Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 86 in total

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  1. Al-Mansoub MA, Asmawi MZ, Murugaiyah V
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Jun;94(8):1552-8.
    PMID: 24166055 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6456
    Garcinia atroviridis is a seasonal fruit plant found in many parts of South East Asia. The fruit rind is used in cooking and traditionally consumed for various reasons, including to lower blood cholesterol. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction solvents and plant parts used on the lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of Garcinia atroviridis.
  2. Subramanian R, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2008;55(2):391-8.
    PMID: 18511986
    There has been an enormous interest in the development of alternative medicines for type 2 diabetes, specifically screening for phytochemicals with the ability to delay or prevent glucose absorption. The goal of the present study was to provide in vitro evidence for potential inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase enzymes, followed by a confirmatory in vivo study on rats to generate a stronger biochemical rationale for further studies on the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and andrographolide. The extract showed appreciable alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=17.2+/-0.15 mg/ml) and a weak alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC(50)=50.9+/-0.17 mg/ml). Andrographolide demonstrated a similar (IC(50)=11.0+/-0.28 mg/ml) alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC(50)=11.3+/-0.29 mg/ml). The positive in vitro enzyme inhibition tests paved way for confirmatory in vivo studies. The in vivo studies demonstrated that A. paniculata extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced peak blood glucose and area under curve in diabetic rats when challenged with oral administration of starch and sucrose. Further, andrographolide also caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in peak blood glucose and area under the curve in diabetic rats. Hence alpha-glucosidase inhibition may possibly be one of the mechanisms for the A. paniculata extract to exert antidiabetic activity and indicates that AP extract can be considered as a potential candidate for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  3. Yam MF, Asmawi MZ, Basir R
    J Med Food, 2008 Jun;11(2):362-8.
    PMID: 18598181 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2006.065
    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a standardized Orthosiphon stamineus methanol:water (50:50 vol/vol) leaf extract (SEOS) were evaluated in animal models. Oral administration of SEOS at doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg significantly reduced the hind paw edema in rats at 3 and 5 hours after carrageenan administration (P < .01 and P < .01; P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). SEOS (1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) also produced significant (P < .05) analgesic activity in both the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the formalin-induced licking test (late phase) in mice and rats, respectively. However, SEOS showed no effect on the tail flick and hot plate tests in mice. The results of the present study support the proposal that O. stamineus has anti-inflammatory and non-narcotic analgesic activities. These findings justify the traditional use of the plant for treating pain and inflammation.
  4. Asmawi MZ, Seppo L, Vapaatalo H, Korpela R
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2006 Dec;124(6):697-704.
    PMID: 17287558
    Prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia is known to vary among different countries and in different ethnic populations in the same country. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of hypolactasia and lactose intolerance in three different ethnic populations living in similar environmental conditions in Malaysia. The correlation between different symptoms and lactose intolerance test was also studied.
  5. Akinboro A, Bin Mohamed K, Asmawi MZ, Yekeen TA
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2014;61(4):779-85.
    PMID: 25520963
    Natural plant extracts offer a promising hope in the prevention/treatment of cancer arising from genetic mutations. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous fraction of Myristica fragrans (AFMF) leaves on TA100 strain of Salmonella typhimurium and Mus musculus (Male Swiss albino mice), respectively. The antioxidant activity of AFMF against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, followed by its phytochemical elucidation using the Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography technique (UPLC). The mutagenicity of AFMF at 4, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 µg/well was <2.0 in S. typhimurium and the induced micronucleated polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg were not significantly different from the negative control (p≥0.05). The mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and cyclophosphamide was significantly suppressed above 50.0% throughout the tested concentrations. Fifty percent of the free radicals from DPPH were scavenged by AFMF at 0.11 mg/ml. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of AFMF were 51.0 mg GAE/g and 27 mg QE/g, respectively. Rutin was elucidated by the UPLC technique, and thereby suspected to be the phytochemical responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity. Thus far, AFMF seems to contain a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention of genetic damage that is crucial for cancer development.
  6. Altaf R, Asmawi MZ, Dewa A, Sadikun A, Umar MI
    Pharmacogn Rev, 2013 Jan;7(13):73-80.
    PMID: 23922460 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.112853
    Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different parts of P. macrocarpa include Phalerin, gallic acid, Icaricide C, magniferin, mahkoside A, dodecanoic acid, palmitic acid, des-acetylflavicordin-A, flavicordin-A, flavicordin-D, flavicordin-A glucoside, ethyl stearate, lignans, alkaloids andsaponins. The present review is an up-to-date summary of occurrence, botanical description, ethnopharmacology, bioactivity and toxicological studies related to P. macrocarpa.
  7. Yam MF, Basir R, Asmawi MZ, Ismail Z
    Am. J. Chin. Med., 2007;35(1):115-26.
    PMID: 17265556
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), Benth. (Lamiaceae) is widely used in Malaysia for treatments of various kidney and liver ailments. In the experiment, DPPH* radicals scavenging, Fe(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of methanol/water extract of Orthosiphon stamineus (SEOS) were determined. The results indicated that SEOS exhibited antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and free radical scavenging activities. The hepatoprotective activity of the SEOS was studied using CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring liver function tests through the measurement of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Furthermore, hepatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological studies. Pretreatment of SEOS (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently reduced the necrotic changes in rat liver and inhibited the increase of serum ALT and AST activities. The results of the present study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of Orthosiphon stamineus might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.
  8. Bello I, Usman NS, Mahmud R, Asmawi MZ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2015 Dec 4;175:422-31.
    PMID: 26429073 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.031
    Alstonia scholaris has a long history of use in the Ayurveda traditional treatment of various ailments including hypertension. We have reported the blood pressure lowering activity of the extract of A. scholaris. The following research aim to delineate the pharmacological mechanism involve in the antihypertensive action.
