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  1. Kamal, G.M., Anwar, F., Hussain, A.I., Sarri, N., Ashraf, M.Y.
    MyJurnal
    Citrus peel essential oils have an impressive range of food and medicinal uses. In the present study we investigated the variation in the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from fresh, ambient-, and oven-dried peels of three Citrus species namely Citrus reticulata (C. reticulata), Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus paradisii (C. paradisii). The hydro-distilled essential oil content from fresh-, ambient-, and oven-dried peels of C. reticulata, C. sinensis and C. paradisii ranged from 0.30-0.50, 0.24-1.07 and 0.20-0.40 g/100 g, respectively. The maximum amount of the oil was determined in oven-dried while the minimum in fresh peel samples. Using GC and GC/MS, a total of 16-27, 17-24 and 18-40 chemical constituents were identified in the peel essential oils of C. reticulate, C. sinensis and C. paradisii, respectively. The content of limonene, the most prevalent chemical constituent, detected in these essential oils, ranged from 64.1-71.1% (C. reticulata), 66.8-80.9% (C. sinensis) and 50.8-65.5% (C. paradisii). The yield and content of most of the chemical components including limonene (the principal chemical compound detected) of the tested essential oils varied significantly (p < 0.05) with respect to drying treatments and species employed.
  2. Tabassam, Q., Mehmood, T., Anwar, F., Saari, N., Qadir, R.
    MyJurnal
    The present work studies the profiling of phenolic bioactive and in vitro biological (anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial) activities of different solvent extracts from Withania
    somnifera fruit. Anticancer activity was performed using potato-disc assay and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. While antibacterial and antifungal evaluation was done by using disc diffusion method against bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and
    Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungal (Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum) strains.
    Among different extraction solvents used, n-hexane extract exhibited the highest inhibition of
    tumour initiation (64%), whereas ethyl acetate (15%) was the lowest by using potato-disc
    assay. Highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were noted for methanolic (69.10
    GAE mg/g DW%) and n-hexane (29.45 CE mg/g DW%) extracts, respectively. For antioxidant potential, 2,2,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (IC50) and reducing power EC50 were noted to be superior (0.6 and 2.0 mg/mL, respectively) for n-hexane
    extract. All the tested extracts showed considerable antibacterial and antifungal activity with
    the highest growth inhibition zones for K. pneumoniae (31.70 mm) and A. flavus (27.09 mm)
    were shown by n-hexane extract. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of individual phenolics (gallic acid, 2,288.48 mg/kg) indicated the highest contents of these
    compounds in n-hexane extract, which might explain the potent biological activities of this
    extract. Our findings revealed that the bioactive present in the tested fruit had significant
    potential as anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal agents. Further studies are needed to
    elucidate the mechanism of actions of isolated bioactive against specific diseases such as
    cancer, especially in the case of n-hexane fraction.
  3. Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N
    Mar Drugs, 2011;9(10):1761-805.
    PMID: 22072996 DOI: 10.3390/md9101761
    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.
  4. Saadi S, Saari N, Anwar F, Abdul Hamid A, Ghazali HM
    Biotechnol Adv, 2014 12 12;33(1):80-116.
    PMID: 25499177 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.12.003
    The growing momentum of several common life-style diseases such as myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis has become a serious global concern. Recent developments in the field of proteomics offering promising solutions to solving such health problems stimulates the uses of biopeptides as one of the therapeutic agents to alleviate disease-related risk factors. Functional peptides are typically produced from protein via enzymatic hydrolysis under in vitro or in vivo conditions using different kinds of proteolytic enzymes. An array of biological activities, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and immunomodulating has been ascribed to different types of biopeptides derived from various food sources. In fact, biopeptides are nutritionally and functionally important for regulating some physiological functions in the body; however, these are yet to be extensively addressed with regard to their production through advance strategies, mechanisms of action and multiple biological functionalities. This review mainly focuses on recent biotechnological advances that are being made in the field of production in addition to covering the mode of action and biological activities, medicinal health functions and therapeutic applications of biopeptides. State-of-the-art strategies that can ameliorate the efficacy, bioavailability, and functionality of biopeptides along with their future prospects are likewise discussed.
  5. Mumtaz MW, Mukhtar H, Anwar F, Saari N
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:526105.
    PMID: 25162053 DOI: 10.1155/2014/526105
    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 ± 1.5, 92.7 ± 2.5, and 95.4 ± 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A. n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 ± 3.1 and 62.8 ± 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.
  6. Zarei M, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Anwar F, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(7):8097-111.
    PMID: 22942692 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078097
    The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.
  7. Ghanbari R, Anwar F, Alkharfy KM, Gilani AH, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):3291-340.
    PMID: 22489153 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13033291
    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.
