Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

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  1. Lim WC, Khan AM
    BMC Genomics, 2018 01 19;19(Suppl 1):42.
    PMID: 29363421 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-4328-8
    BACKGROUND: Ebolavirus (EBOV) is responsible for one of the most fatal diseases encountered by mankind. Cellular T-cell responses have been implicated to be important in providing protection against the virus. Antigenic variation can result in viral escape from immune recognition. Mapping targets of immune responses among the sequence of viral proteins is, thus, an important first step towards understanding the immune responses to viral variants and can aid in the identification of vaccine targets. Herein, we performed a large-scale, proteome-wide mapping and diversity analyses of putative HLA supertype-restricted T-cell epitopes of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), the most pathogenic species among the EBOV family.

    METHODS: All publicly available ZEBOV sequences (14,098) for each of the nine viral proteins were retrieved, removed of irrelevant and duplicate sequences, and aligned. The overall proteome diversity of the non-redundant sequences was studied by use of Shannon's entropy. The sequences were predicted, by use of the NetCTLpan server, for HLA-A2, -A3, and -B7 supertype-restricted epitopes, which are relevant to African and other ethnicities and provide for large (~86%) population coverage. The predicted epitopes were mapped to the alignment of each protein for analyses of antigenic sequence diversity and relevance to structure and function. The putative epitopes were validated by comparison with experimentally confirmed epitopes.

    RESULTS & DISCUSSION: ZEBOV proteome was generally conserved, with an average entropy of 0.16. The 185 HLA supertype-restricted T-cell epitopes predicted (82 (A2), 37 (A3) and 66 (B7)) mapped to 125 alignment positions and covered ~24% of the proteome length. Many of the epitopes showed a propensity to co-localize at select positions of the alignment. Thirty (30) of the mapped positions were completely conserved and may be attractive for vaccine design. The remaining (95) positions had one or more epitopes, with or without non-epitope variants. A significant number (24) of the putative epitopes matched reported experimentally validated HLA ligands/T-cell epitopes of A2, A3 and/or B7 supertype representative allele restrictions. The epitopes generally corresponded to functional motifs/domains and there was no correlation to localization on the protein 3D structure. These data and the epitope map provide important insights into the interaction between EBOV and the host immune system.

  2. Chong LC, Khan AM
    BMC Genomics, 2019 Dec 24;20(Suppl 9):921.
    PMID: 31874646 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-019-6311-z
    BACKGROUND: The sequence diversity of dengue virus (DENV) is one of the challenges in developing an effective vaccine against the virus. Highly conserved, serotype-specific (HCSS), immune-relevant DENV sequences are attractive candidates for vaccine design, and represent an alternative to the approach of selecting pan-DENV conserved sequences. The former aims to limit the number of possible cross-reactive epitope variants in the population, while the latter aims to limit the cross-reactivity between the serotypes to favour a serotype-specific response. Herein, we performed a large-scale systematic study to map and characterise HCSS sequences in the DENV proteome.

    METHODS: All reported DENV protein sequence data for each serotype was retrieved from the NCBI Entrez Protein (nr) Database (txid: 12637). The downloaded sequences were then separated according to the individual serotype proteins by use of BLASTp search, and subsequently removed for duplicates and co-aligned across the serotypes. Shannon's entropy and mutual information (MI) analyses, by use of AVANA, were performed to measure the diversity within and between the serotype proteins to identify HCSS nonamers. The sequences were evaluated for the presence of promiscuous T-cell epitopes by use of NetCTLpan 1.1 and NetMHCIIpan 3.2 server for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II supertypes, respectively. The predicted epitopes were matched to reported epitopes in the Immune Epitope Database.

    RESULTS: A total of 2321 nonamers met the HCSS selection criteria of entropy  0.8. Concatenating these resulted in a total of 337 HCSS sequences. DENV4 had the most number of HCSS nonamers; NS5, NS3 and E proteins had among the highest, with none in the C and only one in prM. The HCSS sequences were immune-relevant; 87 HCSS sequences were both reported T-cell epitopes/ligands in human and predicted epitopes, supporting the accuracy of the predictions. A number of the HCSS clustered as immunological hotspots and exhibited putative promiscuity beyond a single HLA supertype. The HCSS sequences represented, on average, ~ 40% of the proteome length for each serotype; more than double of pan-DENV sequences (conserved across the four serotypes), and thus offer a larger choice of sequences for vaccine target selection. HCSS sequences of a given serotype showed significant amino acid difference to all the variants of the other serotypes, supporting the notion of serotype-specificity.

