Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

  1. Rizwan M, Hamdi M, Basirun WJ
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 Nov;105(11):3197-3223.
    PMID: 28686004 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36156
    Bioglass® 45S5 (BG) has an outstanding ability to bond with bones and soft tissues, but its application as a load-bearing scaffold material is restricted due to its inherent brittleness. BG-based composites combine the amazing biological and bioactive characteristics of BG with structural and functional features of other materials. This article reviews the composites of Bioglass® in combination with metals, ceramics and polymers for a wide range of potential applications from bone scaffolds to nerve regeneration. Bioglass® also possesses angiogenic and antibacterial properties in addition to its very high bioactivity; hence, composite materials developed for these applications are also discussed. BG-based composites with polymer matrices have been developed for a wide variety of soft tissue engineering. This review focuses on the research that suggests the suitability of BG-based composites as a scaffold material for hard and soft tissues engineering. Composite production techniques have a direct influence on the bioactivity and mechanical behavior of scaffolds. A detailed discussion of the bioactivity, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and biodegradation is presented as a function of materials and its processing techniques. Finally, an outlook for future research is also proposed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 3197-3223, 2017.
  2. Choong CE, Ibrahim S, Basirun WJ
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2019 Apr 01;541:12-17.
    PMID: 30682589 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.01.071
    The present study reports the removal of Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ibuprofen (IBP) using adsorbents prepared from batik sludge. The calcite sludge-aluminum hydroxide (CAl) adsorbent was prepared by calcination and followed by aluminum hydroxide impregnation. The batik sludge and prepared adsorbents were characterized by FESEM, TGA, XRD, FTIR and BET techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity, adsorption time, different initial solution pH, ionic strength and regeneration study of the adsorbents were also investigated. Furthermore, the sorption behavior of the pollutants were studied by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The deposition of Al(OH)3 enhanced the BPA and IBP adsorption capacity on the CAl surface. The maximum removal capacity of BPA and Ibuprofen were 83.53 mg g-1 and 34.96 mg g-1 for the CAl adsorbent. In addition, the kinetic data for BPA and IBP were fitted to the pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Elovich, parabolic diffusion and power function equations to understand the sorption behavior. The adsorption behavior of BPA and IBP was mainly chemisorption. This study shows that CAl is a promising adsorbent for the removal of BPA and IBP.
  3. Basirun WJ, Sookhakian M, Baradaran S, Mahmoudian MR, Ebadi M
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2013;8(1):397.
    PMID: 24059434 DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-397
    Graphene oxide (GO) film was evaporated onto graphite and used as an electrode to produce electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) films by electrochemical reduction in 6 M KOH solution through voltammetric cycling. Fourier transformed infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ERGO. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of ERGO and GO films in ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple with 0.1 M KCl supporting electrolyte gave results that are in accordance with previous reports. Based on the EIS results, ERGO shows higher capacitance and lower charge transfer resistance compared to GO.
  4. Ebadi M, Basirun WJ, Alias Y, Mahmoudian M
    Chem Cent J, 2010;4:14.
    PMID: 20604934 DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-4-14
    Electrodeposition of Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloys was done in a chloride ion solution with the presence and absence of a Permanent Parallel Magnetic Field (PPMF). The PPMF was applied parallel to the cathode surface. The deposition profile was monitored chronoamperometrically. It was found that the electrodeposition current was enhanced in the presence of PPMF (9 T) compared to without PPMF. The percentage of current enhancement (Gamma%) was increased in the presence of PPMF, with results of Gamma% = 11.9%, 16.7% and 18.5% at -1.1, -1.2 and -1.3 V respectively for a 2400 sec duration. In chronoamperometry, the Composition Reference Line (CRL) for Ni was around 57%, although the nobler metals (i.e. Ni, Co) showed anomalous behaviour in the presence of Zn and Fe. The anomalous behaviour of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn electrodeposition was shown by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) results. From Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, it was found that the surface roughness of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloy films decreased in the presence of a PPMF.
