METHODS: Anti-plasmodium effect of andrographolide against Plasmodium falciparum strains was screened using the conventional malaria drug sensitivity assay. The drug was incubated with uninfected RBCs to monitor its effect on their morphology, integrity and osmotic fragility. It was incubated with the plasmodium infected RBCs to monitor its effect on the parasite induced permeation pathways. Its effect on the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs was tested using merozoite invasion assay.
RESULTS: It showed that at andrographolide was innocuous to RBCs at concentrations approach its therapeutic level against plasmodia. Nevertheless, this inertness was dwindled at higher concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS: In spite of its success to inhibit plasmodium induced permeation pathway and the potential of merozoites to invade new RBCs, its anti-plasmodium effect can't be attributed to these functions as they were attained at concentrations higher than what is required to eradicate the parasite. Consequently, other mechanisms may be associated with its claimed actions.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: In this experiment, the potential of embelin, isolated from Embelia ribes, to inhibit the growth and sensitize CQ action was screened using SYBRE-green-I based drug sensitivity and isobologram assays, respectively. Its effect on red blood cells stability was screened to assess its safety. To explore its molecular mechanism, its effect on plasmodial Hemozoin and the in vitro β-hematin formation was screened as well. Furthermore, its anti-oxidant activity was measured using the conventional in vitro tests and its molecular characters were obtained using Molispiration program.
RESULTS: The results showed that its anti-plasmodial effect was weaker than CQ but synergism was obtained when they were combined at ratios lower than 5:5 CQ/embelin. Furthermore, β-hematin formation was inhibited by embelin without showing any synergism after mixing with CQ.
CONCLUSION: Overall, embelin is not ideal to be suggested as a conventional antiplasmodium but it has a potential to ameliorate CQ resistance. Furthermore, its action is not related to its impact on hemozoin formation. Further, investigations are recommended to illustrate its detailed mechanism of action. Abbreviation used: CQ-DV-PBS-HEPES: Chloroquine-Digestive vacuole-Phosphate-buffer-saline-4-(2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazin-ethan-sulphoni-acid), EDTA: Ethylen-diamin-tetra-acetic-acid, g.m.wt: Gram molecular weight, cMCM: Complete-malaria-culture-medium, Hct: Hematocrite, PRBCs: Parasitized-redblood-cells, nRBCs: Normal-red-blood-cells, RT: Room temperature, IC: Inhibitory concentration, FIC: Fractional inhibitory concentration, iCM: Incomplete-culturemedium, BSA: Bovin serum albumin, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazy, BHT: Butylatedhydroxyl-toleuen, PSA: Polar surface area, ClogP: Log partition coefficient (octanol/water), GPCR: G-protein-coupled-receptors, DMSO: Dimethylsulphoxide, NaOH: Sodium hydroxide.
METHODS: Data concerning levels of cytokines, chemokines, and other potential biomarkers of DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, and severe dengue were obtained for patients of all ages and populations using the Scopus, PubMed, and Ovid search engines. The keywords "(IL1* or IL-1*) AND (dengue*)" were used and the same process was repeated for other potential biomarkers, according to Medical Subject Headings terms suggested by PubMed and Ovid. Meta-analysis of the mean difference in plasma or serum level of biomarkers between DF and SDI patients was performed, separated by different periods of time (days) since fever onset. Subgroup analyses comparing biomarker levels of healthy plasma and sera controls, biomarker levels of primary and secondary infection samples were also performed, as well as analyses of different levels of severity and biomarker levels upon infection by different dengue serotypes.
RESULTS: Fifty-six studies of 53 biomarkers from 3,739 dengue cases (2,021 DF and 1,728 SDI) were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed that RANTES, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 levels were significantly different between DF and SDI. IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18 levels increased during SDI (95% CI, 18.1-253.2 pg/mL, 3-13 studies, n = 177-1,909, I(2) = 98.86%-99.75%). In contrast, RANTES, IL-7, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 showed a decrease in levels during SDI (95% CI, -3238.7 to -3.2 pg/mL, 1-3 studies, n = 95-418, I(2) = 97.59%-99.99%). Levels of these biomarkers were also found to correlate with the severity of the dengue infection, in comparison to healthy controls. Furthermore, the results showed that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 display peak differences between DF and SDI during or before the critical phase (day 4-5) of SDI.
DISCUSSION: This meta-analysis suggests that IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-b, and VEGFR2 may be used as potential early laboratory biomarkers in the diagnosis of SDI. This can be used to predict the severity of dengue infection and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Nevertheless, methodological and reporting limitations must be overcome in future research to minimize variables that affect the results and to confirm the findings.