  9. Widyawati T, Yusoff NA, Asmawi MZ, Ahmad M
    Nutrients, 2015 Sep;7(9):7764-80.
    PMID: 26389944 DOI: 10.3390/nu7095365
    Syzygium polyanthum (S. polyanthum), a plant belonging to Myrtaceae, is widely used in Indonesian and Malaysian cuisines. Diabetic patients in Indonesia also commonly use it as a traditional medicine. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the methanol extract (ME) of S. polyanthum leaf and its possible mechanisms of action. To test for hypoglycemic activity, ME was administered orally to normal male Sprague Dawley rats after a 12-h fast. To further test for antihyperglycemic activity, the same treatment was administered to glucose-loaded (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, IPGTT) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, respectively. Hypoglycemic test in normal rats did not show significant reduction in blood glucose levels (BGLs) by the extract. Furthermore, IPGTT conducted on glucose-loaded normal rats also did not show significant reduction of BGLs. However, repeated administration of metformin and three doses of ME (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) for six days caused significant reduction of fasting BGLs in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The possible mechanisms of action of S. polyanthum antihyperglycemic activity were assessed by measurement of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose uptake by isolated rat abdominal muscle. It was found that the extract not only inhibited glucose absorption from the intestine but also significantly increased glucose uptake in muscle tissue. A preliminary phytochemical qualitative analysis of ME indicated the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. Additionally, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis detected squalene. In conclusion, S. polyanthum methanol leaf extract exerts its antihyperglycemic effect possibly by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and promoting glucose uptake by the muscles.
  10. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Quek KJ, Asmawi MZ
    J Pharmacopuncture, 2015 Mar;18(1):7-18.
    PMID: 25830054 DOI: 10.3831/KPI.2015.18.001
    Loranthus ferrugineus (L. ferrugineus) from Loranthaceae, a mistletoe, is a medicinal herb used for a variety of human ailments. Traditionally, decoctions of this parasitic shrub have been mainly used to treat high blood pressure (BP) and gastrointestinal complaints; usage which is supported by experimental based pharmacological investigations. Nonetheless, there is still limited data available evaluating this plant's traditions, and few studies have been scientifically translated toward evidence based phytomedicine. We therefore provide a concise review of the currently available L. ferrugineus literature and discuss potential directions for future areas of investigation.
  11. Samud AM, Asmawi MZ, Sharma JN, Yusof AP
    Immunopharmacology, 1999 Sep;43(2-3):311-6.
    PMID: 10596868
    Crinum asiaticum Linn plant is used in Malaysia as a rheumatic remedy and to relieve local pain. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of this plant extract on carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema in mice. C. asiaticum was serially extracted with petroleum ether, followed by chloroform and lastly, methanol. The chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant given orally (50 mg kg-1) caused significant (p < 0.05; n = 7) reduction in paw oedema but the petroleum ether extract did not induce significant effect (p > 0.05) on paw oedema. The methanol extract was then dissolved in water and extracted consecutively with chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol. The chloroform fraction of methanol extract (CFME) treatment (50 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced (p < 0.05; n = 7) the acute paw oedema. This may indicate that active anti-inflammatory compounds are present in the CFME. In an attempt to study the mechanism of action of its anti-inflammatory activity, the effects of CFME on BK- and histamine-induced contractions were investigated in isolated rat uterus and guinea-pig ileum preparations, respectively. It was found that CFME caused dose-dependent reduction (p < 0.05; n = 6) of the contractile response induced by BK and shifted the log dose-response curve of histamine to the right. The present findings suggest that C. asiaticum possessed an anti-inflammatory activity as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The anti-inflammatory activity of this plant could not have been due to its anti-bradykinin activities as CFME non-specifically inhibited BK-induced contraction. It also suggest that CFME may contain compound(s) with anti-histaminic properties. The significance of these findings is discussed.
  12. Tew WY, Tan CS, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2020 Aug 05;880:173123.
    PMID: 32335091 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173123
    Morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a yellow coloured natural flavonoid found in plants of the Moraceae family. This favonoid is easily sources from readily available fruits, vegetables and eve certain beverages. Among the sources that was identified, it is clear that morin is most abundantly found in almond, old fustic, Indian guava, and Osage orange. Multiple studies have suggested that morin has multiple therapeutic actions and possess potential to be a functional potent drug. Previous studies demonstrated that morin is capable of resolving deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and possess strong vasorelaxant properties. However, the exact mechanisms remains unknown. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the in vitro mechanism of morin-induced vasorelaxant effects. The underlying mechanisms of morin's vasorelaxant activities were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Results from the study demonstrated morin causing vasodilatory reaction in phenylephrine and potassium chloride pre-contracted endothelium-intact aortic rings with the effect being significantly affected in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pre-incubation of the aortic rings with ODQ (selective cGMP-independent sGC inhibitor), indomethacin (nonselective COX inhibitor), L-NAME (endothelial nitric oxide inhibitor), propranolol (β2-adrenegic receptors blocker), and atropine (muscarinic receptors blocker) significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effect of morin. It was also found to be able to reduce the intracellular calcium level by blocking VOCC and calcium intake from the extracellular environment and the intracellular release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The present study showed that the vasorelaxant effect of morin potentially involves the NO/sGC, muscarinic receptors, β2-adrenegic receptors, and calcium channels.
  13. Razali N, Dewa A, Asmawi MZ, Mohamed N, Manshor NM
    J Integr Med, 2020 Jan;18(1):46-58.
    PMID: 31882255 DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vasorelaxant and vasoconstriction effects of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (ZOVR) on live rats and isolated aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    METHODS: Extracts of ZOVR were subjected to in-vivo antihypertensive screening using noninvasive blood pressures in SHRs. The most potent extract, ZOVR petroleum ether extract (ZOP) was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform and water. Isolated thoracic aortic rings were harvested and subjected to vascular relaxation studies of n-hexane fraction of ZOP (HFZOP) with incubation of different antagonists such as Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 µmol/L), indomethacin (10 µmol/L), methylene blue (10 µmol/L), atropine (1 µmol/L), glibenclamide (10 µmol/L), prazosin (0.01 µmol/L), and propranolol (1 µmol/L).

