Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 26 in total

  1. Ling K, Bastion MC
    Int Ophthalmol, 2019 Oct;39(10):2195-2203.
    PMID: 30536185 DOI: 10.1007/s10792-018-1057-1
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of topical sodium hyaluronate (SH) 0.18% treatment on corneal epithelial healing after epithelial debridement in pars plana vitrectomy in diabetic patients.

    METHOD: This is prospective and randomized clinical trial. Our study population included 30 eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy that required near total corneal debridement intra-operatively for surgical view. We compared the residual wound and wound healing rate in between 3 groups: 10 diabetic eyes (DMV) on topical SH 0.18%; 10 diabetic eyes (DMC) and 10 non-diabetic eyes (NDM) not treated with topical SH 0.18%. The corneal epithelial wound was measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 120 h after the vitrectomy surgery.

    RESULTS: DMC group had corneal wounds that reepithelialization significantly more slowly than in NDM and DMV groups at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (Mann-Whitney test p 

  2. Aniah Azmi N, Bastion MC
    Eye Contact Lens, 2020 Jan;46 Suppl 1:S25-S32.
    PMID: 31145207 DOI: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000623
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the short-term effects of topical insulin (TI) 1 unit/drop 4 times per day for 4 weeks on the symptoms and signs of diabetic with dry eye disease (DED).

    METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind interventional study, diabetics with DED aged 18 to 60 years were randomly assigned to TI or standard artificial tears (SAT). Baseline Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Schirmer I test (ST), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) score were compared 4 weeks after treatment.

    RESULTS: A total of 160 participants (involving 320 eyes) received either TI (n=80) or SAT (n=80). After 4 weeks of treatment, a significant number of participants in both TI and SAT groups showed improvement in their OSDI score, 66% and 63%, respectively (P=0.0001), but were not significantly better than each other (P=0.453). However, most participants in both groups showed worsening of ST and TBUT (P>0.05). Most of the participants in both groups showed no change in their ocular SICCA score (P>0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The study has shown a significant and similar improvement in the OSDI score for TI 1 unit/drop four times daily and SAT in treating diabetics with DED. Further research is required to understand the long-term effects of TI on the ocular surface.

  3. Azmi NA, Ahem A, Mustapha M, Bastion MC
    BMJ Case Rep, 2016 Sep 28;2016.
    PMID: 27681348 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2016-215987
    We report a case of enucleation for painful blind eye secondary to recurrent bleeding from choroidal neovascularisation in an eye that was irradiated following presumed metastatic breast carcinoma to the choroid. A 58-year-old woman with a history of treated breast malignancy presented with haemophthalmus and intractable glaucoma in the right eye. One year previously she had presented with right vitreous haemorrhage with subretinal mass that had been irradiated given her history of breast carcinoma. Following irradiation, vitrectomy was performed to clear the blood. Intraoperative and postoperative angiography findings suggested a diagnosis of breakthrough bleeding secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. At this presentation, however, the intraocular bleeding was recurrent resulting in elevated intraocular pressure and pain. Despite repeat surgery and medical therapy, the eye had to be enucleated. Histopathology showed choroidal neovascularisation.
  4. Ho FL, Salowi MA, Bastion MC
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2017 Sep-Oct;6(5):429-434.
    PMID: 28379650 DOI: 10.22608/APO.2016198
    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of postoperative eye patching on clear corneal incision architecture in phacoemulsification.

    DESIGN: A single-center, randomized controlled trial.

    METHODS: A total of 132 patients with uncomplicated phacoemulsification were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received postoperative eye patching for approximately 18 hours, whereas the control group received eye shield. The clear corneal incision architecture was examined postoperatively at 2 hours, 1 day, and 7 days after surgery using optical coherence tomography.