  5. Baradaran S, Basirun WJ, Zalnezhad E, Hamdi M, Sarhan AA, Alias Y
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2013 Apr;20:272-82.
    PMID: 23453827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.01.020
    In this study, titanium thin films were deposited on alumina substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The mechanical properties of the Ti coatings were evaluated in terms of adhesion strength at various RF powers, temperatures, and substrate bias voltages. The coating conditions of 400W of RF power, 250°C, and a 75V substrate bias voltage produced the strongest coating adhesion, as obtained by the Taguchi optimisation method. TiO2 nanotube arrays were grown as a second layer on the Ti substrates using electrochemical anodisation at a constant potential of 20V and anodisation times of 15min, 45min, and 75min in a NH4F electrolyte solution (75 ethylene glycol: 25 water). The anodised titanium was annealed at 450°C and 650°C in a N2 gas furnace to obtain different phases of titania, anatase and rutile, respectively. The mechanical properties of the anodised layer were investigated by nanoindentation. The results indicate that Young's modulus and hardness increased with annealing temperature to 650°C.
  6. Saidur MR, Aziz AR, Basirun WJ
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2017 Apr 15;90:125-139.
    PMID: 27886599 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2016.11.039
    The presence of heavy metal in food chains due to the rapid industrialization poses a serious threat on the environment. Therefore, detection and monitoring of heavy metals contamination are gaining more attention nowadays. However, the current analytical methods (based on spectroscopy) for the detection of heavy metal contamination are often very expensive, tedious and can only be handled by trained personnel. DNA biosensors, which are based on electrochemical transduction, is a sensitive but inexpensive method of detection. The principles, sensitivity, selectivity and challenges of electrochemical biosensors are discussed in this review. This review also highlights the major advances of DNA-based electrochemical biosensors for the detection of heavy metal ions such as Hg(2+), Ag(+), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+).
  7. Sookhakian M, Basirun WJ, Goh BT, Woi PM, Alias Y
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2019 Apr 01;176:80-86.
    PMID: 30594706 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.12.058
    A metal-inorganic composite, comprises of silver-molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (Ag@MoS2) was synthesized at low temperature. The Ag@MoS2 composite was drop-casted onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for a highly selective dopamine (DA) detection in the presence of interfering compounds such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). The physicochemical analysis of the nanosheets was carried out with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared Ag@MoS2-modified GCE displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward DA oxidation, with a 0.2 μM detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and an extensive linear detection range from 1 μM to 500 μM (R2 = 0.9983). The fabricated non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor demonstrated superior selectivity and stability for the detection of DA with the removal of AA and UA interfering compounds.
  8. Naureen B, Haseeb ASMA, Basirun WJ, Muhamad F
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Jan;118:111228.
    PMID: 33254956 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111228
    Organ repair, regeneration, and transplantation are constantly in demand due to various acute, chronic, congenital, and infectious diseases. Apart from traditional remedies, tissue engineering (TE) is among the most effective methods for the repair of damaged tissues via merging the cells, growth factors, and scaffolds. With regards to TE scaffold fabrication technology, polyurethane (PU), a high-performance medical grade synthetic polymer and bioactive material has gained significant attention. PU possesses exclusive biocompatibility, biodegradability, and modifiable chemical, mechanical and thermal properties, owing to its unique structure-properties relationship. During the past few decades, PU TE scaffold bioactive properties have been incorporated or enhanced with biodegradable, electroactive, surface-functionalised, ayurvedic products, ceramics, glass, growth factors, metals, and natural polymers, resulting in the formation of modified polyurethanes (MPUs). This review focuses on the recent advances of PU/MPU scaffolds, especially on the biomedical applications in soft and hard tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The scientific issues with regards to the PU/MPU scaffolds, such as biodegradation, electroactivity, surface functionalisation, and incorporation of active moieties are also highlighted along with some suggestions for future work.
  9. Mahmoudian MR, Basirun WJ, Woi PM, Sookhakian M, Yousefi R, Ghadimi H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Feb;59:500-508.
