Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

  1. Mohd Nor Azman, A., Wan Norhana, M.N.
    The detection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX) in dried salted yellow puffer fish (Xenopterus naritus) eggs bought from Satok Market, Kuching, Sarawak was carried out by mouse bioassay method. The amount of TTX and STX detected in the samples ranged from 95.6-195.5 Mouse Unit (MU)/g and 1.72-3.58 MU/g respectively. The results indicate that the dried salted eggs samples were found to contain TTX 9-20 times above the regulatory limit for human consumption (10 MU/g). Although detected, the amount of STX in salted eggs extract was slightly below the accepted threshold limit (4 MU/g). The local public in Sarawak should be educated on the potential danger of consuming dried salted puffer fish eggs in addition to the current warnings on puffer fish.
  2. Mohd Nor Azman, A., Samsur, M., Mohammed, M., Fasihuddin, B.A.
    This study is to report the proximate compositions as well as tetrodotoxin (TTX) content in the muscles of yellow puffer fish Xenopterus naritus that collected from Kg. Manggut and Kabong, Sarawak. The internal organs of 26 and 20 specimens from Kg. Manggut and Kabong respectively were removed by the local people that had skills and experiences with the preparation of yellow puffer fish. In general, the moisture contents were ranging between 75.2% and 80.6%. X. naritus from Kabong showed higher crude protein contents (88.2% dry weight) than the same species from Kg. Manggut (87.9% dry weight) and not significantly different (p>0.05). X. naritus from Kg. Manggut demonstrated a significantly higher (p
  3. Ng TF, Raj JK, Ghani AA
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:773-781.
    The Bukit Lagong area is the most important aggregate supply centre in Selangor. Geological studies were carried out in four quarries in the Bukit Lagong area and samples were subjected to petrographic examination and accelerated expansion tests to assess the potential alkali-aggregate reactivity of granite aggregates. The granitic rocks comprise mainly of coarse grained megacrystic granite, minor medium grained megacrystic granite and microgranite. Petrographic examination showed that the primary minerals in these undeformed granitic rocks are not alkali reactive. Faulting and related alteration and mineralization have produced potentially alkali reactive minerals including microcrystalline and strained quartz and fine phyllosilicates. Marginally deleterious and deleterious expansion is shown by the accelerated mortar bar tests. Although alkali reactive rocks are present in some quarries in Bukit Lagong, their volume is small. When blended with the undeformed granitic rocks, the aggregates produced are not expected to cause alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete.
  4. Payus AO, Jan TH, Raymond AA
    Clin Med (Lond), 2020 11;20(6):e281.
    PMID: 33199345 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.Let.20.6.6
  5. Rotem A, Barrand J, Azman A
    Med Educ, 1982 Jan;16(1):3-6.
    PMID: 7057721
    This paper describes the analysis of the written professional examinations administered at the Medical School, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), during the academic year 1979-80. It is a product of a collaborative activity involving medical teachers and two short-term consultants of the World Health Organization. The examination papers were analysed in order to identify content areas disproportionately emphasized in the examinations; to determine the quality and appropriateness of the examination items used; and to review the extent of continuity and integration across departments and courses. This paper is intended to introduce an approach to curriculum review which is based on analysis of the examination system. The procedures and sample outcomes are described and the implications for curriculum development and evaluation are discussed.
  6. Al-Edrus, S. A., Suhaimi, S. N., Noor Azman, A. R., Latif, A. Z., Sobri, M.
    Introduction: An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal collection of blood vessels in which arterial blood flows directly into the draining vein without the normal interposed capillaries. The Spetzler-Martin grading system has been widely accepted worldwide to estimate the pretreatment risks and predict the outcome of patients with intracranial AVM. In Malaysia, we still do not have the baseline data of this grading system. Methods: A total of 33 patients from a tertiary referral hospital diagnosed with intracranial AVM based on neuroimaging findings over a 4-year period were studied. Medical
    records were traced and neuroimaging findings were analysed. The AVMs were graded according to the Spetzler-Martin grading system and Fisher’s exact test was used to assess statistical difference between the grades of the AVM and management plan for the patients. Results: Four patients were graded as Grade 1, 9 patients as Grade II, 10 patients as Grade III, 6 patients as Grade IV and 4 patients as Grade V. Ten patients were treated conservatively; six patients underwent surgery and embolisation respectively. Four patients underwent radiosurgery and a combination of embolisation while surgery and radiosurgery were given to 5 patients and 2 patients respectively. Statistically significant difference (p=0.016) was found between the Spetzler-Martin grading system and the management of intracranial AVMs. Conclusion: The management decision was not made based on the
    grading of the AVMs. It is recommended that all AVM patients be routinely graded according to this system prior to treatment.
  7. Othman, N., Kamarudin, S.K., Mamat, M.R., Azman, A., Rosli, M.I., Takrif, M.S.
    In this study, the numerical simulation in a mixing vessel agitated by a six bladed Rushton turbine has
    been carried out to investigate the effects of effective parameters to the mixing process. The study is intended to screen the potential parameters which affect the optimization process and to provide the detail insights into the process. Three-dimensional and steady-state flow has been performed using the fully predictive Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) technique for the impeller and tank geometry. Process optimization is always used to ensure the optimum conditions are fulfilled to attain industries’ satisfaction or needs (ie; increase profit, low cost, yields, etc). In this study, the range of recommended speed to accelerate optimization is 100, 150 and 200rpm respectively and the range of recommended clearance is 50, 75 and 100mm respectively for dual Rushton impeller. Thus, the computer fluid dynamics (CFD) was introduced in order to screen the suitable parameters efficiently and to accelerate optimization. In this study,
  8. Azman A, Manuel AM
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2020 Nov;138:110274.
    PMID: 32836138 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110274
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors contributing to middle ear pathology, hearing and speech development among cleft palate children treated for middle ear effusion.