    CONCLUSION: This work provides a catalogue of HCSS sequences in the DENV proteome, as candidates for vaccine target selection. The methodology described herein provides a framework for similar application to other pathogens.

  3. Patro CP, Khan AM, Tan TW, Fu XY
    PLoS One, 2014;9(8):e104597.
    PMID: 25157689 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104597
    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are key signalling molecules in metazoans, implicated in various cellular processes. Increased research in the field has resulted in the accumulation of STAT sequence and structure data, which are scattered across various public databases, missing extensive functional annotations, and prone to effort redundancy because of the dearth of community sharing. Therefore, there is a need to integrate the existing sequence, structure and functional data into a central repository, one that is enriched with annotations and provides a platform for community contributions. Herein, we present STATdb (publicly available at http://statdb.bic.nus.edu.sg/), the first integrated resource for STAT sequences comprising 1540 records representing the known STATome, enriched with existing structural and functional information from various databases and literature and including manual annotations. STATdb provides advanced features for data visualization, analysis and prediction, and community contributions. A key feature is a meta-predictor to characterise STAT sequences based on a novel classification that integrates STAT domain architecture, lineage and function. A curation policy workflow has been devised for regulated and structured community contributions, with an update policy for the seamless integration of new data and annotations.
  4. Abd Raman HS, Tan S, August JT, Khan AM
    PeerJ, 2020;7:e7954.
    PMID: 32518710 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7954
    Background: Influenza A (H5N1) virus is a global concern with potential as a pandemic threat. High sequence variability of influenza A viruses is a major challenge for effective vaccine design. A continuing goal towards this is a greater understanding of influenza A (H5N1) proteome sequence diversity in the context of the immune system (antigenic diversity), the dynamics of mutation, and effective strategies to overcome the diversity for vaccine design.

    Methods: Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the dynamics of H5N1 mutations by analysis of the aligned overlapping nonamer positions (1-9, 2-10, etc.) of more than 13,000 protein sequences of avian and human influenza A (H5N1) viruses, reported over at least 50 years. Entropy calculations were performed on 9,408 overlapping nonamer position of the proteome to study the diversity in the context of immune system. The nonamers represent the predominant length of the binding cores for peptides recognized by the cellular immune system. To further dissect the sequence diversity, each overlapping nonamer position was quantitatively analyzed for four patterns of sequence diversity motifs: index, major, minor and unique.

    Results: Almost all of the aligned overlapping nonamer positions of each viral proteome exhibited variants (major, minor, and unique) to the predominant index sequence. Each variant motif displayed a characteristic pattern of incidence change in relation to increased total variants. The major variant exhibited a restrictive pyramidal incidence pattern, with peak incidence at 50% total variants. Post this peak incidence, the minor variants became the predominant motif for majority of the positions. Unique variants, each sequence observed only once, were present at nearly all of the nonamer positions. The diversity motifs (index and variants) demonstrated complex inter-relationships, with motif switching being a common phenomenon. Additionally, 25 highly conserved sequences were identified to be shared across viruses of both hosts, with half conserved to several other influenza A subtypes.

    Discussion: The presence of distinct sequences (nonatypes) at nearly all nonamer positions represents a large repertoire of reported viral variants in the proteome, which influence the variability dynamics of the viral population. This work elucidated and provided important insights on the components that make up the viral diversity, delineating inherent patterns in the organization of sequence changes that function in the viral fitness-selection. Additionally, it provides a catalogue of all the mutational changes involved in the dynamics of H5N1 viral diversity for both avian and human host populations. This work provides data relevant for the design of prophylactics and therapeutics that overcome the diversity of the virus, and can aid in the surveillance of existing and future strains of influenza viruses.

  5. James SA, Ong HS, Hari R, Khan AM
    BMC Genomics, 2021 Sep 28;22(Suppl 3):700.
    PMID: 34583643 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07657-4
    BACKGROUND: Biology has entered the era of big data with the advent of high-throughput omics technologies. Biological databases provide public access to petabytes of data and information facilitating knowledge discovery. Over the years, sequence data of pathogens has seen a large increase in the number of records, given the relatively small genome size and their important role as infectious and symbiotic agents. Humans are host to numerous pathogenic diseases, such as that by viruses, many of which are responsible for high mortality and morbidity. The interaction between pathogens and humans over the evolutionary history has resulted in sharing of sequences, with important biological and evolutionary implications.