  8. Saadi S, Saari N, Abdulkarim MS, Ghazali HM, Anwar F
    J Control Release, 2018 03 28;274:93-101.
    PMID: 29031897 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.10.011
    Cell impurities are an emerging nucleating molecular barriers having the capability in disordering the metabolic chain reactions of proteolysis, glycolysis and lipolysis. Their massive effects induced by copolymer crystal growth in compaction with metal and mineral transients are extended as well as in damaging DNA and mRNA structure motif and other molecular assembly e.g. histones structure unites. Their polycrystalline packing modes, polydispersity and their tendency to surface and interface adhesion prompted us in structuring scaffold biomaterials enriched with biopeptides, layered by phospho-glycerides ester-forms. The interface tension of the formed map is flexible and dependent to the surface exposure and its collapse modes to the surrounding molecular ligands. Thus, the attempts in increasing surface exposure e.g. the viscoelastic of structured lipopeptides and types of formed network structures interplays an extra- conjugating biomolecules having a least cytotoxicity effects to cells constituents. Disulfides molecules are selected to be the key regulatory element in rejoining both lipidic and proteic moieties by disordering atoms status via chemical ionization using organic catalyst. The insertion of methionine based peptidic chain at the lateral surfaces of scaffold biomaterials enhances the electron-meta-static motions by raising a molecular disordering status at distinct regions of the map e.g. epimerization into a nonpolar side that helps the chemical conjunction of disulfide groups with the esterified phosphoglycerides mono-layers. These effects in turn are accomplished by the formation of meso-sphere nonpolar- vesicles. The oxidation of disulfide group would alter the ordering of initial molecules by raising a newly molecular disorders to the map with high polarity to surface regions. In the same time indicates a continuation in the crystallization growth factor via a low chemical lesions between the impurities and a supersaturation in the intra-atomic distances with maximum cross linking to the deformed ligand with scaffold biomaterials.
  9. Sallehuddin, N. A., Azizah Abdul Hamid, Salleh, S. Z., Nazia Abdul Majid, Hani Hafeeza Halim, Nurul Shazini Ramli, et al.
    MyJurnal
    In the present work, aqueous ethanolic (60% ethanol) extracts from selected Malaysian herbs
    including Murraya koenigii L. Spreng, Lawsonia inermis L., Cosmos caudatus Kunth, Piper
    betle L., and P. sarmentosum Roxb. were evaluated for their ergogenic, anti-diabetic and
    antioxidant potentials. Results showed that the analysed herbs had ergogenic property and
    were able to activate 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a concentration dependant
    manner. The highest AMPK activation was exhibited by M. koenigii extract which showed no
    significant (p > 0.05) difference with green tea (positive control). For anti-diabetic potential,
    the highest α-glucosidase inhibition was exhibited by M. koenigii extract with IC50 of 43.35
    ± 7.5 µg/mL, which was higher than acarbose (positive control). The determinations of free
    radical scavenging activity and total phenolics content (TPC) indicated that the analysed herbs
    had good antioxidant activity. However, C. caudatus extract showed superior antioxidant
    activity with IC50 against free radical and TPC of 21.12 ± 3.20 µg/mL and 221.61 ± 7.49 mg
    GAE/g, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis established the presence of flavonoids in the herbs
    wherein L. inermis contained the highest flavonoid (catechin, epicatechin, naringin and rutin)
    content (668.87 mg/kg of extract). Correlations between the analyses were conducted, and
    revealed incoherent trends. Overall, M. koenigii was noted to be the most potent herb for
    enhancement of AMPK activity and α-glucosidase inhibition but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. These results revealed that the selected herbs could be potential sources of
    natural ergogenic and anti-diabetic/antioxidant agents due to their rich profile of phenolics.
    Further analysis in vivo should be carried out to further elucidate the mechanism of actions of
    these herbs as ergogenic aids and anti-diabetic/antioxidant agents.
  10. Bordbar S, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul Hamid A, Abdul Manap MY, Anwar F, Saari N
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:849529.
    PMID: 23586061 DOI: 10.1155/2013/849529
    The stone fish (Actinopyga lecanora) ethanolic and methanolic tissue extracts were investigated for total phenolic contents (TPCs) as well as antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Both extracts showed low amount of phenolics (20.33 to 17.03 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried sample) and moderate antioxidant activity (39% to 34% DPPH(•) radical scavenging activity and 23.95 to 22.30 mmol/100 mL FeSO4 FRAP value). Enzymatic proteolysis was carried out in order to improve the antioxidant activity using six commercially available proteases under their optimum conditions. The results revealed that the highest increase in antioxidant activity up to 85% was obtained for papain-generated proteolysate, followed by alcalase (77%), trypsin (75%), pepsin (68%), bromelain (68%), and flavourzyme (50%) as measured by DPPH(•) radical scavenging activity, whilst for the FRAP value, the highest increase in the antioxidant activity up to 39.2 mmol/100 mL FeSO4 was obtained for alcalase-generated proteolysate, followed by papain (29.5 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), trypsin (23.2 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), flavourzyme (24.7 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), bromelain (22.9 mmol/100 mL FeSO4), and pepsin (20.8 mmol/100 mL FeSO4). It is obvious that proteolysis of stone fish tissue by proteolytic enzymes can considerably enhance its antioxidant activity.
