Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2019 Apr 01;130:276-292.
    PMID: 30771717 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.01.047
    Graphene is a 2-dimensional nanomaterial with an atomic thickness has attracted a strong scientific interest owing to their remarkable optical, electronic, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Graphene-based materials particularly graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are widely utilized in various applications ranging from food industry, environmental monitoring and biomedical fields as well as in the development of various types of biosensing devices. The richness in oxygen functional groups in the materials serves as a catalysis for the development of biosensors/electrochemical biosensors which promotes for an attachment of biological recognition elements, surface functionalization and compatible with micro- and nano- bio-environment. In this review, the graphene-based materials application in electrochemical biosensors based on recent advancement (e.g; the surface modification and analytical performances) and the utilization of such biosensors to monitor the noncommunicable diseases are presented. The detection performances of the graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are in the range of ng/mL and have reached up to fg/mL in detecting the targets of NCDs with higher selectivity, sensitivity and stability with good reproducibility attributes. We have discussed the advances while addressing the very specific biomarkers for the NCDs detection. Challenges and possible future research directions for the NCDs detection based on graphene nanocomposite with other 2D nanomaterials are outlined.
  2. Fatin MF, Rahim Ruslinda A, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Mar 15;125:414-422.
    PMID: 30529550 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.066
    Interaction between split RNA aptamer and the clinically important target, HIV-1 Tat was investigated on a biosensing surface transduced by functionally choreographed multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Acid oxidation was performed to functionalize MWCNTs with carboxyl functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis had profound ~2.91% increment in overall oxygen group and ~1% increment was noticed with a specific carboxyl content owing to CO and OCO bonding. The interaction between split RNA aptamer and HIV-1 Tat protein was quantified by electrical measurements with the current signal (Ids) over a gate voltage (Vgs). Initially, 34.4 mV gate voltage shift was observed by the immobilization of aptamer on MWCNT. With aptamer and HIV-1 Tat interaction, the current flow was decreased with the concomitant gate voltage shift of 23.5 mV. The attainment of sensitivity with split aptamer and HIV-1 Tat interaction on the fabricated device was 600 pM. To ensure the genuine interaction of aptamer with HIV-1 Tat, other HIV-1 proteins, Nef and p24 were interacted with aptamer and they displayed the negligible interferences with gate voltage shift of 3.5 mV and 5.7 mV, which shows 4 and 2.5 folds lesser than HIV-1 Tat interaction, respectively.
  3. Letchumanan I, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB
    Curr Med Chem, 2021;28(5):986-1002.
    PMID: 31971105 DOI: 10.2174/0929867327666200123092648
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both men and women. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), ischemic heart disease is the major issue due to the narrowing of the coronary artery by plaque formation on the artery wall, which causes an inadequate flow of oxygen and blood to the heart and is called 'coronary artery disease'. The CVD death rate increased by up to 15% in 2016 (~17.6 million) compared to the past decade. This tremendous increment urges the development of a suitable biomarker for rapid and early diagnosis. Currently, C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered an outstanding biomarker for quick and accurate outcomes in clinical analyses. Various techniques have also been used to diagnose CVD, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), colorimetric assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluoro-immunoassays, chemiluminescent assays, and electrical measurements. This review discusses such diagnostic strategies and how current, cutting-edge technologies have enabled the development of high-performance detection methodologies. Concluding remarks have been made concerning the clinical significance and the use of nanomaterial in medical diagnostics towards nanotheranostics.
  4. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Ramli MM
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2020 Oct 01;577:345-354.
    PMID: 32485416 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2020.05.070
    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is widely utilised to develop various types of biosensors; however, producing self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting remains inconsistent. In the present work, we systematically used three different methods to prepare rGO suspensions in order to produce large scale self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting. The rGO suspensions were prepared using only deionised water with no added any chemicals/organic solvents, which we considered to be a low-cost method. Subsequently, the most effective preparation method was used to deposit rGO nanoflakes onto commercial gold interdigitated microelectrodes (Au-IDE) to examine their electrical performance. Assessment of the yields, developed methods, surface morphologies, spectroscopy and structural analyses of the as-prepared rGO nanoflakes were conducted. The results revealed that method-3 (involving sonication, centrifugation and post-sonication) produced large self-assembled rGO nanoflake networks with strong adhesion to glass substrates. Furthermore, the as-prepared rGO/Au-IDE modified sensors showed excellent electron mobility where the electrical conductivity was enhanced approximately ~ 1000 fold compared to the bare devices. The present work provided new insights for depositing large self-assembled interconnected rGO nanoflake networks through single-droplet drop-casting which will be beneficial for biosensor development and other downstream applications.