    PMID: 26652401 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.10.055
    The present study examines the synthesis of Co3O4 ultra-nanosheets (Co3O4 UNSs) and Co3O4 ultra-nanosheet-Ni(OH)2 (Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2) via solvothermal process and their application as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose detection. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed the Co3O4 UNS deposition on Ni(OH)2 surface. The presence of Co3O4 UNSs on Ni (OH) 2 surface improved the sensitivity of glucose detection, from the increase of glucose oxidation peak current at the Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2/glassy carbon electrode (current density: 2000μA·cm(-2)), compared to the Co3O4 UNSs. These results confirmed that Ni(OH)2 on glassy carbon electrode is a sensitive material for glucose detection, moreover the Co3O4 UNSs can increase the interaction and detection of glucose due to their high surface area. The estimated limit of detection (S/N=3) and limit of quantification (S/N=10) of the linear segment (5-40μM) are 1.08μM and 3.60μM respectively. The reproducibility experiments confirmed the feasibility of Co3O4 UNS-Ni(OH)2 for the quantitative detection of certain concentration ranges of glucose.
  10. Baradaran S, Moghaddam E, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Basirun WJ, Mehrali M, Sookhakian M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Apr;49:656-668.
    PMID: 25686995 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.01.050
    The effect of the addition of an ionic dopant to calcium phosphates for biomedical applications requires specific research due to the essential roles played in such processes. In the present study, the mechanical and biological properties of Ni-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) and Ni-doped HA mixed with graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were evaluated. Ni (3wt.% and 6wt.%)-doped HA was synthesized using a continuous precipitation method and calcined at 900°C for 1h. The GNP (0.5-2wt.%)-reinforced 6% Ni-doped HA (Ni6) composite was prepared using rotary ball milling for 15h. The sintering process was performed using hot isostatic pressing at processing conditions of 1150°C and 160MPa with a 1-h holding time. The results indicated that the phase compositions and structural features of the products were noticeably affected by the Ni and GNPs. The mechanical properties of Ni6 and 1.5Ni6 were increased by 55% and 75% in hardness, 59% and 163% in fracture toughness and 120% and 85% in elastic modulus compared with monolithic HA, respectively. The in-vitro biological behavior was investigated using h-FOB osteoblast cells in 1, 3 and 5days of culture. Based on the osteoblast results, the cytotoxicity of the products was indeed affected by the Ni doping. In addition, the effect of GNPs on the growth and proliferation of osteoblast cells was investigated in Ni6 composites containing different ratios of GNPs, where 1.5wt.% was the optimum value.
  11. Rafieerad AR, Bushroa AR, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Kaboli SHA, Khanahmadi S, Amiri A, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 May;69:1-18.
    PMID: 28027481 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.11.019
    Recently, the robust optimization and prediction models have been highly noticed in district of surface engineering and coating techniques to obtain the highest possible output values through least trial and error experiments. Besides, due to necessity of finding the optimum value of dependent variables, the multi-objective metaheuristic models have been proposed to optimize various processes. Herein, oriented mixed oxide nanotubular arrays were grown on Ti-6Al-7Nb (Ti67) implant using physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS) designed by Taguchi and following electrochemical anodization. The obtained adhesion strength and hardness of Ti67/Nb were modeled by particle swarm optimization (PSO) to predict the outputs performance. According to developed models, multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) run aimed at finding PVDMS inputs to maximize current outputs simultaneously. The provided sputtering parameters were applied as validation experiment and resulted in higher adhesion strength and hardness of interfaced layer with Ti67. The as-deposited Nb layer before and after optimization were anodized in fluoride-base electrolyte for 300min. To crystallize the coatings, the anodically grown mixed oxide TiO2-Nb2O5-Al2O3 nanotubes were annealed at 440°C for 30min. From the FESEM observations, the optimized adhesive Nb interlayer led to further homogeneity of mixed nanotube arrays. As a result of this surface modification, the anodized sample after annealing showed the highest mechanical, tribological, corrosion resistant and in-vitro bioactivity properties, where a thick bone-like apatite layer was formed on the mixed oxide nanotubes surface within 10 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after applied MOPSO. The novel results of this study can be effective in optimizing a variety of the surface properties of the nanostructured implants.