    RESULTS: This study describes a large-scale, systematic bioinformatics approach for identification and characterization of shared sequences between the host and pathogen. An application of the approach is demonstrated through identification and characterization of the Flaviviridae-human share-ome. A total of 2430 nonamers represented the Flaviviridae-human share-ome with 100% identity. Although the share-ome represented a small fraction of the repertoire of Flaviviridae (~ 0.12%) and human (~ 0.013%) non-redundant nonamers, the 2430 shared nonamers mapped to 16,946 Flaviviridae and 7506 human non-redundant protein sequences. The shared nonamer sequences mapped to 125 species of Flaviviridae, including several with unclassified genus. The majority (~ 68%) of the shared sequences mapped to Hepacivirus C species; West Nile, dengue and Zika viruses of the Flavivirus genus accounted for ~ 11%, ~ 7%, and ~ 3%, respectively, of the Flaviviridae protein sequences (16,946) mapped by the share-ome. Further characterization of the share-ome provided important structural-functional insights to Flaviviridae-human interactions.

    CONCLUSION: Mapping of the host-pathogen share-ome has important implications for the design of vaccines and drugs, diagnostics, disease surveillance and the discovery of unknown, potential host-pathogen interactions. The generic workflow presented herein is potentially applicable to a variety of pathogens, such as of viral, bacterial or parasitic origin.

