Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Jun;29(3):241-6.
    PMID: 15153085
    We hypothesized that as the use of herbal medicines increases in the general population, so do patients' requests to physicians for recommendations. However, why some physicians recommend herbal medicines while others do not is not well understood.
  2. Shaharudin A, Aziz Z
    J Wound Care, 2016 Oct 02;25(10):585-592.
    PMID: 27681589 DOI: 10.12968/jowc.2016.25.10.585
    OBJECTIVE: Hyaluronic acid (HA) and its derivatives are used for chronic wounds, but evidence of their effectiveness remains unclear. The aim of this study was to provide more updated evidence for the effectiveness of HA (or its derivatives) compared with placebo or other agents for promoting healing in chronic wounds.
    METHOD: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE via Ovid Online, CINAHL and the EMBASE via EBSCO host databases were searched. Drug companies and experts in wounds were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials of HA (or its derivatives) compared with control were eligible for inclusion.
    RESULTS: We identified nine randomised controlled trials involving 865 participants with chronic wounds were included in the review. The reporting for mixed arterial and venous ulcers seems to be better quality than that for venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Studies provided little evidence regarding the claimed effects of HA or its derivaties on healing of chronic wounds. However, there is some evidence on their effectiveness for reducing pain intensity for mixed arterial and venous ulcers, which involved 255 patients (MD=-6.78 [95% CI: -11.10 to -2.46]).
    CONCLUSION: Evidence to guide decisions regarding the use of HA or its derivatives to promote wound healing is still limited. More good-quality randomised controlled trials are warranted.
    KEYWORDS: assessment bias; chronic ulcers; hyaluronan; meta-analysis
  3. Ambaras Khan R, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2018 Aug;43(4):450-459.
    PMID: 29722052 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12696
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical practice guidelines serve as a framework for physicians to make decisions and to support best practice for optimizing patient care. However, if the guidelines do not address all the important components of optimal care sufficiently, the quality and validity of the guidelines can be reduced. The objectives of this study were to systematically review current guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), evaluate their methodological quality and highlight the similarities and differences in their recommendations for empirical antibiotic and antibiotic de-escalation strategies.

    METHODS: This review is reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed and EMBASE were searched up to September 2017 for relevant guidelines. Other databases such as NICE, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the websites of professional societies were also searched for relevant guidelines. The quality and reporting of included guidelines were assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) instrument.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Six guidelines were eligible for inclusion in our review. Among 6 domains of AGREE-II, "clarity of presentation" scored the highest (80.6%), whereas "applicability" scored the lowest (11.8%). All the guidelines supported the antibiotic de-escalation strategy, whereas the majority of the guidelines (5 of 6) recommended that empirical antibiotic therapy should be implemented in accordance with local microbiological data. All the guidelines suggested that for early-onset HAP/VAP, therapy should start with a narrow spectrum empirical antibiotic such as penicillin or cephalosporins, whereas for late-onset HAP/VAP, the guidelines recommended the use of a broader spectrum empirical antibiotic such as the penicillin extended spectrum carbapenems and glycopeptides.

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: Expert guidelines promote the judicious use of antibiotics and prevent antibiotic overuse. The quality and validity of available HAP/VAP guidelines would be enhanced by improving their adherence to accepted best practice for the management of HAP and VAP.