    RESULTS: During the screening of various ZOVR extracts, ZOP produced the most reduction in blood pressures of SHRs and so did HFZOP. HFZOP significantly decreased phenylephrine-induced contraction and enhanced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. L-NAME, indomethacin, methylene blue, atropine, and glibenclamide significantly potentiated the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. Propranolol and prazosin did not alter the vasorelaxant effects of HFZOP. HFZOP significantly suppressed the Ca2+-dependent contraction and influenced the ratio of the responses to phenylephrine in Ca2+-free medium.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that ZOP may exert an antihypertensive effect in the SHR model. Its possible vascular relaxation mechanisms involve nitric oxide and prostacyclin release, activation of cGMP-KATP channels, stimulation of muscarinic receptors, and transmembrane calcium channel or Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Possible active compounds that contribute to the vasorelaxant effects are 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol and 6-shogaol.

  14. Irfan HM, Khan NAK, Asmawi MZ
    Arch Physiol Biochem, 2020 May 15.
    PMID: 32412306 DOI: 10.1080/13813455.2020.1762661
    Background:Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used traditionally for the treatment of different cardio-metabolic disorders. So, the aim was to assess its leaf extracts in metabolic syndrome rat model.Methods: Out of the total 36-rats, 6 rats were given normal matched diet (NMD) while the rest were provided high-fat diet and 20% fructose (HFD-20%F). Moringa oleifera leaf extracts were administered orally for 30 days. Body weight, blood glucose, BMI, blood pressure, lipids, insulin, insulin resistance, MCP-1, visceral fat and liver weight were evaluated.Results: Sixty-days feeding with HFD-20%F produced the metabolic syndrome features like hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), visceral fat, and liver weight significantly (p
  15. Al-Akwaa AA, Asmawi MZ, Dewa A, Mahmud R
    Heliyon, 2020 Jul;6(7):e04588.
    PMID: 32775735 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04588
    Background: Vitex pubescens has been used traditionally in hypertension treatment but not yet scientifically assessed. The objective of the study is to investigate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant activities of V. pubescens, study its underlying pharmacological mechanisms, and identify the relevant vasoactive compounds.