    RESULTS: Epithelial gaping was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the intervention group (52.4%) compared with control (74.2%) (P = 0.01). No differences were found for other architectural defects. Descemet membrane detachment was associated with lower intraocular pressure on postoperative day 7 (P = 0.02). Presence of underlying diabetes mellitus did not seem to influence architectural defects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative eye patching facilitated epithelial healing and reduced the occurrence of epithelial gaping on postoperative day 1. It may play a role in protecting and improving corneal wounds during the critical immediate postoperative period.
  5. Chow JY, Wan Norliza WM, Bastion MC
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 03;76(2):236-240.
    PMID: 33742635
    BACKGROUND: Subliminal transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (SL-TSCPC) is a new alternative therapy to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) safely and effectively. However, there are few studies regarding SL-TSCPC by Supra 810 laser machine and limited data regarding its effectiveness in moderate severity glaucoma that still has good preservation of vision. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of SL-TSPCPC in various types of glaucoma including patients with good vision.

    METHODS: A retrospective, non-comparative, analytical case series of all patients who received SL-TSCPC treatment from October 2018 to April 2019 at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang, Malaysia. Data was collected during the second week, sixth week, third month and sixth month follow-up. The primary outcome measure gave success rate at six months post-treatment. Secondary measures were changes in visual acuity, mean IOP reduction, mean number of IOP lowering medications reduced and ocular side effects noted during follow-up.

    RESULTS: The success rate was 43.8% (seven eyes out of sixteen eyes) at six months post-treatment. The mean IOP reduced from 43.0mmHg±14.8mmHg pre-treatment to 24.7mmHg±12.0mmHg at two weeks post treatment with 42.6% reduction. Subsequently, mean IOP at sixth week, third month and sixth month were 33.8mmHg±16.9mmHg, 35.2mmHg±14.9mmHg, and 29.0mmHg±16.2mmHg respectively. Vision maintained in 13 patients, two patients had improvement in vision however, five patients had deterioration in vision. No serious ocular side effects were noted.

    CONCLUSION: Subliminal TSCPC is a safe and alternative method of lowering IOP in moderate to advanced glaucoma over 6 months duration of follow-up. As it has good safety profile and repeatability, it is a good treatment option for patients with uncontrolled glaucoma.