  4. Aziz Z, Chong NJ
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2015 Jun;53:47-51.
    PMID: 25616750 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.12.008
    The aim of this study was to examine opioid-dependent patients' satisfaction with the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Malaysia and identify predictors of satisfaction. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire developed and validated by Rankin Court, New South Wales, Australia. Of 502 patients approached in 11 MMT centers in Malaysia, 425 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 85%. In terms of overall satisfaction, a high percentage of respondents (85%) were satisfied with the MMT services. A logistic regression analysis showed that only "centres" and marital status were associated with overall satisfaction and that being single (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.52 to 7.20) or married (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.76 to 9.38) was associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction compared to being divorced or separated. An analysis of the responses pertaining to the most desired changes required at the center found dosing hours, waiting area and staff shortages to be common. The findings acquired from this survey will be useful to attain a clearer perspective on what aspects of the MMT service need to be reviewed for the improvement of service delivery.
  5. Chong NJ, Aziz Z
    PMID: 23533507 DOI: 10.1155/2013/627182
    We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions.
  6. Ahmad K, Aziz Z
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2012 May 7;141(1):446-50.
    PMID: 22440259 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.009
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
    The consumption of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) for its psychoactive effects is widely reported amongst people in the villages in Thailand and Malaysia even though its use is illegal.
    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study examined the pattern of MS use, its reported effects and explored its potential to cause dependence.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used both convenience and snowball-sampling methods to recruit participants in a border town between two northern states in Malaysia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the use of a structured questionnaire on 562 respondents who gave oral consent to participate in the study.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 91%. The majority of the respondents (88%) reported daily use of MS. The main mode of using MS was by drinking the MS extract as tea (90%). The mean age of starting MS use was 28.3 (SD=8.1) years. A variety of reasons were given for using MS including for social and recreational needs, stamina and physical endurance, pain relief and improved sexual performance. Despite its reported usefulness in weaning off opiate addiction, 460 (87%) admitted they were not able to stop using MS. Only education level had a statistically significant association with the ability to stop or not stop the use of MS (χ(2)=31.0, df=1, p<0.001). Significantly higher proportions of those with a lower education level (38%) were able to stop using MS compared to respondents with a higher education level.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides important information on the pattern of MS use, its effects and its potential to cause addiction, as there has been growing interest in MS as evidenced by the number of advertisements for its sale on the Internet. Future study is required to explore its psychological and social impact on users.
  7. Khoo YS, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Apr;34(2):133-45.
    PMID: 19250134 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00998.x
    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Regular intake of garlic has been suggested, but its impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent.
  8. Aziz Z, Tey NP
    Complement Ther Med, 2009 Jan;17(1):44-50.
    PMID: 19114228 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2008.04.008
    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and identify factors, which predict the use of herbal medicines among Malaysian adults.
  9. Ong YC, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2016 Apr;41(2):170-9.
    PMID: 26956355 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12374
    Red yeast rice is believed to be a useful alternative in the management of dyslipidaemia. However, the comparative effectiveness of red yeast rice and simvastatin for the management of dyslipidaemia is unknown. This review assesses the efficacy and safety of red yeast rice versus simvastatin in dyslipidaemia.
  10. Hariraj V, Aziz Z
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2018 11;52(6):757-763.
    PMID: 29714567 DOI: 10.1177/2168479017745025
    BACKGROUND: Many countries incorporate direct patient reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) into their pharmacovigilance systems as patients provide a different insight into drug safety compared to health care professionals. This study aimed to examine public awareness about ADR reporting in Malaysia and patients' confidence in reporting ADRs.

    METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design and convenient sampling, data were collected in public areas within Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, via face-to-face interview with a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significant predictors of patients' confidence in ADR reporting.

    RESULTS: Out of 860 consented respondents achieving a response rate of 73.5%, only 69 (8%) were aware of the Malaysian ADR monitoring system. The majority (60%) of the respondents indicated they had the confidence to report ADRs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ease in completing the ADR reporting form was the strongest variable predictive of confidence to report ADRs (odds ratio [OR], 18.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.55-32.25). Increased confidence in ADR reporting was also associated with education level. Respondents with a higher education level were more likely to be confident to report ADRs compared to those with primary or no formal education (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 0.77-8.1).

    CONCLUSIONS: Lack of awareness of the ADR monitoring system is still prevalent among Malaysian patients. The ease of completing the ADR form and education level are predictive of patient confidence to report ADRs. These factors should be considered in designing public promotional activities to encourage patient contributions to pharmacovigilance.