  5. Letchumanan I, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM
    Mikrochim Acta, 2020 01 14;187(2):128.
    PMID: 31938893 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-020-4115-0
    A method is described for the electrochemical determination of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, and by testing the effect of 30 nm gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Three comparative studies were performed in the presence and absence of GNPs, and with agglomerated GNPs. The divalent ion Ca(II) was used to induce a strong agglomeration of GNPs, as confirmed by colorimetry and voltammetry. Herein, colorimetry was used to test the best amount of salt needed to aggregate the GNPs. Despite, voltammetry was used to determine the status of biomolecules on the sensor. The topography of the surface of ZnO-coated interdigitated electrodes was analyzed by using 3D-nano profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and high-power microscopy. The interaction between SCC antigen and antibody trigger vibrations on the sensor and cause dipole moment, which was measured using a picoammeter with a linear sweep from 0 to 2 V at 0.01 V step voltage. The sensitivity level was 10 fM by 3σ calculation for the dispersed GNP-conjugated antigen. This indicates a 100-fold enhancement compared to the condition without GNP conjugation. However, the sensitivity level for agglomerated GNPs conjugated antibody was not significant with 100 fM sensitivity. Specificity was tested for other proteins in serum, namely blood clotting factor IX, C-reactive protein, and serum albumin. The SCC antigen was quantified in spiked serum and gave recoveries that ranged between 80 and 90%. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen determination using divalent ion induced agglomerated GNPs. Sensitivity increment depends on the occurrence of more SCC antigen and antibody binding event via GNPs integration. Notably, lower detection limit was achieved at femto molar with proper orientation of biological molecules.
  6. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 11 19;9(1):17013.
    PMID: 31745155 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53573-9
    Lung cancer is one of the most serious threats to human where 85% of lethal death caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) induced by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The present research focuses in the development of efficient and effortless EGFR mutant detection strategy through high-performance and sensitive genosensor. The current amplified through 250 µm sized fingers between 100 µm aluminium electrodes indicates the voltammetry signal generated by means of the mutant DNA sequence hybridization. To enhance the DNA immobilization and hybridization, ∼25 nm sized aluminosilicate nanocomposite synthesized from the disposed joss fly ash was deposited on the gaps between aluminium electrodes. The probe, mutant (complementary), and wild (single-base pair mismatch) targets were designed precisely from the genomic sequences denote the detection of EGFR mutation. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis was performed at every step of surface functionalization evidences the relevant chemical bonding of biomolecules on the genosensor as duplex DNA with peak response at 1150 cm-1 to 1650 cm-1. Genosensor depicts a sensitive EGFR mutation as it is able to detect apparently at 100 aM mutant against 1 µM DNA probe. The insignificant voltammetry signal generated with wild type strand emphasizes the specificity of genosensor in the detection of single base pair mismatch. The inefficiency of genosensor in detecting EGFR mutation in the absence of aluminosilicate nanocomposite implies the insensitivity of genosensing DNA hybridization and accentuates the significance of aluminosilicate. Based on the slope of the calibration curve, the attained sensitivity of aluminosilicate modified genosensor was 3.02E-4 A M-1. The detection limit of genosensor computed based on 3σ calculation, relative to the change of current proportional to the logarithm of mutant concentration is at 100 aM.
  7. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P
    Mikrochim Acta, 2019 07 18;186(8):546.
    PMID: 31321546 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-019-3696-y
    A genomic DNA-based colorimetric assay is described for the detection of the early growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, which is the protruding reason for non-small cell lung cancer. A DNA sequence was designed and immobilized on unmodified gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The formation of the respective duplex indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. It is accompanied by the aggregation of the GNPs in the presence of monovalent ions, and it indicates the presence of an EGFR mutation. This is accompanied by a color change from red (520 nm) to purple (620 nm). Aggregation was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The limit of detection is 313 nM of the mutant target strand. A similar peak shift was observed for 2.5 μM concentrations of wild type target. No significant peak shift was observed with probe and non-complementary DNA. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of high-specific genomic DNA sequence on gold nanoparticle (GNP) aggregation with sodium chloride (NaCl). It illustrates the detection method for EGFR mutation on lung cancer detection. Red and purple colors of tubes represent dispersed and aggregated GNP, respectively.