  6. Tan SY, Bastion MC, Mohd Khialdin S
    Cureus, 2021 Jul;13(7):e16275.
    PMID: 34373823 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.16275
    Orbital metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is uncommon. Orbital tumor, as the first presentation of RCC, is rare as the majority of orbital metastases occur after a confirmed diagnosis of primary cancer. We report a case of the metastatic orbital tumor as the first manifestation of RCC, which presented with painless left eye proptosis for two months' duration, associated with blurring of vision and diplopia. Otherwise, the systemic review was unremarkable. Examination showed left eye non-axial proptosis with a pulsatile, multilobulated mass over the left supraorbital area extending to the left frontal region, limited ocular motility, and impaired optic nerve functions. CT of the orbit showed a mass arising from the left frontal and greater wing of the left sphenoid bone, with infiltration to the left lateral rectus, left superior oblique, and lacrimal gland. Further systemic investigation with CT thorax, abdomen, and pelvis revealed left RCC with para-aortic nodes, lungs, and bone metastases. The patient was planned for palliative care.
  7. Chow JY, Akhtar Ali AN, Bastion MC
    Cureus, 2021 Aug;13(8):e16985.
    PMID: 34527463 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.16985
    A 75-year-old man with underlying left eye idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease and bilateral glaucoma suspect with cup disc ratio 0.7 underwent right eye phacoemulsification. Intraoperatively, Descemet tear and Descemet membrane detachment (DMD) occurred. Pneumodescemetopexy with air bubble was performed. His vision remained counting fingers and the cornea was oedematous three weeks after the operation. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) showed extensive (80%) rhegmatogenous DMD with planar edge and a maximum of 460 micrometers separation from the stroma. Pneumodescemetopexy with low concentration perfluoropropane (10% C3F8) was performed together with postoperative positioning. On day five post-pneumodescemetopexy, his vision improved to 6/9, the cornea cleared with mild Descemet striae, and the gas bubble reduced to 30% fill. There was no DMD detected on ASOCT. His vision remained 6/9 and the residual gas bubble was 15% in the anterior chamber at two weeks post-pneumodescemetopexy. This case report suggests that pneumodescemetopexy with 10% C3F8 successfully reattached the large nonplanar rhegmatogenous DMD.
  8. Choo PP, Md Din N, Azmi N, Bastion MC
    World J Diabetes, 2021 Sep 15;12(9):1386-1400.
    PMID: 34630896 DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v12.i9.1386
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a noncommunicable disease reaching epidemic proportions around the world. It affects younger individuals, including women of childbearing age. Diabetes can cause diabetic retinopathy (DR), which is potentially sight threatening when severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR), proliferative DR (PDR), or sight-threatening diabetic macular oedema (STDME) develops. Pregnancy is an independent risk factor for the progression of DR. Baseline DR at the onset of pregnancy is an important indicator of progression, with up to 10% of women with baseline NPDR progressing to PDR. Progression to sight-threatening DR (STDR) during pregnancy causes distress to the patient and often necessitates ocular treatment, which may have a systemic effect. Management includes prepregnancy counselling and, when possible, conventional treatment prior to pregnancy. During pregnancy, closer follow-up is required for those with a long duration of DM, poor baseline control of blood sugar and blood pressure, and worse DR, as these are risk factors for progression to STDR. Conventional treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents for STDME can potentially lead to foetal loss. Treatment with laser photocoagulation may be preferred, and surgery under general anaesthesia should be avoided. This review provides a management plan for STDR from the perspective of practising ophthalmologists. A review of strategies for maintaining the eyesight of diabetic women with STDR with emphasis on prepregnancy counselling and planning, monitoring and safe treatment during pregnancy, and management of complications is presented.
  9. Goh WN, Mustapha M, Zakaria SZS, Bastion MC
    Indian J Ophthalmol, 2022 08;70(8):3026-3032.
    PMID: 35918966 DOI: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_3198_21
    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of laser vitreolysis in terms of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and vision-related quality of life (VRQol) for symptomatic floaters due to posterior vitreous detachment (PVD).

    Materials: This is an interventional study that involved 57 eyes of 45 patients with symptomatic floaters for more than 3 months. Patients underwent one to three sessions of vitreolysis via Neodymiun-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. We examined the CSF using the computer programs Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT) and VRQoL survey using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) before, and 1 month after, vitreolysis.

    Results: Twelve patients had both eyes lasered and 33 patients had one eye lasered. The mean CSF improved from 3.20 ± 0.85%W to 2.64 ± 0.63%W 1 month after vitreolysis. Each use of the laser showed a significant mean difference in CSF (%W) as analyzed by paired t-test before and after the first laser (0.29 ± 0.49%W [P ≤ 0.001]); after the first and second laser (0.35 ± 0.53%W [P = 0.01]); and after second and third laser (0.21 ± 0.31%W [P = 0.02]). There was improvement in the median of four subscales in NEI VFQ-25 scores post treatment: general vision (z = -3.30, P = 0.001), near activity (z = 3.396, P = 0.001, distance activity (z = -2.788, P = 0.005), and mental health (z = -2.219, P = 0.026). The mean scores increased to 79.55 ± 9.45 from the baseline 75.06 ± 9.69 (P ≤ 0.001). No adverse events were recorded 1 month after the laser treatments.

    Conclusion: Vitreolysis by Nd:YAG laser improved the CFS and VRQoL in symptomatic PVD patients.