  11. Khan RA, Aziz Z
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Aug;39(4):906-912.
    PMID: 28643112 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0499-2
    Background Antibiotic de-escalation is an important strategy to conserve the effectiveness of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, the outcome of this strategy for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has not been widely studied in developing countries. Objectives To evaluate the outcome on intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, 28 days mortality, and length of ICU stay among VAP patients who receive de-escalation therapy. Setting This study was conducted in an ICU of a Malaysian public hospital. Method The electronic medical records of patients who developed VAP in the ICU were retrieved and relevant data was collected. Records of antibiotic prescriptions were also reviewed to collect the details of changes to antibiotic therapy (de-escalation). Main outcome measure Impact of antibiotic de-escalation on mortality. Results The mean age of the 108 patients was 46.2 ± 18.2 years; the majority being males (80%). The antibiotic de-escalation rate was about 30%. Out of this, 84% involved a change from broad to narrow-spectrum antibiotics and the remaining, withdrawal of one or more antibiotics. ICU mortality was 23% while 28 days mortality was 37%. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality rate, survival probability and the mean length of ICU stay between the de-escalation and the non-de-escalation group. However, patients with Simplified Acute Physiology Score II of ≥50 were significantly associated with ICU mortality and 28 days mortality. Conclusions In VAP patients, antibiotic de-escalation provides an opportunity to promote the judicious use of antibiotics without affecting the clinical outcomes.
  12. Goh, L.P.W., Chong, E.T.J., Wong, J.J., Abdul Aziz, Z., Surugau, N., Abd. Latip, M., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Paddy is the staple food of local people in Sabah, but its production is affected by a disturbing disease known as blast, which is caused by fungi (i.e., Magnaporthe grisea and Magnaporthe oryzae) infection. Knowledge regarding distribution of blast-resistant (BR) genes among various Sabah traditional paddy varieties in different divisions of Sabah is not clear; hence, molecular identification of BR genes in Sabah traditional paddies is urgently needed. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from 21 different Sabah traditional paddy varieties collected from three divisions of Sabah including the West Coast Division (WCD), Sandakan Division (SD), and Interior Division (ID). The presence of 11 BR and 2 pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in their genome was molecularly screened using a PCR approach and validated using direct sequencing. Our results showed that high frequencies of Pib (95.2%), pi-ta (100.0%), and RCC2 (100.0%) genes were obtained in all 21 Sabah traditional paddy varieties screened. Interestingly, one of the paddy varieties from ID of Sabah, PBT23, did not contain the Pib gene but carried the Pita/Pita-2 allele in its genome. Besides, only three paddies (PBT08 and PBT07 from WCD, and PBT23) exhibited the Pik-p gene, and no varieties were found to carry the Pik, Pik-m, Pit, Piz, Piz-t, Pi-ta, Pi9, and wwin2 genes. In conclusion, this study serves as the basis for improvement and effectual management of traditional paddies in different divisions of Sabah towards blast resistance with knowledge of BR or PR genes inherited in their genome.
  13. Ong BY, Aziz Z
    Complement Ther Med, 2017 Feb;30:84-92.
    PMID: 28137532 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2016.12.007
    Cordyceps sinensis (cordyceps) is a fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine as adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in patients with kidney transplant. This review evaluates current evidence on the efficacy and safety of natural and fermented cordyceps preparations in patients with kidney transplant.
  14. Aziz Z, Cullum N
    PMID: 26134172 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002933.pub6
    BACKGROUND: Leg ulceration is a common, chronic, recurring condition. The estimated prevalence of leg ulcers in the UK population is 1.5 to 3 per 1000. Venous ulcers (also called stasis or varicose ulcers) comprise 80% to 85% of all leg ulcers. Electromagnetic therapy (EMT) is sometimes used as a treatment to assist the healing of chronic wounds such as venous leg ulcers.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of EMT on the healing of venous leg ulcers.