  8. Ibau C, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Nuzaihan M N M, Fathil MFM, Shamsuddin SA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Nov 01;162:1924-1936.
    PMID: 32822729 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.125
    This work explores Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) detection for a highly-sensitive quantification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in Faradaic (f-EIS) and non-Faradaic modes (nf-EIS). Immobilization of monoclonal antibody specific to PSA (anti-PSA) was performed using 1-ethyl-3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide crosslinking agents in order to conjugate carboxylic (-COOH) terminated group of 16-Mercaptoundecanoic acid with amine (-NH3+) on anti-PSA epitope. This approach offers simple and efficient approach to form a strong, covalently bound thiol-gold (SAu) for a reliable SAM layer formation. Studies on the topographic of pristine Au-IDE surface were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy techniques, meanwhile a 3-dimensional optical surface profiler, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy techniques were used to validate the successful functionalization steps on the sensor transducer surface. Detection of PSA in f-EIS mode was carried out by measuring the response in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and impedance change (Z), meanwhile in nf-EIS mode, the changes in device capacitance was monitored. In f-EIS mode, the sensor reveals a logarithmic detection of PSA in a range of 100 ng/ml down to 0.01 ng/ml in Phosphate Buffered Saline with a recorded sensitivity of 2.412 kΩ/log10 ([PSA] ng/ml) and the limit of detection (LOD) down to 0.01 ng/ml. The nf-EIS detection mode yields a logarithmic detection range of 5000 ng/ml down to 0.5 ng/ml, with a sensitivity of 8.570 nF/log10 ([PSA] ng/ml) and an LOD of 0.5 ng/ml. The developed bio-assay yields great device stability, specificity to PSA and repeatability of detection that would pave its way for the future development into portable lab-on-chip bio-sensing system.
  9. Adam H, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Parmin NA, Hashim U
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Feb 28;171:217-224.
    PMID: 33418041 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.014
    Misfolding and accumulation of the protein alpha synuclein in the brain cells characterize Parkinson's disease (PD). Electrochemical based aluminum interdigitated electrodes (ALIDEs) was fabricated by using conventional photolithography method and modified the surfaces with zinc oxide and gold nanorod by using spin coating method for the analysis of PD protein biomarker. The device surface modified with gold nanorod of 25 nm diameter was used. The bare devices and the surface modified devices were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, 3D-Profilometer, Atomic Force Microscope and high-power microscope. The above measurement was also performed to measure the interaction of antibody with aggregated alpha-synuclein for normal, aggregated and aggregated alpha synuclein in human serum and distinguished against 3 control proteins (PARK1, DJ-1 and Factor IX). The detection limit for normal alpha synuclein was 1 f. with the sensitivity of 1 f. on a linear regression (R2 = 0.9759). The detection limit for aggregated alpha synuclein was 10 aM with the sensitivity of 1 aM on a linear regression (R2 = 0.9797). Also, the detection limit of aggregated alpha synuclein in serum was 10 aM with the sensitivity of 1 aM on a linear regression (R2 = 0.9739). These results however indicate that, serum has only minimal amount of alpha synuclein.
  10. Arshad MKM, Adzhri R, Fathil MFM, Gopinath SCB, N M NM
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2018 Aug 01;18(8):5283-5291.
    PMID: 29458578 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15419
    The development of electrical biosensor towards device miniaturization in order to achieve better sensitivity with enhanced electrical signal has certain limitations especially complexity in fabrication process and costs. In this paper, an alternative technique with minor modification in the device structure is presented for signal amplification by implementing ambipolar conduction in the biosensor itself. We demonstrated the field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor coupled back-gate for attaining a higher sensitivity with the detection of lower target abundance. To utilize the coupled back-gate as a pre-amplifier, silicon-on-insulator wafer with thicknesses of top-silicon and buried oxide (BOX) layers of 70 nm and 145 nm, respectively were desired. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterial was deposited using sol-gel method on the channel which acts as a transducer. Surface functionalization on TiO2 thin film allowed an effective immobilization of anti-cardiac troponin I antibody to interact cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Binding events at each step was validated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Further, electrical characterization (Id-Vd) confirms the potentiality of FET-based biosensor to detect cTnI (represents acute myocardial infarction disease) with the concentration ranges from 10 μg/ml down to 1 fg/ml. The sensitivity of 459.2 nA (g/ml)-1 and lower detection limit of 1 fg/ml were achieved at Vbg = -5 V and Vd = 5 V. The designed device demonstrates its ability to detect lower level of cTnI with pre-amplified electrical signal by back-gate biasing.
