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  1. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    PMID: 26504467 DOI: 10.1186/s13223-015-0099-4
    Many types of shellfish including oysters are sometime cooked before ingestion and it has been demonstrated that cooking may affect the allergenicity of food. Therefore, the aim of our present study is to identify major and minor allergens of tropical oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) and to investigate the effect of different cooking processing on the allergenicity of this oyster.
  2. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:254152.
    PMID: 26413512 DOI: 10.1155/2015/254152
    To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins.
  3. Leecyous B, Bakhtiar F, Tang MM, Yadzir ZHM, Abdullah N
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 2020 06 09;48(6):626-632.
    PMID: 32532468 DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2020.01.006
    INTRODUCTION: Basophil activation test (BAT) and immunoassays are the most widely used in vitro tests to diagnose IgE-mediated allergic reactions to penicillin. However, studies to determine if one test is interdependent from another are limited.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the agreement between BAT and immunoassay in diagnosis of penicillin allergy.

    METHOD: BAT was performed using penicillin G (Pen G), penicillin V (Pen V), penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL), minor determinant mix (MDM), amoxicillin (Amx) and ampicillin (Amp) in 25 patients. Immunoassay of total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to Pen G, Pen V, Amx and Amp were quantified. Skin prick test (SPT) using PPL-MDM, Amx, Amp and Clavulanic acid were also performed.

    RESULTS: Minimal agreement was observed between BAT and immunoassay (k=0.25). Of two BAT-positive patients, one patient is positive to Amx (59.27%, SI=59) and Amp (82.32%, SI=82) but sIgE-negative to all drug tested. This patient is also SPT-positive to both drugs. Another patient is BAT-positive to Pen G (10.18%, SI=40), Pen V (25.07%, SI=100) and Amp (19.52%, SI=79). In sIgE immunoassay, four patients were sIgE-positive to at least one of the drugs tested. The sIgE level of three patients was between low and moderate and they were BAT-negative. One BAT-positive patient had a high level of sIgE antibodies (3.50-17.5kU/L) along with relatively high specific to total IgE ratio ≥0.002 (0.004-0.007).

    CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between BAT and immunoassay is minimal. Performing both tests provides little increase in the sensitivity of allergy diagnosis work-up for immediate reactions to penicillin.

