Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Shyam S, Wai TN, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):201-8.
    PMID: 22507605
    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.
  2. Arshad F, Nor IM, Ali RM, Hamzah F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1996 Jun;5(2):88-91.
    PMID: 24394516
    Diet is one of the major factors contributing to the development of obesity, apart from heredity and energy balance. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes in relation to bodyweight status among government office workers in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 185 Malay men and 196 Malay women aged 18 and above were randomly selected as the study sample. Height and weight were taken to determine body mass index (BMI). The dietary profile was obtained by using 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency methods. This was analysed to determine average nutrient intake per day. Other information was ascertained from tested and coded questionnaires. The subjects were categorised into three groups of bodyweight status namely underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m2) and obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2). The prevalence of obesity was 37.8%. The study showed that the mean energy intake of the respondents was 1709 ± 637 kcal/day. The energy composition comprised of 55.7 ± 7.6% carbohydrates, 29.7 ± 21.7 % fat and 15.6 ± 3.8% protein. There was no significant difference in diet composition among the three groups. The findings indicate that normal weight and overweight individuals had a lower intake of calories and carbohydrates than the underweight individuals (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in fat intakes.
  3. Talib R, Ali O, Arshad F, Kadir KA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1997 Jun;6(2):84-7.
    PMID: 24394705
    A study was undertaken in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) resettlement scheme areas in Pahang, Malaysia, to determine the effectiveness of group dietary counselling in motivating diabetic patients to achieve good dietary habits, and weight and diabetes control. Sixty-one non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group received six sessions of group dietary counselling over 5 months and the control group received mass media diabetes-educational program during the same period. The one hour group dietary counselling sessions discussed general knowledge of diabetes, food groups for meal planning, the importance of dietary fibre-rich foods, types of fat in food, exercise and weight control. The experimental group met monthly with a dietitian as a counsellor. Effectiveness was assessed by improvement in food choice, and decline in percentage glycated haemoglobin (total HbA1) or body mass index (BMI). Measurements were made at a baseline visit, every two months during the six month program, and six months afterwards. Patients in the experimental group improved their food choices, resulting in a healthier diet high in unrefined carbohydrates and dietary fibre rich foods, and low in fat. There were significant reductions of their percentage total HbA1 levels and BMI following the counselling sessions, which decreased further six months after the program compared with patients in the control group. Thus group dietary counselling is effective in motivating NIDDM patients to achieve better food choice, and related weight and glycaemic control in a Malaysian setting.
  4. Marzuki A, Arshad F, Razak TA, Jaarin K
    Am J Clin Nutr, 1991 04;53(4 Suppl):1010S-1014S.
    PMID: 1901440 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/53.4.1010S
    We studied the effects of saturated (palm olein) and polyunsaturated (soybean oil) cooking oils on the lipid profiles of Malaysian male adolescents eating normal Malaysian diets for 5 wk. Diets cooked with palm olein did not significantly alter plasma total-cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations or the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol compared with diets cooked with soybean oil. However, the diet cooked with palm olein significantly increased apolipoprotein A-I (11%) and apolipoprotein B (9%) concentrations. Unexpectedly, soybean-oil-cooked diets caused a significant increase (47%) in plasma triglycerides compared with palm-olein-cooked diets. We conclude that palm olein, when used as cooking oil, has no detrimental effects on plasma lipid profiles in Malaysian adolescents.
  5. Muhammad NA, Omar K, Shah SA, Muthupalaniappen L, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2008;17(4):597-602.
    PMID: 19114396
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is escalating. Parents’ recognition of overweight or obesity in their own children is very important for a successful intervention in these children. This study examined parental perception of their children’s weight status, and its association with their knowledge on nutrition and obesity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of parents with children aged 9 to 12 years, in a primary school of Kuala Lumpur. Parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contains parental perception of their child weight status as well as knowledge on nutrition and obesity. The parents’ perception of the children’s weight status was then compared with the actual measured weight status.