  6. Islam MA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Mar;179:227-233.
    PMID: 25545092 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.11.115
    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents.
  7. Islam MA, Kabir G, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Oct;194:14-20.
    PMID: 26176821 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.094
    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone.
  8. Marrakchi F, Khanday WA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2016 Dec;93(Pt A):1231-1239.
    PMID: 27663552 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.09.069
    Cross-linked chitosan/sepiolite composite was prepared from sepiolite clay and chitosan, and was cross-linked using epichlorohydrin. Among the various weight ratio percentage of chitosan and sepiolite clay composites, CS50SP50 was selected as the best adsorbent for both methylene blue (MB) and reactive orange 16 (RO 16). At an optimum adsorbent dosage of 0.2g/100mL, the effects of initial dye concentration (25-400mg/L) and pH (3-11) on MB and RO 16 adsorption onto CS50SP50 composite were studied. Monolayer adsorption capacities of CS50SP50 composite for MB and RO 16 were 40.986mg/g and 190.965mg/g, respectively at 30°C. Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherms applied on the adsorption data for both the dyes reveal that data fitted best for Freundlich model. For both the dyes pseudo-second-order kinetics were found to describe the adsorption process better than pseudo-first-order kinetics. The adsorption capacity of CS50SP50 composite for both the dyes was found better compared to previous studies thus making it potentially low-cost adsorbent for removal of both cationic and reactive dyes.
  9. Khanday WA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2017 Feb;95:895-902.
    PMID: 27789331 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.10.075
    Cross-linked beads of activated oil palm ash zeolite/chitosan (Z-AC/C) composite were prepared through the hydrothermal treatment of NaOH activated oil palm ash followed by beading with chitosan. The effects of initial dye concentration (50-400mg/L), temperature (30°C-50°C) and pH (3-13) on batch adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29) were studied. Adsorption of both dyes was better described by Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Z-AC/C were 151.51, 169.49, and 199.20mg/g for MB and 212.76, 238.09, and 270.27mg/g for AB29 at 30°C, 40°C, and 50°C, respectively.
  10. Hu Y, Tan PT, Tan TW, August JT, Khan AM
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e59994.
    PMID: 23593157 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059994
    The rapid mutation of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) and the limited characterization of the composition and incidence of the variant population are major obstacles to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. This issue was addressed by a comprehensive analysis of over 58,000 clade B HIV-1 protein sequences reported over at least 26 years. The sequences were aligned and the 2,874 overlapping nonamer amino acid positions of the viral proteome, each a possible core binding domain for human leukocyte antigen molecules and T-cell receptors, were quantitatively analyzed for four patterns of sequence motifs: (1) "index", the most prevalent sequence; (2) "major" variant, the most common variant sequence; (3) "minor" variants, multiple different sequences, each with an incidence less than that of the major variant; and (4) "unique" variants, each observed only once in the alignment. The collective incidence of the major, minor, and unique variants at each nonamer position represented the total variant population for the position. Positions with more than 50% total variants contained correspondingly reduced incidences of index and major variant sequences and increased minor and unique variants. Highly diverse positions, with 80 to 98% variant nonamer sequences, were present in each protein, including 5% of Gag, and 27% of Env and Nef, each. The multitude of different variant nonamer sequences (i.e. nonatypes; up to 68%) at the highly diverse positions, represented by the major, multiple minor, and multiple unique variants likely supported variants function both in immune escape and as altered peptide ligands with deleterious T-cell responses. The patterns of mutational change were consistent with the sequences of individual HXB2 and C1P viruses and can be considered applicable to all HIV-1 viruses. This characterization of HIV-1 protein mutation provides a foundation for the design of peptide-based vaccines and therapeutics.
  11. Soe HJ, Khan AM, Manikam R, Samudi Raju C, Vanhoutte P, Sekaran SD
    J Gen Virol, 2017 Dec;98(12):2993-3007.
    PMID: 29182510 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000981
    Plasma leakage is the main pathophysiological feature in severe dengue, resulting from altered vascular barrier function associated with an inappropriate immune response triggered upon infection. The present study investigated functional changes using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing system in four (brain, dermal, pulmonary and retinal) human microvascular endothelial cell (MEC) lines infected with purified dengue virus, followed by assessment of cytokine profiles and the expression of inter-endothelial junctional proteins. Modelling of changes in electrical impedance suggests that vascular leakage in dengue-infected MECs is mostly due to the modulation of cell-to-cell interactions, while this loss of vascular barrier function observed in the infected MECs varied between cell lines and DENV serotypes. High levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL11, CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL20) and adhesion molecules (VCAM-1) were differentially produced in the four infected MECs. Further, the tight junctional protein, ZO-1, was down-regulated in both the DENV-1-infected brain and pulmonary MECs, while claudin-1, PECAM-1 and VE-cadherin were differentially expressed in these two MECs after infection. Non-purified virus stock was also studied to investigate the impact of virus stock purity on dengue-specific immune responses, and the results suggest that virus stock propagated through cell culture may include factors that mask or alter the DENV-specific immune responses of the MECs. The findings of the present study show that high DENV load differentially modulates human microvascular endothelial barrier function and disrupts the function of inter-endothelial junctional proteins during early infection with organ-specific cytokine production.
  12. Suwinski P, Ong C, Ling MHT, Poh YM, Khan AM, Ong HS
    Front Genet, 2019;10:49.
    PMID: 30809243 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00049
    There is a growing attention toward personalized medicine. This is led by a fundamental shift from the 'one size fits all' paradigm for treatment of patients with conditions or predisposition to diseases, to one that embraces novel approaches, such as tailored target therapies, to achieve the best possible outcomes. Driven by these, several national and international genome projects have been initiated to reap the benefits of personalized medicine. Exome and targeted sequencing provide a balance between cost and benefit, in contrast to whole genome sequencing (WGS). Whole exome sequencing (WES) targets approximately 3% of the whole genome, which is the basis for protein-coding genes. Nonetheless, it has the characteristics of big data in large deployment. Herein, the application of WES and its relevance in advancing personalized medicine is reviewed. WES is mapped to Big Data "10 Vs" and the resulting challenges discussed. Application of existing biological databases and bioinformatics tools to address the bottleneck in data processing and analysis are presented, including the need for new generation big data analytics for the multi-omics challenges of personalized medicine. This includes the incorporation of artificial intelligence (AI) in the clinical utility landscape of genomic information, and future consideration to create a new frontier toward advancing the field of personalized medicine.