    SEARCH METHODS: For this fourth update, we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 30 January 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 12).

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing EMT with sham-EMT or other treatments.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard Cochrane Collaboration methods were employed. At least two review authors independently scrutinised search results and obtained full reports of potentially eligible studies for further assessment. We extracted and summarised details of eligible studies using a data extraction sheet, and made attempts to obtain missing data by contacting study authors. A second review author checked data extraction, and we resolved disagreements after discussion between review authors.

    MAIN RESULTS: Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of low or unclear risk of bias, involving 94 people, were included in the original review; subsequent updates have identified no new trials. All the trials compared the use of EMT with sham-EMT. Meta-analysis of these trials was not possible due to heterogeneity. In the two trials that reported healing rates; one small trial (44 participants) reported that significantly more ulcers healed in the EMT group than the sham-EMT group however this result was not robust to different assumptions about the outcomes of participants who were lost to follow up. The second trial that reported numbers of ulcers healed found no significant difference in healing. The third trial was also small (31 participants) and reported significantly greater reductions in ulcer size in the EMT group however this result may have been influenced by differences in the prognostic profiles of the treatment groups.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is not clear whether electromagnetic therapy influences the rate of healing of venous leg ulcers. Further research would be needed to answer this question.

  15. Aziz Z, Flemming K
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012 Dec 12;12:CD002930.
    PMID: 23235593 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002930.pub5
    BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are defined as areas "of localized damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, friction and/or the combination of these". Electromagnetic therapy (EMT), in which electrodes produce an electromagnetic field across the wound, may improve healing of chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of EMT on the healing of pressure ulcers.

    SEARCH METHODS: For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 12 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 1 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 11, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 27); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 6 July 2012).

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing EMT with sham EMT or other (standard) treatment.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update two review authors independently scrutinised the results of the search to identify relevant RCTs and obtained full reports of potentially eligible studies. In previous versions of the review we made attempts to obtain missing data by contacting study authors. A second review author checked data extraction and disagreements were resolved after discussion between review authors.

    MAIN RESULTS: We identified no new trials for this update.Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving 60 participants, at unclear risk of bias were included in the original review. Both trials compared the use of EMT with sham EMT, although one of the trials included a third arm in which only standard therapy was applied. Neither study found a statistically significant difference in complete healing in people treated with EMT compared with those in the control group. In one trial that assessed percentage reduction in wound surface area, the difference between the two groups was reported to be statistically significant in favour of EMT. However, this result should be interpreted with caution as this is a small study and this finding may be due to chance. Additionally, the outcome, percentage reduction in wound area, is less clinically meaningful than complete healing.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results provide no strong evidence of benefit in using EMT to treat pressure ulcers. However, the possibility of a beneficial or harmful effect cannot be ruled out because there were only two included trials, both with methodological limitations and small numbers of participants. Further research is recommended.