  10. Wai Wye NH, Naffi AA, Othman O, Bastion MC
    Cureus, 2021 Oct;13(10):e18700.
    PMID: 34790457 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.18700
    Craniopharyngioma is a rare and benign sellar and suprasellar region tumour. It rarely manifests during pregnancy. We report a 32-year-old primigravida at 19 weeks of gestation with a craniopharyngioma, presenting with visual disturbances during pregnancy. Her vision was 6/9 OD and counting fingers OS with a relative afferent pupillary defect in the left eye. Fundi were normal bilaterally. Visual field testing showed a nasal field defect OD and generalized depression OS. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar tumour with chiasmatic compression. Craniotomy and excision of the tumour were done at 20 weeks of gestation. Histopathological examination was consistent with craniopharyngioma. Postoperatively, mother and foetus were stable. Vision improved from counting fingers to 6/6 OS and remained at 6/9 OD. Subsequently, she delivered a healthy baby at term. Such rare and difficult cases warrant close multidisciplinary cooperation pre- and post-operatively to attain optimal outcomes for both mother and baby. By optimizing the patient's medical condition, risks of complications may be reduced. A poor pre-operative vision should also not deter surgical intervention as a proven good visual outcome is achievable.
  11. Teoh LS, Foo SW, Mansurali VN, Ang EL, Md Noh UK, Bastion MC
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2017 Jul-Aug;6(4):318-325.
    PMID: 28581284 DOI: 10.22608/APO.2016206
    PURPOSE: To study the effects of intracameral phenylephrine 1.5% on corneal endothelial cell loss and morphological changes in patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification surgery.

    DESIGN: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    METHODS: This study comprised 295 patients who were randomized into the intracameral (ICM) mydriatic group or topical mydriatic group. Central corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation (CV), and percentage of hexagonal cells were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 3 months with specular microscope.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in endothelial cell density and endothelial cell loss between the topical and ICM mydriatic groups. At 3 months, the mean endothelial cell density in the ICM group was 2129.76 ± 423.53 cells/mm2 and 2100.54 ± 393.00 cells/mm2 in the topical group (P = 0.539). The endothelial cell loss was 18.60 ± 12.79% in the IC M group and 19.44 ± 11.24% in the topical group (P = 0.550). No significant difference was seen in the percentage of hexagonal cells and coefficient of variation of patients between the 2 groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Intracameral phenylephrine was not associated with increased risk of postoperative endothelial cell loss or morphological changes. It can be safely injected into the anterior chamber for pupil dilatation before phacoemulsification cataract surgery.
  12. Mustapha M, Abdollah Z, Ahem A, Mohd Isa H, Bastion MC, Din NM
    Int J Ophthalmol, 2018;11(9):1573-1576.
    PMID: 30225238 DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2018.09.25
  13. Fai S, Ahem A, Mustapha M, Mohd Noh UK, Bastion MC
    Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila), 2017 Sep-Oct;6(5):418-424.
    PMID: 28828764 DOI: 10.22608/APO.201780
    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of topical insulin of 3 concentrations [0.5, 1, and 2 units per drop 4 times per day (QID)] on postoperative corneal epithelial wound healing in diabetic patients.

    DESIGN: A double blind randomized controlled hospital-based study involving diabetic patients with postoperative corneal epithelial defect after vitreoretinal surgery.

    METHODS: Diabetic patients were randomized to 3 different concentrations of topical insulin (DTI 0.5, DTI 1, and DTI 2) or placebo in the control group (DNS). Primary outcome measure was the rate of corneal epithelial wound healing (mm² per hour) over pre-set interval and time from baseline to minimum size of epithelial defect on fluorescein stained anterior segment digital camera photography. Secondary outcome measure was any adverse effect of topical insulin. Follow-up was 1 month.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients undergoing intraoperative corneal debridement with resultant epithelial defect (8 eyes per group) were analyzed. DTI 0.5 was superior to other concentrations achieving 100% healing rate within 72 hours of treatment compared with 62.5% in DNS, 75% in DTI 1, and 62.5% in DTI 2. Statistically, DTI 0.5 achieved significant results (P = 0.036) compared with the diabetic control group (DNS) in terms of mean rate of corneal epithelial wound healing from maximum to minimum defect size. No adverse effect of topical insulin was reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Topical insulin 0.5 units QID is most effective for healing corneal epithelial defect in diabetic patients after vitrectomy surgery compared with placebo and higher concentrations. Topical insulin is safe for human ocular usage.
  14. Abu Talib DN, Yong MH, Nasaruddin RA, Che-Hamzah J, Bastion MC
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Apr 09;100(14):e25459.
    PMID: 33832156 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025459
    RATIONALE: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is a sight-threatening complication of systemic fungemia. As the prevalence rises, treatment remains a challenge especially when there is a failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus. This case report studies a case of chronic EFE, focusing on the diagnostic procedures, treatment options, monitoring parameters and the treatment outcome.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.

    DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.

    INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.

    OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.

    LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.

  15. Loh CC, Kamaruddin H, Bastion MC, Husain R, Mohd Isa H, Md Din N
    Ophthalmic Res, 2021;64(2):246-252.
    PMID: 32810853 DOI: 10.1159/000510925
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the refractive status and ocular biometric parameters in subjects with angle closure in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 171 primary angle closure patients (268 eyes). Visual acuity, refraction, and ocular biometry (central anterior chamber depth [ACD], axial length [AL], and lens thickness) were recorded. Vitreous cavity length (VL) and relative lens position (RLP) were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 92 Primary Angle Closure Suspect (PACS), 30 Primary Angle Closure (PAC), and 146 Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) eyes were included. Chinese ethnicity formed the majority (n = 197, 73.5%), followed by Malay (n = 57, 21.3%) and Indian (n = 14, 5.2%). There was a significant female preponderance with a female to male ratio of 1.85. Mean age was 65.7 ± 7.7 years. Mean spherical equivalent was +0.33 ± 1.29 D. Approximately half (n = 137, 51%) of the eyes were hyperopic (spherical power ≥+0.5), with PACG having the highest percentage of hyperopia (n = 69, 50.4%). Myopia and emmetropia were present in 48 (17.9) and 83 (31%) eyes, respectively. Although AL and VL in myopia patients were significantly longer than emmetropic and hyperopic eyes (p < 0.001), the ACD was not significantly different (p = 0.427). While the RLP is smaller in myopic eyes, lens thickness was increased in hyperopic eyes. PACG was significantly higher in elderly patients compared to PACS and PAC (p = 0.005). A total of 37 (13.8%) eyes were blind (vision worse than 3/60) and 19 of them (51.3%) were female patients.

    CONCLUSION: A decrease in RLP is predictive of angle closure disease in myopic eyes, whereas increased lens thickness contributes to angle closure disease in hyperopic eyes.

  16. Thiagarajan D, Teh DAL, Ahmad Tarmidzi NA, Ishak H, Abu Bakar Z, Bastion MC
    PMID: 34667620 DOI: 10.1186/s40794-021-00153-3
    Background: Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) is paucibacillary, making its diagnosis difficult based on laboratory investigations alone. We present a case of a patient with a TPE who was initially misdiagnosed to have azathioprine-induced lung injury. The diagnosis of TPE was arrived at with the help of clinical assessment, laboratory and radiological investigations.

    Case presentation: A 25-year-old chronic smoker with sympathetic ophthalmia on long-term immunosuppression, latent tuberculosis infection and a significant family history of tuberculosis presented with a three-week history of productive cough, low-grade fever, night sweats and weight loss. Examination of the lungs showed reduced breath sounds at the right lower zone. Chest x-ray showed minimal right pleural effusion with a small area of right upper lobe consolidation. The pleural fluid was exudative with predominant mononuclear leukocytes. Direct smears of sputum and pleural fluid; polymerase chain reaction of pleural fluid; and sputum, pleural fluid and blood cultures were negative for M. tuberculosis (MTB) and other organisms. As he did not respond to a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, he was then treated as a case of azathioprine-induced lung injury. However, his condition did not improve despite the cessation of azathioprine. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax showed right upper lobe consolidation with tree-in-bud changes, bilateral lung atelectasis, subpleural nodule, mild right pleural effusion and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoalveolar lavage was negative for malignant cells and microorganisms including, MTB. However, no pleural biopsy was done. He was empirically treated with anti-tubercular therapy for 9 months duration and showed complete recovery.

    Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for TPE is required in individuals with immunosuppression living in regions endemic to tuberculosis. Targeted investigations and sound clinical judgement allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation to prevent morbidity and mortality.

  17. Ahmad Tarmizi NN, Bastion MC, Abdul Aziz RA, Md Din N, Mohd Khialdin S
    Cureus, 2021 Aug;13(8):e17620.
    PMID: 34646671 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.17620
    The aim of this study is to report an unusual case of retinal racemose haemangioma (RRH) in a child resulting in optic neuropathy and its optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) findings. This is a retrospective case report. For almost a year, a 13-year-old girl experienced gradual, painless, generalized blurred vision in her right eye. Visual acuity was 6/60 with a positive relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) in her right eye. The right-eye fundus showed enlarged and tortuous retinal vessels extending from the optic disc to all four quadrants, including the juxta foveal region. OCT analysis revealed distortion in the region of enlarged vessels with minimal retinal fluid while OCT-A of the macula area demonstrated dilated and tortuous vessels in the superficial layers of the retina. Right intra-orbital vascular channels surrounding the optic nerve with optic nerve atrophy and gliosis were detected on magnetic resonance imaging angiography/venography (MRA/MRV). The cerebral angiogram reported an abnormal tangle of small vessels within the right orbit that received supply from a dilated right ophthalmic artery indicating the presence of retro-orbital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). She was then referred to the neurosurgeon and a decision was made not to embolize or resect the dilated vessel as this might lead to occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and thus worsen her vision. RRH may present in the paediatric age group, and optic nerve atrophy is one of the disease manifestations. OCT-A is a less invasive diagnostic option compared to fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) for diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression.
  18. Teh SW, Mok PL, Abd Rashid M, Bastion MC, Ibrahim N, Higuchi A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Feb 13;19(2).
    PMID: 29438279 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020558
    Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.
  19. Cheng TC, Yahya MFN, Mohd Naffi AA, Othman O, Seng Fai T, Yong MH, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 01;32(7):2285-2291.
    PMID: 33770023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007645
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the satisfaction of surgeons and trainees with three-dimensional (3D) ophthalmic surgery during a demonstration compared to traditional surgery.

    METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.

    RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).

    CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.

  20. Lam C, Alsaeedi HA, Koh AE, Harun MHN, Hwei ANM, Mok PL, et al.
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2021 02;18(1):143-154.
    PMID: 33415670 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-020-00312-1
    BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used to inject stem cells into the eye for research. We previously explored the intravitreal route. Here, we investigate the efficacy of intravenous and subretinal-transplanted human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in rescuing the photoreceptors of a sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration model.

    METHODS: Three groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used: intervention, vehicle group and negative control groups (n = 6 in each). Intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg sodium iodate (day 0) induced retinal degeneration. On day 4 post-injection of sodium iodate, the rats in the intervention group received intravenous DPSC and subretinal DPSC in the right eye; rats in the vehicle group received subretinal Hank's balance salt solution and intravenous normal saline; while negative control group received nothing. Electroretinogram (ERG) was performed to assess the retinal function at day 0 (baseline), day 4, day 11, day 18, day 26, and day 32. By the end of the study at day 32, the rats were euthanized, and both their enucleated eyes were sent for histology.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in maximal ERG a-wave (p = 0.107) and b-wave, (p = 0.153) amplitude was seen amongst the experimental groups. However, photopic 30 Hz flicker amplitude of the study eye showed significant differences in the 3 groups (p = 0.032). Within the intervention group, there was an improvement in 30 Hz flicker ERG response of all 6 treated right eyes, which was injected with subretinal DPSC; while the 30 Hz flicker ERG of the non-treated left eyes remained flat. Histology showed improved outer nuclear layer thickness in intervention group; however, findings were not significant compared to the negative and vehicle groups.

    CONCLUSION: Combination of subretinal and intravenous injection of DPSCs may have potential to rescue cone function from a NaIO3-induced retinal injury model.

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