    METHOD: A prospective cross-sectional otoscopic and audiological analysis was conducted on 102 cleft palate children (204 ears) aged 1-18 years old who were treated for middle ear effusion at our centre. Retrospective chart review was done to determine patient characteristics and prior patient management. The aim was to assess the effect of ventilation tube insertion (VTI) on hearing, speech and chronic otitis media; comparing the timing and number of ventilation tubes per ear and determining other factors affecting the short-term and long-term outcome.

    RESULTS: 68 children or 130 ears (63% of all cases) were selectively treated with ventilation tube insertion. Repeat procedures (more than 2) were performed in 41 ears. Among children with VTI performed, the incidence of chronic otitis media in children after the age of 4 was 17%. Overall, abnormal tympanic membrane findings and hearing loss were detected in nearly half the cases who were previously treated with VTI. Early ventilation tube insertion at less than 1 year of age, resulted in a better middle ear and hearing outcome in children less than 4 years old (p 

  9. Abdullah AC, Adnan JS, Rahman NA, Palur R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(1):104-112.
    PMID: 28381933 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.1.11
    INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) is the preferred diagnostic toolkit for head and brain imaging of head injury. A recent development is the invention of a portable CT scanner that can be beneficial from a clinical point of view.

    AIM: To compare the quality of CT brain images produced by a fixed CT scanner and a portable CT scanner (CereTom).

    METHODS: This work was a single-centre retrospective study of CT brain images from 112 neurosurgical patients. Hounsfield units (HUs) of the images from CereTom were measured for air, water and bone. Three assessors independently evaluated the images from the fixed CT scanner and CereTom. Streak artefacts, visualisation of lesions and grey-white matter differentiation were evaluated at three different levels (centrum semiovale, basal ganglia and middle cerebellar peduncles). Each evaluation was scored 1 (poor), 2 (average) or 3 (good) and summed up to form an ordinal reading of 3 to 9.

    RESULTS: HUs for air, water and bone from CereTom were within the recommended value by the American College of Radiology (ACR). Streak artefact evaluation scores for the fixed CT scanner was 8.54 versus 7.46 (Z = -5.67) for CereTom at the centrum semiovale, 8.38 (SD = 1.12) versus 7.32 (SD = 1.63) at the basal ganglia and 8.21 (SD = 1.30) versus 6.97 (SD = 2.77) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Grey-white matter differentiation showed scores of 8.27 (SD = 1.04) versus 7.21 (SD = 1.41) at the centrum semiovale, 8.26 (SD = 1.07) versus 7.00 (SD = 1.47) at the basal ganglia and 8.38 (SD = 1.11) versus 6.74 (SD = 1.55) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. Visualisation of lesions showed scores of 8.86 versus 8.21 (Z = -4.24) at the centrum semiovale, 8.93 versus 8.18 (Z = -5.32) at the basal ganglia and 8.79 versus 8.06 (Z = -4.93) at the middle cerebellar peduncles. All results were significant with P-value < 0.01.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study showed a significant difference in image quality produced by the fixed CT scanner and CereTom, with the latter being more inferior than the former. However, HUs of the images produced by CereTom do fulfil the recommendation of the ACR.