  12. Akhter S, Basirun WJ, Alias Y, Johan MR, Bagheri S, Shalauddin M, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2018 06 15;551:29-36.
    PMID: 29753720 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2018.05.004
    In the present study, a nanocomposite of f-MWCNTs-chitosan-Co was prepared by the immobilization of Co(II) on f-MWCNTs-chitosan by a self-assembly method and used for the quantitative determination of paracetamol (PR). The composite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The electroactivity of cobalt immobilized on f-MWCNTs-chitosan was assessed during the electro-oxidation of paracetamol. The prepared GCE modified f-MWCNTs/CTS-Co showed strong electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PR. The electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under favorable experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear dynamic range between 0.1 and 400 μmol L-1 with a detection limit of 0.01 μmol L-1 for the PR solution. The fabricated sensor exhibited significant selectivity towards PR detection. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied for the determination of PR in commercial tablets and human serum sample.
  13. Rasouli E, Shahnavaz Z, Basirun WJ, Rezayi M, Avan A, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2018 09 01;556:136-144.
    PMID: 29981317 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2018.07.002
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted disease, transmitted through intimate skin contact or mucosal membrane. The HPV virus consists of a double-stranded circular DNA and the role of HPV virus in cervical cancer has been studied extensively. Thus it is critical to develop rapid identification method for early detection of the virus. A portable biosensing device could give rapid and reliable results for the identification and quantitative determination of the virus. The fabrication of electrochemical biosensors is one of the current techniques utilized to achieve this aim. In such electrochemical biosensors, a single-strand DNA is immobilized onto an electrically conducting surface and the changes in electrical parameters due to the hybridization on the electrode surface are measured. This review covers the recent developments in electrochemical DNA biosensors for the detection of HPV virus. Due to the several advantages of electrochemical DNA biosensors, their applications have witnessed an increased interest and research focus nowadays.
  14. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Rezayi M, Shameli K, Nourmohammadi E, Khandanlou R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6903-6911.
    PMID: 30498350 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S158083
    Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3O4-NPs was also studied.

    Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Results: The XRD analysis indicated the presence of pure Fe3O4-NPs while the TEM images indicated that the Fe3O4-NPs are spherical with a diameter range between 3.21 and 2.22 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were enhanced with the decrease in the percentage of honey. In vitro viability evaluation of Fe3O4-NPs performed by using the MTT assay on the WEHI164 cells demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm, which allows them to be used in some biological applications such as drug delivery.

    Conclusion: The presented synthesis method can be used for the controlled synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs, which could be found to be important in applications in biotechnology, biosensor and biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging and catalysis.

  15. Mahmoudian MR, Basirun WJ, Woi PM, Yousefi R, Alias Y
    Anal Bioanal Chem, 2019 Jan;411(2):517-526.
    PMID: 30498983 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-018-1476-x
    We report a green synthesis of oatmeal ZnO/silver composites in the presence of L-glutamine as an electrochemical sensor for Pb2+ detection. The synthesis was performed via the direct reduction of Ag+ in the presence of L-glutamine in NaOH. X-ray diffraction indicated that the Ag+ was completely reduced to metallic Ag. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray results confirmed an oatmeal-like morphology of the ZnO with the presence of Ag. The FESEM images showed the effect of L-glutamine on the ZnO morphology. The EIS results confirmed a significant decrease in the charge transfer resistance of the modified glassy carbon electrode due to the presence of Ag. From the differential pulse voltammetry results, a linear working range for the concentration of Pb2+ between 5 and 6 nM with LOD of 0.078 nM (S/N = 3) was obtained. The sensitivity of the linear segment is 1.42 μA nM-1 cm-2. The presence of L-glutamine as the capping agent and stabilizer decreases the size of Ag nanoparticles and prevents the agglomeration of ZnO, respectively. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
  16. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Johan MR, Rezayi M, Darroudi M, Shameli K, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2019 04;120(4):6624-6631.