  4. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  5. Ching YM, Arip M, Jegasothy R, Baskaran TP, Yusof AY, Bakhtiar F, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Dec;35(2):147-51.
    PMID: 24362478 MyJurnal
    The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) is closely associated with thrombotic events and pregnancy complications such as recurrent pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and placental insufficiency. We investigated the presence of aPLs and its frequency among female patients with a history of fetal loss in a Malaysia population. Serum samples were collected from 108 patients who had (1) one or more unexplained deaths of morphologically normal fetuses at or beyond the 22nd week of gestation, or (2) one or more premature births of morphologically normal neonates at or before the 24th week of gestation due to eclampsia or preeclampsia, or recognized features of placental insufficiency, or (3) three or more unexplained, consecutive, spontaneous miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. Serum was tested for aPLs subtypes: anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta-2- glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI), anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I dependent cardiolipin (aβ2GPI dependent CL), anti-phosphatidylcholine (aPC), anti-phosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylinositol (aPI), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS) and anti-sphingomyeline (aSph) by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The mean age of patients was 30±5. Four patients (3.7%) were found positive for at least one aPLs subtype. Four aPLs subtypes were detected. The most common subtypes was aβ2GPI dependent CL (3.7%), followed by aCL (2.7%), aβ2GPI (0.9%), and aPE(0.9%). In conclusion, frequency of aPLs among women with fetal loss (3.7%) in Malaysia was low with subtype aβ2GPI dependent CL being the most prevalent aPLs.
  6. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, Murad S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Jan;2(1):50-4.
    PMID: 23569834 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60189-5
    Objective: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn).
    Methods: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools.
    Results: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase.
    Conclusions: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.
    Keywords: Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Major allergen, MALDI-TOF, Tropomyosin, Arginine kinase, SDS-PAGE, Immunoblotting, 2-DE electrophoresis, IgE reactivity
  7. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 20578555
    Allergy to different classes of mollusks, including squid, which are members of the class Cephalopods has been reported. Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in squid. The aim of this study was to characterize IgE-binding proteins of local Loligo edulis (white squid) consumed in Malaysia. Protein profiles and IgE-binding proteins were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 23 patients with positive skin prick test to raw squid extract. SDS-PAGE of the raw extract exhibited 21 protein bands (10-170 kDa) but those ranging from 19 to 29 kDa and 41 to 94 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. Immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 16 IgE-binding bands, ranging from 13 to 170 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein, corresponding to squid tropomyosin, was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 50 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of squid allergy should contain both the 36 kDa and 50 kDa proteins.
  8. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Apr;15(2):156-60.
    PMID: 27090369
    Allergy diagnosis needs to be improved in polysensitized patients due to the existence of possible confounding factors in this type of patients. Component resolved diagnosis (CRD) is a new concept in the investigation of polysensitized patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the utilization of ImmunoCAP ISAC improve the diagnosis of the polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Skin prick test (SPT) to 58 crude allergen extracts and CRD (ImmunoCAP ISAC) were carried out for 5 polysensitized allergic rhinitis patients. Two patients had a shellfish allergy and avoidance of shellfish was the only way to prevent an allergic reaction. In contrast, although the remaining three patients had low risk for shellfish allergy, but they were the best candidates for immunotherapy using mite extracts. CRD and particularly ImmunoCAP ISAC have proven to be a valuable diagnostic tool in polysensitized patients. ImmunoCAP ISAC helps refine the individual patient's sensitization profile and predict the potential risk of allergic reactions and improve the selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  9. Misnan R, Salahudin Abd Aziz N, Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2016 Aug;15(4):309-316.
    PMID: 27921412
    Snail is one of the worst causes of food allergy. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major and minor allergens of the local marine snail (Cerithidea obtusa) and subsequently to investigate the impacts of heat treatment on the IgE-binding activity of snail allergens. Proteins from raw and heat-treated snails (boiled, roasted and fried) were extracted and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoblotting of all extracts were then performed using sera from patients with snail allergy. The results showed that the raw extract contains numerous protein bands between 12 to>250 kDa. Some thermostable proteins, predominantly the 33 and 42 kDa bands, remained detected in all cooked extracts with decreasing intensities from boiled to roasted to fried extracts, while the majority of thermolabile bands denatured after heating. Boiled snail had more protein bands compared to roasted and fried snails. Immunoblotting of raw extract demostrated 19 IgE-binding bands ranging from 15 to 240 kDa. The thermostable bands of 33 and 42 kDa and a thermolabile of 30 kDa band were identified as the major allergens of this snail. The cooked extracts yielded less allergenic bands. The boiled extract yielded approximately 14 IgE-binding bands with some smeared bands at high molecular weight regions. The roasted extract had lesser IgE-binding bands and the majority appeared as smears, while the IgE-reactivity in the fried extract was less visible and appeared as weak smears. This study indicated that both raw and cooked snails played a crucial role in snail allergenicity, as this species of snail contains both thermostable and thermolabile major allergens. The degree of snail allergenicity was revealed in the order: raw> boiled > roasted> fried. Thus, the results would facilitate in the development of effective diagnosis and management strategies of snail allergy in this country.
  10. Sahabudin S, Misnan R, Yadzir ZH, Mohamad J, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jul;18(3):27-32.
    PMID: 22135598 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Prawns and shrimp are a frequent cause of seafood allergy mediated by IgE antibodies. Penaeus monodon and Penaeus latisulcatus, commonly known as black tiger prawn and king prawn, respectively, are among the most frequently consumed prawns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to identify the IgE-binding proteins of these 2 prawn species.
    METHODS: Raw and boiled prawn extracts were prepared and then resolved by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE-immunoblotting was then performed using sera from patients with positive skin prick tests to the raw prawn extracts.
    RESULTS: SDS-PAGE analysis of the raw extracts of both prawn species revealed 23 protein bands; the boiled extracts yielded fewer protein bands. The bands in the range of 40 to 100 kDa were sensitive to heat and therefore were not found in the boiled extracts. Immunoblot of raw extracts of black tiger prawns and king prawns yielded 14 and 11 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with molecular weights of between 15 and 200 kDa. Proteins at 36, 42, and 49 kDa were detected as the major allergens in both species of prawns. A protein of 75 kDa was also identified as a major allergen in black tiger prawns. Other potential allergens were also observed at various molecular masses.
    CONCLUSION: Proteins of 36, 42, and 49 kDa were identified as the major allergens of both species of prawns. The 36 and 42 kDa proteins are hypothesised to be tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively. A high molecular weight protein of 75 kDa was found to be an additional major allergen in black tiger prawns.
    KEYWORDS: Penaeus; allergens; allergy and clinical immunology; hypersensitivity; immunoblotting; tropomyosin
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