Beekeeping with stingless bee provides new opportunities to improve the incomes of many households in Malaysia through the sale of honey and other bee products. While Heterotrigona itama is one of the most commonly cultured species of stingless bees, its behavior is not very well understood. Hence, we conducted this study to investigate the behavior of H. itama in exploiting food sources by ascertaining the nectar sugar concentration preferred by the bee. We also aimed to determine the preferred distance of food source from the beehive. Our results suggest that H. itama prefers high sugar concentrations of 35% and above, and most of the bees preferred to forage close to their hive to collect food. We discuss how nectar concentration, food distance, and abiotic factors influence the number of bees exploiting food sources and the overall foraging pattern of H. itama.
Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort mortality was correlated with total development time (r = 0.713, p < 0.05) but not temperature (r = -0.477, p > 0.05). Rainfall was correlated with neither development time (r = 0.554, p > 0.05) nor mortality (r = 0.322, p > 0.05). There was a significant difference among the total mortality that occurred in the twelve cohorts (H = 119.783, df = 11, p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference in mortality among the different stages (H = 274.00, df = 4, p < 0.05).
Ficus plants are commonly planted as ornamentals along roadsides in Malaysia. In 2010, Ficus plants in Kuala Terengganu were found to be attacked by a moth, identified as Trilocha varians. The larvae of this moth fed on Ficus leaves causing up to 100% defoliation. This study was conducted to determine the life cycle of T. varians under two different environmental temperatures and to control this pest using two different insecticides. Our findings showed that there were significant differences in the time taken for eggs to hatch and larval and pupation period between low and high environmental temperatures. Results also showed that fipronil had lower LT50 and LT95 than malathion. This study provides new information on the life history of T. varians under two different conditions and the efficiency in controlling T. varians larvae using insecticides. The results of this study are important for future management in controlling T. varians population especially in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.