  16. Mohd Nor NH, Aziz Z
    J Dermatolog Treat, 2013 Oct;24(5):377-86.
    PMID: 22658322 DOI: 10.3109/09546634.2012.699179
    OBJECTIVE: Comparative trials of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) have yielded contradictory results on its effectiveness for acne vulgaris. The aim of the study was to synthesise the evidence for the effectiveness of BPO-containing topical products for facial acne vulgaris.
    DESIGN: Systematic review.
    METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and other relevant databases were searched without publication date or language restriction.
    RESULTS: We identified 22 trials involving 2212 participants; 12 trials compared BPO as single agent while the other 10 trials compared BPO in combination products. All trials reported lesion count as the outcome measure but only five trials provided numerical data. However, pooling of data from these trials was inappropriate due to variations between trials in terms of acne severity, comparator used and trial duration. Overall the study quality was fair but most studies had some bias particularly in method of random generation and allocation concealment. Although the results provide some evidence that BPO reduces acne-lesion count, the available evidence is not robust enough for firm conclusions.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is no high quality evidence that topical BPO improves facial acne vulgaris, and further research is needed.
  17. Aziz Z, Abdul Rasool Hassan B
    Burns, 2017 Feb;43(1):50-57.
    PMID: 27576926 DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2016.07.004
    Evidence from animal studies and trials suggests that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with silver dressings on the healing of burn wounds. Relevant databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of honey compared with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) were searched. The quality of the selected trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. The primary endpoints considered were wound healing time and the number of infected wounds rendered sterile. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Based on moderate quality evidence there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups, favoring honey in healing time (MD -5.76days, 95% CI -8.14 to -3.39) and the proportions of infected wounds rendered sterile (RR 2.59; 95% CI 1.58-2.88). The available evidence suggests that honey dressings promote better wound healing than silver sulfadiazine for burns.
  18. Ambaras Khan R, Aziz Z
    Int J Clin Pract, 2018 Oct;72(10):e13245.
    PMID: 30144239 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.13245
    OBJECTIVES OF THE REVIEW: Antibiotic de-escalation is part of an antibiotic stewardship strategy to achieve adequate therapy for infections while avoiding the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, there is a paucity of clinical evidence on the clinical impact of this strategy in pneumonia patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review aimed to evaluate the impact of antibiotic de-escalation therapy for adult patients diagnosed with pneumonia in the ICU.

    METHODS USED TO CONDUCT THE REVIEW: This review was conducted in accordance with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) recommendation. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to March 2017 for relevant trials. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed by using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Case-Control and Cohort Studies. A meta-analysis was conducted using the random-effect model to combine the rate of mortality and length of stay outcomes.

    FINDINGS OF THE REVIEW: Nine observational trials involving 2128 patients were considered eligible for inclusion. Although based on low quality evidence, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the impact of de-escalation on hospital stay but not mortality (MD -5.96 days; 95% CI -8.39 to -3.52).

    INTERPRETATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This review highlights the need for more rigorous studies to be carried out before a firm conclusion on the benefit of de-escalation therapy is supported.

  19. Shaikh Abdul Rahman S, Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2020 Oct;45(5):946-958.
    PMID: 31925959 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.13106
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used worldwide for health maintenance, disease prevention and treatment. The objective of the study was to identify adverse drug reactions (ADR) associated with the use of CAM in Malaysia and factors which are associated with the more serious reactions.

    METHODS: All ADR associated with the use of CAM products (including health supplements) submitted to the Malaysian Centre for ADR Monitoring, National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency over a 15-year period were reviewed and analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of serious ADR.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From a total of 74 997 reports in the database, 930 (1.2%) involved CAM products, and 242 (26%) were serious with 36 deaths. About a third of the reports involved used CAM products for health maintenance. Most (78.1%) of the ADR reports implicated unregistered products with 16.7% confirmed to contain adulterants which were mainly dexamethasone. Of the 930 reports, the ADR involved skin and appendages disorders (18.4%) followed by liver and biliary system disorders (13.7%). The odds of someone experiencing serious ADR increased if the CAM products were used for chronic illnesses (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, confidence interval [CI] 1.46-2.71), having concurrent diseases (OR 1.51, CI 1.04-2.19) and taking concurrent drugs (OR 1.44, CI 1.03-2.02).

    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of serious ADR associated with CAM products is high. Factors identified with serious ADR included ethnicity, CAM users with pre-existing diseases, use of CAM for chronic illnesses and concomitant use of CAM products with other drugs. The findings could be useful for planning strategies to institute measures to ensure safe use of CAM products.

  20. Aziz Z, Wong SY, Chong NJ
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Nov 25;150(2):442-50.
    PMID: 24120746 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.042
    Prevention of cardiovascular disease by modifying its major risk factors, including serum cholesterol levels, is an important strategy. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been promoted for reducing cholesterol levels, but its reported impact on cholesterol levels has been inconsistent. The study aimed to assess systematically the evidence and quality of current research on the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on blood lipids and its adverse effects.
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