  10. Shafie AA, Azman AW
    Public Health, 2015 Sep;129(9):1278-84.
    PMID: 25931434 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.03.016
    Food handler's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding food allergies are important to prevent debilitating and sometimes fatal reactions. This study aimed to assess their food allergy knowledge, attitude and practice, which could help to maintain the safety and hygiene of food consumed by the public.
  11. Alaudeen S, Muslim N, Faridah K, Azman A, Arshat H
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1988 Dec;6(2):102-7.
    PMID: 12342169
    PIP: The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).
  12. Azman A, Jamir Singh PS, Sulaiman J
    J Ment Health, 2017 Apr;26(2):98-103.
    PMID: 26732363 DOI: 10.3109/09638237.2015.1124395
    BACKGROUND: Mental illness is a disease that affects millions of people every year. It not only causes stress to the mentally ill patients, but also for the family members who provide them the care. The family caregivers, therefore need some form of coping strategies in dealing with their mentally ill family members.

    AIMS: This qualitative study aims at identifying and analysing the coping strategies adopted by the family caregivers in dealing with their mentally ill family members.

    METHOD: A total of 15 family caregivers from the state of Kedah, Malaysia participated in the face-to-face semi structured interview.

    RESULTS: The study findings identified an array of coping strategies used by the family caregivers, including religious coping, emotional coping, acceptance, becoming engaged in leisure activities, and the use of traditional healing to help them cope with their mentally ill members. Suggestions and conclusions: Study suggests that the family caregivers should engage themselves in social support groups to learn about and obtain the positive coping strategies used by other caregivers who have similar experiences in caring for the mentally ill. Study also suggests that they should get appropriate training from the mental health professionals in order to enhance the caregivers' coping skills.