    PMID: 30368873 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.27958
    In the present research, we report a greener, faster, and low-cost synthesis of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs) by different ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 molar ratio) of iron oxide and gold with natural honey (0.5% w/v) under hydrothermal conditions for 20 minutes. Honey was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs, while the TEM images showed the formation of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs with diameter range between 3.49 nm and 4.11 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were decreased in the Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs compared with the Fe3 O4 -NPs. The cytotoxicity threshold of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs in the WEHI164 cells was determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm which can become the main candidates for biological and biomedical applications, such as drug delivery.
  17. Khalil I, Julkapli NM, Yehye WA, Basirun WJ, Bhargava SK
    Materials (Basel), 2016 May 24;9(6).
    PMID: 28773528 DOI: 10.3390/ma9060406
    Graphene is a single-atom-thick two-dimensional carbon nanosheet with outstanding chemical, electrical, material, optical, and physical properties due to its large surface area, high electron mobility, thermal conductivity, and stability. These extraordinary features of graphene make it a key component for different applications in the biosensing and imaging arena. However, the use of graphene alone is correlated with certain limitations, such as irreversible self-agglomerations, less colloidal stability, poor reliability/repeatability, and non-specificity. The addition of gold nanostructures (AuNS) with graphene produces the graphene-AuNS hybrid nanocomposite which minimizes the limitations as well as providing additional synergistic properties, that is, higher effective surface area, catalytic activity, electrical conductivity, water solubility, and biocompatibility. This review focuses on the fundamental features of graphene, the multidimensional synthesis, and multipurpose applications of graphene-Au nanocomposites. The paper highlights the graphene-gold nanoparticle (AuNP) as the platform substrate for the fabrication of electrochemical and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensors in diverse applications as well as SERS-directed bio-imaging, which is considered as an emerging sector for monitoring stem cell differentiation, and detection and treatment of cancer.
  18. Sarraf M, Razak BA, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Dabbagh A, Kasim NHA, Basirun WJ, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2017 02;66:159-171.
    PMID: 27886563 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.11.012
    Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin-1. The surface topography and composition of the nanostructured coatings were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS), to gather information about the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and bioactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). From the nanoindentation experiments, the Young's modulus and hardness of the 5min anodized sample were ~ 135 and 6GPa, but increased to ~ 160 and 7.5GPa, respectively, after annealing at 450°C. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of Ti64 plates with nanotubular surface modification was higher than that of the bare substrate, where the 450°C annealed specimen revealed the highest corrosion protection efficiency (99%). Results from the SBF tests showed that a bone-like apatite layer was formed on nanotubular array coating, as early as the first day of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating the importance of nanotubular configuration on the in-vitro bioactivity.
  19. Sarraf M, Nasiri-Tabrizi B, Yeong CH, Madaah Hosseini HR, Saber-Samandari S, Basirun WJ, et al.
    Ceram Int, 2021 Feb 01;47(3):2917-2948.
    PMID: 32994658 DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.09.177
    Nanomedicine has seen a significant rise in the development of new research tools and clinically functional devices. In this regard, significant advances and new commercial applications are expected in the pharmaceutical and orthopedic industries. For advanced orthopedic implant technologies, appropriate nanoscale surface modifications are highly effective strategies and are widely studied in the literature for improving implant performance. It is well-established that implants with nanotubular surfaces show a drastic improvement in new bone creation and gene expression compared to implants without nanotopography. Nevertheless, the scientific and clinical understanding of mixed oxide nanotubes (MONs) and their potential applications, especially in biomedical applications are still in the early stages of development. This review aims to establish a credible platform for the current and future roles of MONs in nanomedicine, particularly in advanced orthopedic implants. We first introduce the concept of MONs and then discuss the preparation strategies. This is followed by a review of the recent advancement of MONs in biomedical applications, including mineralization abilities, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, cell culture, and animal testing, as well as clinical possibilities. To conclude, we propose that the combination of nanotubular surface modification with incorporating sensor allows clinicians to precisely record patient data as a critical contributor to evidence-based medicine.
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