions towards nursing practice environment and factors associated with their perceptions. A validated Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PESNWI) questionnaire was administered to nurses working in two Ministry of Health hospitals. The questionnaire comprises of five subscales: Participation, Foundation, Managers Support, Workforce Adequacy and Physician/Nurse Relations. Mean scores of >2.50 were considered as favourable, and ≤2.50 were considered as unfavourable. Simple linear and multiple linear regression analysis were employed to identify factors associated with their perceptions. Analysis was carried out using STATA version 14.0.

    RESULTS: A total of 366 respondents took part in the study, with a response rate of 98.4%. Majority were working shift (89.6%) and working extended hours (62.3%). In general, the nursing practice environments were rated as favourable. Overall mean score was 2.90±0.03 and four out of five subscales' mean scores were >2.50. Foundation for quality nursing care was perceived as the most favourable subscale, while workforce adequacy was perceived as the least favourable. There were statistically significant association between working extended hours, doing double shift and working during day off with perceived unfavourable workforce adequacy.

    CONCLUSION: Nursing practice environment was perceived as favourable in the studied hospitals. Policy makers, service providers, and hospital managers could explore further on human resource planning and management of nursing personnel to tackle the issue of nurse staffing in the country.

  15. Wong TW, Deepak KG, Taib MN, Anuar NK
    Int J Pharm, 2007 Oct 1;343(1-2):122-30.
    PMID: 17597317
    The capacity of microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique to characterize the matrix property of binary polymeric films for use as transdermal drug delivery system was investigated. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3000 were the choice of polymeric matrix and plasticizer, respectively with loratadine as the model drug. Both blank and drug loaded HPMC-PEG 3000 films were prepared using the solvent-evaporation method. These films were conditioned at the relative humidity of 25, 50 and 75% prior to physicochemical characterization using the established methods of ultra-violet spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy methods, as well as, novel microwave NDT technique. Blank films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer interaction at the O-H domain upon storage at a lower level of relative humidity, whereas drug loaded films exhibited a greater propensity of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer and/or drug-polymer interaction via the O-H, C-H and/or aromatic C=C functional groups when they were stored at a lower or moderate level of relative humidity. The absorption and transmission characteristics of both blank and drug loaded films for microwave varied with the state of polymer-polymer, polymer-plasticizer, and/or drug-polymer interaction of the matrix. The measurements of microwave NDT test at 8 and 12 GHz were sensitive to the polar fraction of film involving functional group such as O-H moiety and the less polar environment of matrix consisting of functional groups such as C-H and aromatic C=C moieties. The state of interaction between polymer, plasticizer and/or drug of a binary polymeric film can be elucidated through its absorption and transmission profiles of microwave.
  16. Shukor H, Al-Shorgani NK, Abdeshahian P, Hamid AA, Anuar N, Rahman NA, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Oct;170:565-73.
    PMID: 25171212 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.07.055
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) was used for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PKC was subjected to acid hydrolysis pretreatment and hydrolysates released were detoxified by XAD-4 resin. The effect of pH, temperature and inoculum size on butanol production was evaluated using an empirical model. Twenty ABE fermentations were run according to an experimental design. Experimental results revealed that XAD-4 resin removed 50% furfural and 77.42% hydroxymethyl furfural. The analysis of the empirical model showed that linear effect of inoculums size with quadratic effect of pH and inoculum size influenced butanol production at 99% probability level (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for butanol production were pH 6.28, temperature of 28°C and inoculum size of 15.9%. ABE fermentation was carried out under optimum conditions which 0.1g/L butanol was obtained. Butanol production was enhanced by diluting PKC hydrolysate up to 70% in which 3.59g/L butanol was produced.
  17. Al-Baldawi IA, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Abu Hasan H, Suja F, Anuar N, Mushrifah I
    J Environ Manage, 2014 Jul 1;140:152-9.
    PMID: 24762527 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.03.007
    This study investigated the optimum conditions for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal from diesel-contaminated water using phytoremediation treatment with Scirpus grossus. In addition, TPH removal from sand was adopted as a second response. The optimum conditions for maximum TPH removal were determined through a Box-Behnken Design. Three operational variables, i.e. diesel concentration (0.1, 0.175, 0.25% Vdiesel/Vwater), aeration rate (0, 1 and 2 L/min) and retention time (14, 43 and 72 days), were investigated by setting TPH removal and diesel concentration as the maximum, retention time within the given range, and aeration rate as the minimum. The optimum conditions were found to be a diesel concentration of 0.25% (Vdiesel/Vwater), a retention time of 63 days and no aeration with an estimated maximum TPH removal from water and sand of 76.3 and 56.5%, respectively. From a validation test of the optimum conditions, it was found that the maximum TPH removal from contaminated water and sand was 72.5 and 59%, respectively, which was a 5 and 4.4% deviation from the values given by the Box-Behnken Design, providing evidence that S. grossus is a Malaysian native plant that can be used to remediate wastewater containing hydrocarbons.
  18. Islam AK, Anuar N, Yaakob Z, Ghani JA, Osman M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:935981.
    PMID: 24222756 DOI: 10.1155/2013/935981
    Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F 1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P 1 and P 2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P 1 × P 5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P 2 × P 5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P 4 × P 5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96%) was observed in hybrid P 2 × P 4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI) and seedling vigor index (SVI) were found in hybrid P 1 × P 5 and P 2 × P 5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.
  19. Al-Baldawi IA, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Anuar N, Suja F, Idris M
    Water Sci Technol, 2013;68(10):2271-8.
    PMID: 24292478 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.484
    One of the appropriate development technology options for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with diesel is constructed wetlands (CWs). Throughout 72 days of exposure, sampling was carried out for monitoring of physical parameters, plant growth and the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal, as an indication for diesel contamination, to assess the pilot-scale performance. Four pilot CWs with a horizontal sub-surface flow system were applied using the bulrush of Scirpus grossus. The CWs were loaded with different diesel concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.25% (Vdiesel/Vwater). The TPH removal efficiencies were 82, 71, and 67% at the end of 72 days for diesel concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.25% respectively. In addition, the high removal efficiency of total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 100 and 75.4% respectively, for a diesel concentration of 0.1%. It was concluded that S. grossus is a potential plant that can be used in a well-operated CW for restoring 0.1% diesel-contaminated water.
  20. Anuar N, Mohd Adnan AF, Saat N, Aziz N, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:810547.
    PMID: 24174918 DOI: 10.1155/2013/810547
    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R (2) = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R (2) = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit.
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