    RESULTS: There were 204 parents who participated in the study. Parents were found to underestimate their child weight status and 38.2% were inaccurate in their perception. The mean score of knowledge on nutrition and obesity was 78.5±14.4; and this did not associate with the accuracy of their perception on the child weight status. Parents showed inadequate knowledge in food pyramid and preparation of low fat meals.
    CONCLUSION: The Malaysian Health Campaigns had resulted in overall good knowledge on nutrition and obesity in the parents except in few domains. However, this was insufficient to make the parents recognize the growing overweight and obesity problem in their children.
    Key Words: overweight, obesity, children, parental perception, knowledge
  6. Muhd H, Zuhaimy H, Ismail MF, Arshad F, Azmi S, Sahak NH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(3):74-78.
    PMID: 33329865
  7. Ghani RA, Shyam S, Arshad F, Wahab NA, Chinna K, Safii NS, et al.
    Nutr Diabetes, 2014;4:e107.
    PMID: 24535618 DOI: 10.1038/nutd.2014.5
    Post-gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women are recommended weight loss to manage increased cardio-metabolic risks. We investigated the effects of lowering diet glycaemic index (GI) on fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum lipids, body weight and composition of post-GDM women with varying fasting insulin levels (INS). Seventy-seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM (aged 20-40 years, mean BMI: 26.4±4.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. At baseline, 20 subjects with INS <2 μIU ml(-1) and 18 with INS 2 μIU ml(-1) received conventional dietary recommendations (CHDR) only. CHDR emphasised energy and fat intake restriction and encouraged increase in dietary fibre intakes. Twenty-four subjects with INS <2 μIU ml(-1) and 15 with INS 2 μIU ml(-1), in addition to CHDR, received low-GI education (LGI). Changes in FBG, serum lipids, body weight and body composition were evaluated. Subjects with INS <2 μIU ml(-1) had similar outcomes with both diets. After 1 year, subjects with INS 2 μIU ml(-1) who received LGI education had reductions in FBG and triglycerides. Subjects who received CHDR observed increase in both FBG and triglycerides (P<0.05). Among all subjects, diet GI was lower and dietary fibre intakes were higher in LGI compared with CHDR subjects (all P<0.05). Thus, in Asian post-GDM women with normal/higher INS, adding low-GI education to CHDR improved management of FBG and triglycerides.
  8. Yusof BN, Abd Talib R, Karim NA, Kamarudin NA, Arshad F
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2009 Sep;60(6):487-96.
    PMID: 18785052 DOI: 10.1080/09637480701804268
    This study was carried out to determine the blood glucose response and glycaemic index (GI) values of four types of commercially available breads in Malaysia. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women; body mass index, 21.9±1.6 kg/m(2); age, 22.9±1.7 years) participated in this study. The breads tested were multi-grains bread (M-Grains), wholemeal bread (WM), wholemeal bread with oatmeal (WM-Oat) and white bread (WB). The subjects were studied on seven different occasions (four tests for the tested breads and three repeated tests of the reference food) after an overnight fast. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0 min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve. The GI values were determined according to the standardized methodology. Our results showed that the M-Grains and WM-Oat could be categorized as intermediate GI while the WM and WB breads were high GI foods, respectively. The GI of M-Grains (56±6.2) and WM-Oat (67±6.9) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI = 100) (P < 0.05). No significant difference in GI value was seen between the reference food and the GI of WM (85±5.9) and WB (82±6.5) (P > 0.05). Among the tested breads, the GI values of M-Grains and WM-Oat were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of WM and WB. There was no relationship between the dietary fibre content of the bread with the incremental area under the curve (r = 0.15, P = 0.15) or their GI values (r = 0.17, P = 0.12), indicating that the GI value of the test breads were unaffected by the fibre content of the breads. The result of this study will provide useful nutritional information for dieticians and the public alike who may prefer low-GI over high-GI foods.
  9. Nawawi HM, Nor IM, Noor IM, Karim NA, Arshad F, Khan R, et al.
    J Cardiovasc Risk, 2002 Feb;9(1):17-23.
    PMID: 11984213
    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk.
  10. Nur Asyura Adznam S, Shahar S, Rahman SA, Yusof NA, Arshad F, Yassin Z, et al.
    J Nutr Health Aging, 2009 Dec;13(10):925-30.
    PMID: 19924355 DOI: 10.1007/s12603-009-0253-0
    OBJECTIVE: Prior to the development of a healthy ageing and risk reduction of chronic diseases intervention package for older people in Malaysia, a need assessment study was conducted to identify nutritional knowledge status and information needs, as part of an action research process.