  11. Shofian NM, Hamid AA, Osman A, Saari N, Anwar F, Dek MS, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(7):4678-92.
    PMID: 21845104 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12074678
    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.
  12. Sahib NG, Anwar F, Gilani AH, Hamid AA, Saari N, Alkharfy KM
    Phytother Res, 2013 Oct;27(10):1439-56.
    PMID: 23281145 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4897
    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry.
  13. Saadi S, Saari N, Ghazali HM, Abdulkarim SM, Hamid AA, Anwar F
    J Proteomics, 2022 Jan 16;251:104395.
    PMID: 34673267 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104395
    Glutens are potential proteins with multifunctional therapeutic effects. Their covalence network structures with and without protease inhibitors are expected to enhance or to serve further properties and further technological points such as increased bioactive surfaces, gelatinization, gelation and pasting properties. The depletion of the allergic peptide sequences of gluten proteins comprising sometimes protease inhibitors are valid via the enzymatic ingestion using proteolytic enzymes that might enhance these functional and technological processes by producing active peptides having osmoregulation and regular glass transitions, surface activity for coating and encapsulation properties. In addition to further therapeutic functions such as immunoregulatory, antithrombin and opioidal activities, particularly in eradicating most of the free radicals, suppressing diabetes Mellitus II complications and inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme cardiovascular growth diseases.
  14. Mumtaz A, Ashfaq UA, Ul Qamar MT, Anwar F, Gulzar F, Ali MA, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2017 Jun;31(11):1228-1236.
    PMID: 27681445 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2016.1233409
    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .
  15. Tahir Ul Qamar M, Shokat Z, Muneer I, Ashfaq UA, Javed H, Anwar F, et al.
    Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Jun 08;8(2).
    PMID: 32521680 DOI: 10.3390/vaccines8020288
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is primarily associated with respiratory disorders globally. Despite the availability of information, there is still no competitive vaccine available for RSV. Therefore, the present study has been designed to develop a multiepitope-based subunit vaccine (MEV) using a reverse vaccinology approach to curb RSV infections. Briefly, two highly antigenic and conserved proteins of RSV (glycoprotein and fusion protein) were selected and potential epitopes of different categories (B-cell and T-cell) were identified from them. Eminently antigenic and overlapping epitopes, which demonstrated strong associations with their respective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and depicted collective ~70% coverage of the world's populace, were shortlisted. Finally, 282 amino acids long MEV construct was established by connecting 13 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I with two MHC class-II epitopes with appropriate adjuvant and linkers. Adjuvant and linkers were added to increase the immunogenic stimulation of the MEV. Developed MEV was stable, soluble, non-allergenic, non-toxic, flexible and highly antigenic. Furthermore, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations analyses were carried out. Results have shown a firm and robust binding affinity of MEV with human pathogenic toll-like receptor three (TLR3). The computationally mediated immune response of MEV demonstrated increased interferon-γ production, a significant abundance of immunoglobulin and activation of macrophages which are essential for immune-response against RSV. Moreover, MEV codons were optimized and in silico cloning was performed, to ensure its increased expression. These outcomes proposed that the MEV developed in this study will be a significant candidate against RSV to control and prevent RSV-related disorders if further investigated experimentally.
  16. Anwar F, Saleem U, Ahmad B, Ashraf M, Rehman AU, Froeyen M, et al.
    Comput Biol Chem, 2020 Dec;89:107378.
    PMID: 33002716 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107378
    Neurodegenerative diseases have complex etiology and pose a challenge to scientists to develop simple and cost-effective synthetic compounds as potential drug candidates for such diseases. Here, we report an extension of our previously published in silico screening, where we selected four new compounds as AChE inhibitors. Further, based on favorable binding possess, MD simulation and MMGBSA, two most promising compounds (3a and 3b) were selected, keeping in view the ease of synthesis and cost-effectiveness. Due to the critical role of BChE, LOX and α-glucosidase in neurodegeneration, the selected compounds were also screened against these enzymes. The IC50 values of 3a against AChE and BChE found to be 12.53 and 352.42 μM, respectively. Moderate to slight inhibitions of 45.26 % and 28.68 % were presented by 3a against LOX and α-glucosidase, respectively, at 0.5 mM. Insignificant inhibitions were observed with 3b against the four selected enzymes. Further, in vivo trial demonstrated that 3a could significantly diminish AChE levels in the mice brain as compared to the control. These findings were in agreement with the histopathological analysis of the brain tissues. The results corroborate that selected compounds could serve as a potential lead for further development and optimization as AChE inhibitors to achieve cost-effective anti-Alzheimer's drugs.