  11. Dalila NR, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Nuzaihan MNM, Fathil MFM
    Mikrochim Acta, 2020 10 05;187(11):588.
    PMID: 33015730 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-020-04562-7
    Nanofabricated gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) on MoS2 nanosheets (Au-NPs/MoS2) in back-gated field-effect transistor (BG-FET) are presented, which acts as an efficient semiconductor device for detecting a low concentration of C-reactive protein (C-RP). The decorated nanomaterials lead to an enhanced electron conduction layer on a 100-μm-sized transducing channel. The sensing surface was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-power microscopy (HPM). The BG-FET device exhibits an excellent limit of detection of 8.38 fg/mL and a sensitivity of 176 nA/g·mL-1. The current study with Au-NPs/MoS2 BG-FET displays a new potential biosensing technology; especially for integration into complementary metal oxide (CMOS) technology for hand-held future device application.
  12. Taniselass S, Arshad MKM, Gopinath SCB, Fathil MFM, Ibau C, Anbu P
    Mikrochim Acta, 2021 07 15;188(8):257.
    PMID: 34268634 DOI: 10.1007/s00604-021-04922-x
    A label-free chemical bonding strategy mediated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) basal plane functional groups has been developed for cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) detection. Four different chemical strategies on respective electrode sensing surface were precedingly examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The impedimetric assessment was carried out by sweeping frequency at the range 0.1-500 kHz perturbated at a small amplitude of AC voltage (25 mV). The chemical strategy-4 denoted as S-4 shows a significant analytical performance on cTnI detection in spiked buffer and human serum, whereby the pre-mixture of rGO and (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) creates a large number of amine sites (-NH2), which significantly enhanced the antibody immobilization without excessive functionalization. The as-fabricated immunosensor exhibited an ultra-low limit of detection of 6.3 ag mL-1 and the lowest antigen concentration measured was at 10 ag mL-1. The immunosensor showed a linear and wide range of cTnI detection (10 ag mL-1-100 ng mL-1) in human serum with a regression coefficient of 0.9716, rapid detection (5 min of binding time), and stable and highly reproducible bioelectrode response with RSD 
  13. Ho HH, Sinaga DA, Arshad MKM, Kasim S, Lee JH, Khoo DZL, et al.
    Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc, 2020 Feb;26:100469.
    PMID: 32021903 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100469
    Background: Amphilimus-eluting stent (AES) is a novel polymer-free drug eluting stent that combines sirolimus with fatty acid as antiproliferative drug and has shown promising results in percutaneous coronary intervention.We evaluated the clinical safety and efficacy of AES in an all-comers South-East Asian registry.

    Methods: Between May 2014 to April 2017, 268 patients (88% male, mean age 60.1 ± 10.8 years) with 291 coronary lesions were treated with AES. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) ie a composite of cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 12-month follow-up.

    Results: The majority of patients presented with acute coronary syndrome (75%) and 75% had multi-vessel disease on angiography. Diabetes mellitus was present in 123 patients (46%). The most common target vessel for PCI was left anterior descending artery (43%) followed by right coronary artery (36%), left circumflex (10%) and left main (6%).The majority of lesions were type B-C (85%) by ACC/AHA lesion classification. An average of 1.25 ± 0.5 AES were used per patient, with mean AES diameter of 3.1 ± 0.4 mm and average total length of 34.8 ± 19.4 mm.At 12-month follow-up, 4% of patients developed MACE. MACE was mainly driven by cardiovascular mortality (1.5%), MI (2%) and TLR (1.5%). The rate of stent thrombosis was 1.5%.

    Conclusion: In a contemporary all-comers South-East Asian registry with high rate of diabetes mellitus, AES was found to be efficacious with a low incidence of MACE observed at 12-month follow-up.

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