    DESIGN: A cross sectional study was conducted among 267 elderly people, 54 care givers and 66 health professionals in two rural areas of Peninsular of Malaysia (i.e Sabak Bernam, Selangor and Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan). Information on nutritional knowledge was obtained from an interview based questionnaire for older subjects and caregiver and through self administered questionnaire from the health professionals. Anthropometric and functional measurements were also conducted among elderly subjects.

    RESULTS: It was found that the elderly subjects had poor nutritional knowledge with 43.8% of them classified as having unsatisfactory nutritional knowledge, followed by moderately satisfactory (33.7%), very unsatisfactory (15.7%) and good (6.7%). Talks, counselling sessions with health professionals and electronic media such as television and radio were the most preferred nutrition education sources among elderly subjects and their care givers. The majority of health professionals studied (98.5%) had good nutritional knowledge. Although most of them (93.6%) were involved in management of the elderly, only 45.5% incorporated nutritional information component in this activity. Most of the health professionals used the guidelines for management of elderly patients (63.6%). However, nutritional knowledge was very minimal in these guidelines. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 'level education', involvement in 'social activities', presence of 'hearing problems', the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) score, having previous 'nutritional information' and 'participation in healthy eating programme' were the major predictors of nutritional knowledge score among elderly subjects.

    CONCLUSION: Based on the above findings it is thus, imperative that an appropriate nutritional intervention package and programme be developed so as to help improve nutritional knowledge and subsequently the nutritional status of the rural elderly Malays.
  11. Shahar S, Ibrahim Z, Fatah AR, Rahman SA, Yusoff NA, Arshad F, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2007;16(2):346-53.
    PMID: 17468093
    A multidimensional assessment of nutritional and health status comprised of subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometry function, biochemistry, dietary intake, social and health aspects was carried out on 820 older people (52.8% men and 47.2% women) from four rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia. A proportion of the subjects had been classified as either overweight (25.7%) or chronic energy deficient (20.3%). Although 49% of subjects had normal body weight, 68.4% have been classified as having mild to moderate malnutrition according to the SGA. Only 1.1% and 2.3% had low serum albumin and ferritin, respectively. Almost 80% of subjects, especially men, were at high risk of cardiovascular diseases on the basis of the assessment of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The majority of the subjects (87.2%) were fully independent in performing daily tasks, with men having a significantly higher score compared to women (p<0.001). However, men were less likely to be able to perform a flexibility test (50.7%) than were women (27.0%) (p<0.05). The mean energy intake for men (1412 +/- 461 kcal/d) and women (1201 +/- 392 kcal/d) were below the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for Malaysia, although this is a difficult assertion to make in an age-group which generally experiences declining energy expenditure. Moreover, 52.5% of men and 47.5% of women might have underreported their food intake. Dietary micronutrients most likely to be deficient were thiamin, riboflavin and calcium. It is concluded that a substantial proportion of rural elderly Malays had problems related to both undernutrition and overnutrition. An appropriate nutrition intervention program is needed to improve the nutritional status of rural elderly Malays.
  12. Chee H, Khor G, Arshad F, Wan Muda W, Mohdtaib M, Safii N, et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Mar;8(1):33-53.
    PMID: 22692438
    This paper describes the nutritional status of pre-school children and analyzes its relationship to various household socio-economic indicators. Padi, rubber and fishing villages from the Functional Groups Study (1992-1996) were selected for having a high prevalence of child undernutrition, and all children between the ages of 12 and 72 months were measured for their weights and heights in April-May 1998. The NCHS reference values were used to calculate z-scores, which were categorised according to WHO (1983) recommendations. Children between minus 2SD and minus 1SD of reference median were classified as mildly malnourished. Prevalence of underweight was higher (30.5%) than stunting (22.3%), while wasting was only 9.7%. Padi villages had the highest prevalence of undernutrition, followed by fishing, and then rubber villages. Mean household incomes were found to be significantly lower for children with worse nutritional status, and undernutrition was higher in households below the poverty line income. The odds ratios for having stunted children were significantly higher for households whose heads were agricultural own-account workers (OR 3.66, 95% CI = 1.37-9.79), agricultural waged workers (OR 2.75, 95% CI = 1.06-7.10), and non-agricultural manual workers (OR 2.49, 95% CI = 1.04-6.00) compared to non-manual workers. Various household socio-economic indicators showed significantly higher odds ratios for underweight, stunting and wasting. After adjusting for confounding effects by logistic regression analysis, however, only mother's education was found to be a significant predictor for stunting, while poverty level and access to piped water supply were significant predictors for both underweight and stunting. Households without livestock were significant predictors for wasting. Thus, this study identified specific socio-economic factors that should be prioritized for policy and research towards the amelioration of childhood malnutrition in rural areas.
  13. Chee HL, Khor G, Arshad F, Wanmuda W, Shabdin A, Abusamah A, et al.
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Mar;8(1):13-31.
    PMID: 22692437
    This paper presents the socio-economic profile of households in the Family Dynamics Study (FDS) (1997-2001) and makes comparisons with the earlier Functional Groups Study (FGS) (1992-1996). For the current study, FGS villages with a high prevalence of child malnutrition were purposively selected. In each village selected, all households were included, and interviews with a structured questionnaire were conducted in April-May 1998. Incomes were generally low and incidence of poverty was high; 49.6% of the households were under the poverty line income, of which 37.2% were poor and 12.4% were hard core poor. Overall, only 23.2% of heads of households were in agricultural occupations, others being primarily waged workers and petty traders. Livestock rearing was widespread (57.8%), and most households (90.4%) owned at least one motorised vehicle, the most common being the motorcycle. The majority of households had refrigerators (73.6%), washing machines (58.8%), and televisions (91.1%); but telephones (42.2%), mobile phones (6.1%) and computers (2.3%) were less common. Although 99.7% of households had electricity supply and 95.1% had either a flush or pour flush latrine, only 57.4% had piped water supply. In comparison to the FGS, poverty in the current study is lower (49.6% of FDS households are poor compared to 55.2% of FGS households), the proportion of household heads in agricultural occupations is also lower (26.9% compared to 55.3%), while all other socioeconomic indicators were better, except for piped water supply, which remains inadequate for households in the current study.
  14. Shyam S, Arshad F, Abdul Ghani R, Wahab NA, Safii NS, Nisak MY, et al.
    Nutr J, 2013 May 24;12:68.
    PMID: 23705645 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-68
    BACKGROUND: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) increases risks for type 2 diabetes and weight management is recommended to reduce the risk. Conventional dietary recommendations (energy-restricted, low fat) have limited success in women with previous GDM. The effect of lowering Glycaemic Index (GI) in managing glycaemic variables and body weight in women post-GDM is unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of conventional dietary recommendations administered with and without additional low-GI education, in the management of glucose tolerance and body weight in Asian women with previous GDM.