  17. Younas A, Naqvi SA, Khan MR, Shabbir MA, Jatoi MA, Anwar F, et al.
    J Food Biochem, 2020 09;44(9):e13332.
    PMID: 32588917 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13332
    Date palm counts among the oldest fruit crops of the world and is mainly cultivated for its highly nutritious fruits consumed as a staple food in many countries, especially in the Gulf region. Dates are enriched with numerous therapeutic bioactives and functional compounds such as phenolics, flavonols, carotenoids, minerals, and vitamins that not only provide an appreciable amount of energy required for the human body but also act as an effective therapeutic agent against several diseases. This review aimed to provide a deep insight into the nutritional as well as phytochemicals profile of date fruit and its seeds in order to explore their biological (anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory properties), functional food, and nutra-pharmaceutical attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This review provides updated information regarding the date fruits and seeds phytochemicals composition together with highlighting dates potential as a natural therapeutic agent against several diseases. The study also urges the importance of consuming dates as a great package to live a healthy life due to the functional food and nutraceutical properties of this valuable fruit. The study also provides information first time as recommending dates to cope with the hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency faced by the third world inhabitants. Hence, the review may further help the industry and researchers to explore the potential of dates for future medicinal and nutra-pharmaceutical applications.
  18. Anwar F, Saleem U, Rehman AU, Ahmad B, Froeyen M, Mirza MU, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2021;12:607026.
    PMID: 34040515 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.607026
    The presented study was designed to probe the toxicity potential of newly identified compound naphthalen-2-yl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate (SF1). Acute, subacute toxicity and teratogenicity studies were performed as per Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) 425, 407, and 414 test guidelines, respectively. An oral dose of 2000 mg/kg to rats for acute toxicity. Furthermore, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg doses were administered once daily for 28 days in subacute toxicity study. Teratogenicity study was performed with 40 mg/kg due to its excellent anti-Alzheimer results at this dose. SF1 induced a significant rise in Alkaline Phosphatases (ALP), bilirubin, white blood cells (WBC), and lymphocyte levels with a decrease in platelet count. Furthermore, the reduction in urea, uric acid, and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels and an increase in total protein levels were measured in subacute toxicity. SF1 increased spermatogenesis at 5 and 10 mg/kg doses. Teratogenicity study depicted no resorptions, early abortions, cleft palate, spina bifida and any skeletal abnormalities in the fetuses. Oxidative stress markers (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) were increased in all the experiments, whereas the effect on melanoaldehyde Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was variable. Histopathology further corroborated these results with no change in the architectures of selected organs. Consequently, a 2000 mg/kg dose of SF1 tends to induce minor liver dysfunction along with immunomodulation, and it is well below its LD
    50
    . Moreover, it can be safely used in pregnancy owing to its no detectable teratogenicity.
  19. Anwar F, Saleem U, Rehman AU, Ahmad B, Ismail T, Mirza MU, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2021 Apr 27;6(16):10897-10909.
    PMID: 34056243 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c00654
    Toxicity studies are necessary for the development of a new drug. Naphthalene is a bicyclic molecule and is easy to derivatize. In our previous study, a derivative of naphthalene (4-phenyl,3,4-dihydrobenzoquinoline-2(H)one) was synthesized and reported its in vitro activity on different enzymes. This study was a probe to investigate the toxicity potential of that compound (SF3). Acute oral (425), subacute (407), and teratogenicity (414) studies were planned according to their respective guidelines given by organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD). Acute oral, subacute, and teratogenicity studies were carried out on 2000, 5-40, and 40 mg/kg doses. Blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. Vital organs were excised for oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde) and histopathological analysis. LD50 of SF3 was higher than 2000 mg/kg. In acute and subacute studies, levels of alkaline phosphates and aspartate transaminase were increased. Teratogenicity showed no resorptions, no skeletal or soft tissue abnormalities, and no cleft pallet. Oxidative stress biomarkers were close to the normal, and no increase in the malondialdehyde level was seen. Histopathological studies revealed normal tissue architecture of the selected organs, except kidney, in acute oral and subacute toxicity studies at 40 mg/kg. The study concluded that SF3 is safer if used as a drug.
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