  13. Indudharan R, Das PK, Azman AA, Suhaiza S
    Singapore Med J, 1998 Aug;39(8):376-9.
    PMID: 9844502
    A case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is presented with the result of treatment. The patient was admitted for a growth in the nose of four years' duration. Fine needle aspiration for cytological examination was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. She was treated with lateral rhinotomy and wide excision followed by septorhinoplasty. Histological examination showed that the lesion was chondrosarcoma. The patient remained free of disease 26 months after surgery.
  14. Zaraihan S, Azman AB, Tariq AR
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):355-63.
    PMID: 7674971
    The fasting lipid profile of a sample of Malays, Chinese and Indians in Peninsular Malaysia was studied to see whether these might explain differences in the rate of coronary heart disease mortality amongst the three ethnic groups. Fifty healthy subjects were studied from each of the three groups. They were matched for age, body mass index, gender and smoking habits, if any. The total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio were found to be statistically higher in the Indians than in the Malays and the Chinese. The differences between the Indians and the Chinese were statistically more significant than the differences between the Indians and the Malays. Our findings may partially explain the higher predisposition of the Indian community in Malaysia to CHD mortality and are consistent with those of other studies performed on Indian communities living outside the Indian subcontinent.
  15. Tan AK, Azman A, Hoe TS, Rohana T
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):409-11.
    PMID: 7674978
    A six-year-old boy, a known case of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) on remission since 1991 presented with leukocoria and poor vision of the left eye for two days' duration. Examination revealed endophthalmitis in the left eye with raised intraocular pressure. Anterior chamber paracentesis with vitreous biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of ocular involvement. Further investigation revealed that he also had bone marrow and central nervous system relapse. Clinical manifestation and treatment modalities of ocular involvement in leukaemia are discussed.
  16. Mohammad T, Azman A, Anderstone B
    Eval Program Plann, 2019 02;72:1-7.
    PMID: 30245370 DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2018.09.007
    From the rise of restorative justice to evidence-based approaches to reducing recidivism, the intellectual landscape of criminal justice has seen considerable change in recent decades. The result is that an increasing number of countries have tackled the task of shifting preexisting political institutions to confirm with these new understandings. This is, of course, no easy feat. A great number of challenges confront willing policymakers, a reality that often puts philosophy at loggerheads with practicality. Moreover, the political process of change is subject to the influence of cultural and institutional norms. In this paper, we look at one particular case study - that of Malaysia's juvenile justice system - to understand the challenges faced in changing criminal justice policy. We identify three primary categories of challenges and elucidate their shape and impact through the Malaysian example. We also briefly analyze potential opportunities to mitigate and overcome these challenges. Furthermore, we also conclude with several implications for future research that we deem are important to be taken place. In sum, we argue that criminal justice reform must be undertaken with an eye toward important societal and institutional norms, each requiring thoughtful analysis of complex local cases.
  17. Muhammad Aklil, A.R., Aznida, M.Z., Azman A., Muhammad Haneef, A., Nik Him, N.A.S., Syed Sharizman, S.A.R., et al.
    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread re-emerging zoonoses in the world. Malaysia is known to
    be an endemic country for human leptospirosis, with a case fatality rate of 2.11%, and an average annual
    incidence rate of 7.80 cases per 100,000 individuals. This systematic review is conducted to determine
    the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis among the adult populations who are highly
    at risk of getting infected. A systematic search was performed for the relevant titles, abstracts and
    keywords on PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar from inception to November 2017 based
    on the PICO strategy; which returned 126 studies. Screening of abstracts had shortlisted 19 studies and
    data extraction was conducted for 8 studies which had been accepted after review of the full text. For
    the evaluation of antibiotics prophylaxis effectiveness against leptospirosis, only trials and cohort studies
    with risk ratio (RR) were selected. The articles were analyzed from the viewpoint of the dosage, adverse
    effects, study settings and effectiveness of the antibiotic prophylaxis. Using fixed effects model, pooled
    RR showed protective association between antibiotic prophylaxis use against the incidence of
    leptospirosis (RR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.48). Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis had been shown
    to be effective in preventing the incidence of the disease among high-risk populations and carries
    minimal adverse effects. It is recommended that the practice of antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis is
    included in the standard protocol for leptospirosis prevention among people at high-risk, including
    disaster response teams and patrons of eco-sports tourism activities; with the drug of choice being
    doxycycline, either as a single 200 mg dose or weekly dose of 200 mg for the duration of exposure,
    based on the setting, duration of event and resources available.
  18. Azman A, Singh PSJ, Isahaque A
    Qual Soc Work, 2021 Mar;20(1-2):553-560.
    PMID: 34253996 DOI: 10.1177/1473325020973308
    The global lockdown due to COVID-19 is a major concern as all higher educational institutions face disruption in teaching, learning and assessment. Social work educators in Malaysia's higher educational institutions are not spared of this disruption. Conventional teaching methods are now being replaced by non-conventional modes of teaching, which include online teaching and assessment using various platforms such as Zoom, WebEx and others. In embarking on online methods of teaching, social work educators will have to undergo many changes. It is particularly so as social work has a practice component that involves field training, which will be a different challenge to educators and students in this new and unexpected environment. This paper aims to discuss the implications of COVID-19 on the changes that have taken place in social work teaching and learning in Malaysia and potential responses.
  19. Zakaria ZF, Bakar AA, Hasmoni HM, Rani FA, Kadir SA
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2009 Dec 31;8(1):10.
    PMID: 20084190 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-8-10
    BACKGROUND: Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.

    METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.

    RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.

  20. Amini E, Golpich M, Farjam AS, Kamalidehghan B, Mohamed Z, Ibrahim NM, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:416.
    PMID: 29765321 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00416
    There is increasing evidence pointing toward the role of inflammatory processes in epileptic seizures, and reciprocally, prolonged seizures induce more inflammation in the brain. In this regard, effective strategies to control epilepsy resulting from neuroinflammation could be targeted. Based on the available data, preconditioning (PC) with low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through the regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway provides neuroprotection against subsequent challenge with injury in the brain. To test this, we examined the effects of a single and chronic brain LPS PC, which is expected to lead to reduction of inflammation against epileptic seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock (ECS). A total of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control, vehicle (single and chronic), and LPS PC (single and chronic). We first recorded the data regarding the behavioral and histological changes. We further investigated the alterations of gene and protein expression of important mediators in relation to TLR4 and inflammatory signaling pathways. Interestingly, significant increased presence of NFκB inhibitors [Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP1) and Toll interacting protein (TOLLIP)] was observed in LPS-preconditioned animals. This result was also associated with over-expression of IRF3 activity and anti-inflammatory markers, along with down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Summarizing, the analysis revealed that PC with LPS prior to seizure induction may have a neuroprotective effect possibly by reprogramming the signaling response to injury.
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