Methods: Extracted teeth were selected and instrumented using ProTaper rotary files. The canals were assigned into five equal groups and obturated using matching single cone technique as follows: EndoREZ cones and EndoREZ sealer, Bioceramic Endosequence gutta-percha (BCGP) with Endosequence BC sealer, Active GP with Endosequence BC sealer (ActiV GP), conventional GP with Endosequence BC sealer, and HAGP with Endosequence BC sealer. Each root was sectioned transversally at the thickness of 1±0.1 mm to obtain 5 sections (n=25 per group). The specimens were subjected to push-out test using a Universal Test Machine at a loading speed of 0.5 mm/ min. Failure modes after push-out test was examined under stereomicroscope and the push-out data were analyzed using ANOVA and the post hoc Dunnett T3 test (p = 0.05).
Results: The highest mean bond strength was yielded by HAGP followed by BCGP, ActiV GP, conventional GP, and EndoREZ. There were significant differences between EndoREZ and all other groups (p<0.001). The prominent failure mode of HAGP was mixed mode, whereas EndoREZ exhibited adhesive failure mode. Conventional GP, ActiV GP, and BCGP showed cohesive failure mode.
Conclusion: HAGP showed promising results to be used as root canal filling material in combination with bioceramic sealer.
AIMS: We sought to investigate recent trends in stroke outcomes at hospital discharge among first-ever stroke patients.
METHODS: This was an analysis of data from the Malaysia National Stroke Registry. Patients aged 18 years or older documented as having a first episode of stroke in the registry were recruited. Subsequently, the comparison of proportions for overall and sex-specific stroke outcomes between years (from 2009 to 2017) was conducted. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score, which was assessed at hospital discharge, and each patient was categorized as follows: 1) functional independence, 2) functional dependence, or 3) death for analysis.
RESULTS: This study included 9361 first-ever stroke patients. Approximately 36.2% (3369) were discharged in an independence state, 53.1% (4945) experienced functional dependence, and 10.8% (1006) patients died at the time of hospital discharge. The percentage of patients who were discharged independently increased from 23.3% in 2009 to 46.5% in 2017, while that of patients discharged in a disabled state fell from 56.0% in 2009 to 45.6% in 2017. The percentage of death at discharge was reduced from 20.7% in 2009 to 7.8% in 2017. These findings suggest that the proportions of stroke outcomes at hospital discharge have changed significantly over time (p
Materials and methods: The sealers were evaluated before mixing, and after setting using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) techniques. Twenty four extracted teeth were prepared and assigned to four groups according to the moisture conditions: (1) dry: using ethanol as final irrigation, (2) normal: using paper points until the last one appeared dry, (3) moist: using a Luer adapter for 5 s followed by 1 paper point, and (4) wet: the canals remained totally flooded. The roots were filled with MTA Fillapex® and Endosequence® BC and kept in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C for 10 days. Each root was sectioned transversally and longitudinally. The sealers harvested from longitudinal sections were analysed using XRD. Whilst the transverse sections were analysed using SEM/EDX.
Results: The XRD analysis showed MTA Fillapex composed of Bismuth trioxide, calcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. The intensity of peaks in the wet condition was reduced. Endosequence BC contained mainly calcium silicate, calcium silicate hydrate, zirconia and calcium hydroxide. The wet condition showed a small increase in hydrated calcium silicate. The EDX analysis showed changes in the elemental concentrations with different moisture conditions. The surface morphology differed with different moisture conditions.
Conclusion: Tested sealers have different constitution that not affected by the degree of moisture. However, it changed their relative quantity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 180 root slices from 60 single-canal anterior teeth were prepared and assigned to 5 experimental groups (n = 36 in each group), designated as G1 (AH Plus®/gutta-percha), G2 (TotalFill BC™ sealer/BC-coated gutta-percha), G3 (TotalFill BC™ sealer/gutta-percha), G4 (EndoREZ® sealer/EndoREZ®-coated gutta-percha), and G5 (EndoREZ® sealer/gutta-percha). Push-out bond strengths of 18 root slices in each group were assessed at 2 weeks and the other 18 at 3 months after obturation using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. An independent t test was used to compare the mean push-out bond strength for each group at 2 weeks and 3 months after obturation.
RESULTS: The mean push-out bond strengths of G4 and G5 were significantly lower than those of G1, G2, and G3 (p < 0.05) at both 2 weeks (G1: 1.46 ± 0.29 MPa, G2: 1.74 ± 0.43 MPa, G3: 1.74 ± 0.43 MPa, G4: 0.66 ± 0.31 MPa, G5: 0.74 ± 0.47 MPa) and 3 months after obturation (G1: 1.70 ± 1.05 MPa, G2: 3.69 ± 1.20 MPa, G3: 2.84 ± 0.83 MPa, G4: 0.14 ± 0.05 MPa, G5: 0.24 ± 0.10 MPa). The mean push-out bond strengths of G2 (3.69 ± 1.20 MPa) and G3 (2.84 ± 0.83 MPa) were higher at 3 months compared to 2 weeks after obturation (G2: 1.74 ± 0.43 MPa, G3: 1.33 ± 0.29 MPa).
CONCLUSION: The TotalFill BC™ obturation system (G2) and the TotalFill BC™ sealer/gutta-percha (G3) showed comparable bond strength to AH Plus®. Their bond strength increased over time, whereas the EndoREZ® obturation system (G4) and EndoREZ sealer (G5) had low push-out bond strength which decreased over time.
METHODS: In the population cohort involved in this study, data were extracted from 7,697 patients with a history of first IS attack registered with the National Neurology Registry of Malaysia from 2009 to 2016. A time-to-recurrent IS model was developed using NONMEM version 7.5. Three baseline hazard models were fitted into the data. The best model was selected using maximum likelihood estimation, clinical plausibility, and visual predictive checks.
RESULTS: Within the maximum 7.37 years of follow-up, 333 (4.32%) patients had at least one incident of recurrent IS. The data were well described by the Gompertz hazard model. Within the first 6 months after the index IS, the hazard of recurrent IS was predicted to be 0.238, and 6 months after the index attack, it reduced to 0.001. The presence of typical risk factors such as hyperlipidemia [HR, 2.22 (95%CI: 1.81-2.72)], hypertension [HR, 2.03 (95%CI: 1.52-2.71)], and ischemic heart disease [HR, 2.10 (95%CI: 1.64-2.69)] accelerated the hazard of recurrent IS, but receiving antiplatelets (APLTs) upon stroke decreased this hazard [HR, 0.59 (95%CI: 0.79-0.44)].
CONCLUSION: The hazard of recurrent IS magnitude differs during different time intervals based on the concomitant risk factors and secondary prevention.