    Methods: Successive extractions of V. pubescens leaf were carried out to produce petroleum ether (VPPE), chloroform (VPCE), methanol (VPME), and water (VPWE) extracts. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received a daily oral administration of the extracts (500 mg/kg/day; n = 6) or verapamil (15 mg/kg/day; n = 6) for 2 weeks, while the systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using non-invasive tail-cuff method. Vasorelaxation assays of the extracts were later conducted using phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM) pre-contracted aortic ring preparation. Mechanisms of vasorelaxation by the most potent fraction were studied using vasorelaxation assays with selected blockers/inhibitors. GC-MS was conducted to determine the active compounds.

    Results: VPPE elicited the most significant diminution in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of treated SHRs and produced the most significant vasorelaxation in the aortic rings. Vasorelaxant effects of F2-VPPE were significantly reduced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings by glibenclamide (1 μM), whereas calcium chloride and PE-induced contractions were significantly suppressed. Endothelium removal of the aortic rings or incubation with indomethacin (10 μM), atropine (1 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), propranolol (1μM) and L-NAME (10 μM) did not significantly alter F2-VPPE-induced vasorelaxation. Seven compounds were identified using GC-MS, including spathulenol.

    Conclusion: F2-VPPE exerted its endothelium-independent vasorelaxation by inhibition of vascular smooth muscle contraction induced by extracellular Ca+2 influx through trans-membrane Ca+2 channels and/or Ca+2 release from intracellular stores, and by activation of KATP channels. The vasorelaxation effects of V. pubescens could be mediated by the compound, spathulenol.

  16. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Asmawi MZ, Murugaiyah V
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2017 Jun;86:33-41.
    PMID: 28229903 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.02.005
    Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats. There were no behavioural or physiological changes and gross pathological abnormalities observed. The subchronic toxicity study of methanol extract of P. minus at 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg were conducted in both sexes of Sprague Dawley rats. There were no changes observed in the extract treated animal's body weight, food and water intake, motor coordination, behaviour and mental alertness. The values of haematological and biochemical parameters were not different between the treated and control animals. The relative organ weights of extract-treated animals did not differ with that of control animals. Based on the present findings, the methanol extract of P. minus leaves could be considered safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg.
  17. Chan SH, Lee W, Asmawi MZ, Tan SC
    PMID: 27232053 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2016.05.015
    A sequential solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of salbutamol enantiomers in porcine urine. Porcine urine samples were hydrolysed with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase from Helix pomatia and then subjected to a double solid-phase extraction (SPE) first using the Abs-Elut Nexus SPE and then followed by the Bond Elut Phenylboronic Acid (PBA) SPE. The salbutamol enantiomers were separated using the Astec CHIROBIOTIC™ T HPLC column (3.0mm×100mm; 5μm) maintained at 15°C with a 15min isocratic run at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min. The mobile phase constituted of 5mM ammonium formate in methanol. Salbutamol and salbutamol-tert-butyl-d9 (internal standard, IS) was monitored and quantified with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method showed good linearity for the range of 0.1-10ng/mL with limit of quantification at 0.3ng/mL. Analysis of the QC samples showed intra- and inter-assay precisions to be less than 5.04%, and recovery ranging from 83.82 to 102.33%.
  18. Mohamed EA, Ahmad M, Ang LF, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    PMID: 26649063 DOI: 10.1155/2015/754931
    In the present study, a 50% ethanolic extract of Orthosiphon stamineus was tested for its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In vivo assays of the extract (containing 1.02%, 3.76%, and 3.03% of 3'hydroxy-5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, and eupatorin, resp.) showed that it possessed an inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase in normal rats loaded with starch and sucrose. The results showed that 1000 mg/kg of the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the plasma glucose levels of the experimental animals in a manner resembling the effect of acarbose. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, only the group treated with 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma glucose levels after starch loading. Hence, α-glucosidase inhibition might be one of the mechanisms by which O. stamineus extract exerts its antidiabetic effect. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of O. stamineus can be considered as a potential agent for the management of diabetes mellitus.
  19. Atangwho IJ, Yin KB, Umar MI, Ahmad M, Asmawi MZ
    PMID: 25358757 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-426
    This study evaluated the impact of Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on the transcription of key enzymes involved in cellular modulation of glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in a bid to understand the possible anti-diabetic mechanism of VA.
  20. Christapher PV, Parasuraman S, Christina JM, Asmawi MZ, Vikneswaran M
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2015 Jan-Mar;7(1):1-6.
    PMID: 25598627 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.147125
    Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
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