    METHOD: Seventy seven Asian, non-diabetic women with previous GDM, between 20- 40y were randomised into Conventional healthy dietary recommendation (CHDR) and low GI (LGI) groups. CHDR received conventional dietary recommendations only (energy restricted, low in fat and refined sugars, high-fibre). LGI group received advice on lowering GI in addition. Fasting and 2-h post-load blood glucose after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HPP) were measured at baseline and 6 months after intervention. Anthropometry and dietary intake were assessed at baseline, three and six months after intervention. The study is registered at the Malaysian National Medical Research Register (NMRR) with Research ID: 5183.

    RESULTS: After 6 months, significant reductions in body weight, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were observed only in LGI group (P<0.05). Mean BMI changes were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: -0.6 vs. 0 kg/m2, P= 0.03). More subjects achieved weight loss ≥5% in LGI compared to CHDR group (33% vs. 8%, P=0.01). Changes in 2HPP were significantly different between groups (LGI vs. CHDR: median (IQR): -0.2(2.8) vs. +0.8 (2.0) mmol/L, P=0.025). Subjects with baseline fasting insulin≥2 μIU/ml had greater 2HPP reductions in LGI group compared to those in the CHDR group (-1.9±0.42 vs. +1.31±1.4 mmol/L, P<0.001). After 6 months, LGI group diets showed significantly lower GI (57±5 vs. 64±6, P<0.001), GL (122±33 vs. 142±35, P=0.04) and higher fibre content (17±4 vs.13±4 g, P<0.001). Caloric intakes were comparable between groups.

    CONCLUSION: In women post-GDM, lowering GI of healthy diets resulted in significant improvements in glucose tolerance and body weight reduction as compared to conventional low-fat diets with similar energy prescription.

  15. Shahar S, Adznam SN, Rahman SA, Yusoff NA, Yassin Z, Arshad F, et al.
    BMC Geriatr, 2012 Jun 07;12:24.
    PMID: 22676577 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-24
    BACKGROUND: It is well known that older adults are often vulnerable to malnutrition. This action research was conducted to develop a nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases among older adults in a rural area of Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was designed and conducted in three stages, including needs assessment, development of the package and analysis of acceptance among 33 older adults aged 60 years and over in rural communities, and 14 health staff members at rural health clinics. Subjects completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic factors and acceptance evaluation of the nutrition education package with respect to content, graphics and design. Data were analysed descriptively using numbers and percentages.

    RESULTS: A nutrition education package comprising a booklet, flipchart and placemats was developed. A total of 42.4% of the older adults expressed that the sentences in the flipchart needed to be simplified and medical terms explained. Terminology (60%), illustrations (20%) and nutrition recommendations (20%) were the aspects that prevented elderly subjects from fully understanding the booklet. Information on the placemats was easily understood by subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: A well accepted nutrition education package for promoting healthy ageing and reducing risk of chronic diseases was developed that incorporated modifications based on feedback from older adult subjects and health clinic staff in a rural area. It is a tool that can effectively be used for health education in this population.

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