  13. Asif M, Jabeen Q, Abdul-Majid AM, Atif M
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Nov;27(6):1811-7.
    PMID: 25362605
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.
  14. Njoku VO, Islam MA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    J Environ Manage, 2015 May 1;154:138-44.
    PMID: 25721981 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.02.002
    The removal of toxic herbicide from wastewater is challenging due to the availability of suitable adsorbents. The Langsat empty fruit bunch is an agricultural waste and was used in this study as a cheap precursor to produce activated carbon for the adsorption of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at different initial concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mg/L. The produced Langsat empty fruit bunch activated carbon (LEFBAC) was mesoporous and had high surface area of 1065.65 m(2)/g with different active functional groups. The effect of shaking time, temperature and pH on 2,4-D removal were investigated using the batch technique. The adsorption capacity of 2,4-D by LEFBAC was decreased with increase in pH of solution whereas adsorption capacity increased with temperature. The adsorption data was well described by Langmuir isotherm followed by removal capacity of 261.2 mg/g at 30 °C. The results from this work showed that LEFBAC can be used as outstanding material for anionic herbicide uptake from wastewater.
  15. Atif M, Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Ali I, Asif M
    Springerplus, 2012;1:40.
    PMID: 23961366 DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-1-40
    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) and chest X-ray are the conventional methods used for tracing suspected tuberculosis (TB) patients. The purpose of the study was to calculate the cost incurred by Penang General Hospital on performing one contact tracing procedure using an activity based costing approach. Contact tracing records (including the demographic profile of contacts and outcome of the contact tracing procedure) from March 2010 until February 2011 were retrospectively obtained from the TB contact tracing record book. The human resource cost was calculated by multiplying the mean time spent (in minutes) by employees doing a specific activity by their per-minute salaries. The costs of consumables, Purified Protein Derivative vials and clinical equipment were obtained from the procurement section of the Pharmacy and Radiology Departments. The cost of the building was calculated by multiplying the area of space used by the facility with the unit cost of the public building department. Straight-line deprecation with a discount rate of 3% was assumed for the calculation of equivalent annual costs for the building and machines. Out of 1024 contact tracing procedures, TST was positive (≥10 mm) in 38 suspects. However, chemoprophylaxis was started in none. Yield of contact tracing (active tuberculosis) was as low as 0.5%. The total unit cost of chest X-ray and TST was MYR 9.23 (2.90 USD) & MYR 11.80 (USD 3.70), respectively. The total cost incurred on a single contact tracing procedure was MYR 21.03 (USD 6.60). Our findings suggest that the yield of contact tracing was very low which may be attributed to an inappropriate prioritization process. TST may be replaced with more accurate and specific methods (interferon gamma release assay) in highly prioritized contacts; or TST-positive contacts should be administered 6H therapy (provided that the chest radiography excludes TB) in accordance with standard protocols. The unit cost of contact tracing can be significantly reduced if radiological examination is done only in TST or IRGA positive contacts.
  16. Atif M, Sulaiman SA, Shafie AA, Asif M, Ahmad N
    Qual Life Res, 2013 Oct;22(8):1955-64.
    PMID: 23239084 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-012-0337-x
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to obtain norms of the SF-36v2 health survey and the association of summary component scores with socio-demographic variables in healthy households of tuberculosis (TB) patients.
    DESIGN: All household members (18 years and above; healthy; literate) of registered tuberculosis patients who came for contact tracing during March 2010 to February 2011 at the respiratory clinic of Penang General Hospital were invited to complete the SF-36v2 health survey using the official translation of the questionnaire in Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and English. Scoring of the questionnaire was done using Quality Metric's QM Certified Scoring Software version 4. Multivariate analysis was conducted to uncover the predictors of physical and mental health.
    RESULTS: A total of 649 eligible respondents were approached, while 525 agreed to participate in the study (response rate = 80.1 %). Out of consenting respondents, 46.5 % were male and only 5.3 % were over 75 years. Internal consistencies met the minimum criteria (α > 0.7). Reliability coefficients of the scales were always less than their own reliability coefficients. Mean physical component summary scale scores were equivalent to United States general population norms. However, there was a difference of more than three norm-based scoring points for mean mental component summary scores indicating poor mental health. A notable proportion of the respondents was at the risk of depression. Respondents aged 75 years and above (p = 0.001; OR 32.847), widow (p = 0.013; OR 2.599) and postgraduates (p < 0.001; OR 7.865) were predictors of poor physical health while unemployment (p = 0.033; OR 1.721) was the only predictor of poor mental health.
    CONCLUSION: The SF-36v2 is a valid instrument to assess HRQoL among the households of TB patients. Study findings indicate the existence of poor mental health and risk of depression among family caregivers of TB patients. We therefore recommend that caregivers of TB patients to be offered intensive support and special attention to cope with these emotional problems.
    Study site: Respiratory clinic, Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  17. Ahmed MJ, Islam MA, Asif M, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Nov;243:778-784.
    PMID: 28711807 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.06.174
    In this work, a human hair-derived high surface area porous carbon material (HHC) was prepared using potassium hydroxide activation. The morphology and textural properties of the HHC structure, along with its adsorption performance for tetracycline (TC) antibiotics, were evaluated. HHC showed a high surface area of 1505.11m(2)/g and 68.34% microporosity. The effects of most important variables, such as initial concentration (25-355mg/L), solution pH (3-13), and temperatures (30-50°C), on the HHC adsorption performance were investigated. Isotherm data analysis revealed the favorable application of the Langmuir model, with maximum TC uptakes of 128.52, 162.62, and 210.18mg/g at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively. The experimental data of TC uptakes versus time were analyzed efficiently using a pseudo-first order model. Porous HHC could be an efficient adsorbent for eliminating antibiotic pollutants in wastewater.
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