METHOD: This is prospective and randomized clinical trial. Our study population included 30 eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy that required near total corneal debridement intra-operatively for surgical view. We compared the residual wound and wound healing rate in between 3 groups: 10 diabetic eyes (DMV) on topical SH 0.18%; 10 diabetic eyes (DMC) and 10 non-diabetic eyes (NDM) not treated with topical SH 0.18%. The corneal epithelial wound was measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 120 h after the vitrectomy surgery.
RESULTS: DMC group had corneal wounds that reepithelialization significantly more slowly than in NDM and DMV groups at 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (Mann-Whitney test p
METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind interventional study, diabetics with DED aged 18 to 60 years were randomly assigned to TI or standard artificial tears (SAT). Baseline Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Schirmer I test (ST), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular Sjögren's International Collaborative Clinical Alliance (SICCA) score were compared 4 weeks after treatment.
RESULTS: A total of 160 participants (involving 320 eyes) received either TI (n=80) or SAT (n=80). After 4 weeks of treatment, a significant number of participants in both TI and SAT groups showed improvement in their OSDI score, 66% and 63%, respectively (P=0.0001), but were not significantly better than each other (P=0.453). However, most participants in both groups showed worsening of ST and TBUT (P>0.05). Most of the participants in both groups showed no change in their ocular SICCA score (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION: The study has shown a significant and similar improvement in the OSDI score for TI 1 unit/drop four times daily and SAT in treating diabetics with DED. Further research is required to understand the long-term effects of TI on the ocular surface.
METHODS: A retrospective, non-comparative, analytical case series of all patients who received SL-TSCPC treatment from October 2018 to April 2019 at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang, Malaysia. Data was collected during the second week, sixth week, third month and sixth month follow-up. The primary outcome measure gave success rate at six months post-treatment. Secondary measures were changes in visual acuity, mean IOP reduction, mean number of IOP lowering medications reduced and ocular side effects noted during follow-up.
RESULTS: The success rate was 43.8% (seven eyes out of sixteen eyes) at six months post-treatment. The mean IOP reduced from 43.0mmHg±14.8mmHg pre-treatment to 24.7mmHg±12.0mmHg at two weeks post treatment with 42.6% reduction. Subsequently, mean IOP at sixth week, third month and sixth month were 33.8mmHg±16.9mmHg, 35.2mmHg±14.9mmHg, and 29.0mmHg±16.2mmHg respectively. Vision maintained in 13 patients, two patients had improvement in vision however, five patients had deterioration in vision. No serious ocular side effects were noted.
CONCLUSION: Subliminal TSCPC is a safe and alternative method of lowering IOP in moderate to advanced glaucoma over 6 months duration of follow-up. As it has good safety profile and repeatability, it is a good treatment option for patients with uncontrolled glaucoma.
Materials: This is an interventional study that involved 57 eyes of 45 patients with symptomatic floaters for more than 3 months. Patients underwent one to three sessions of vitreolysis via Neodymiun-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. We examined the CSF using the computer programs Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT) and VRQoL survey using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) before, and 1 month after, vitreolysis.
Results: Twelve patients had both eyes lasered and 33 patients had one eye lasered. The mean CSF improved from 3.20 ± 0.85%W to 2.64 ± 0.63%W 1 month after vitreolysis. Each use of the laser showed a significant mean difference in CSF (%W) as analyzed by paired t-test before and after the first laser (0.29 ± 0.49%W [P ≤ 0.001]); after the first and second laser (0.35 ± 0.53%W [P = 0.01]); and after second and third laser (0.21 ± 0.31%W [P = 0.02]). There was improvement in the median of four subscales in NEI VFQ-25 scores post treatment: general vision (z = -3.30, P = 0.001), near activity (z = 3.396, P = 0.001, distance activity (z = -2.788, P = 0.005), and mental health (z = -2.219, P = 0.026). The mean scores increased to 79.55 ± 9.45 from the baseline 75.06 ± 9.69 (P ≤ 0.001). No adverse events were recorded 1 month after the laser treatments.
Conclusion: Vitreolysis by Nd:YAG laser improved the CFS and VRQoL in symptomatic PVD patients.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.
DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.
INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.
OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.
LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 171 primary angle closure patients (268 eyes). Visual acuity, refraction, and ocular biometry (central anterior chamber depth [ACD], axial length [AL], and lens thickness) were recorded. Vitreous cavity length (VL) and relative lens position (RLP) were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 92 Primary Angle Closure Suspect (PACS), 30 Primary Angle Closure (PAC), and 146 Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma (PACG) eyes were included. Chinese ethnicity formed the majority (n = 197, 73.5%), followed by Malay (n = 57, 21.3%) and Indian (n = 14, 5.2%). There was a significant female preponderance with a female to male ratio of 1.85. Mean age was 65.7 ± 7.7 years. Mean spherical equivalent was +0.33 ± 1.29 D. Approximately half (n = 137, 51%) of the eyes were hyperopic (spherical power ≥+0.5), with PACG having the highest percentage of hyperopia (n = 69, 50.4%). Myopia and emmetropia were present in 48 (17.9) and 83 (31%) eyes, respectively. Although AL and VL in myopia patients were significantly longer than emmetropic and hyperopic eyes (p < 0.001), the ACD was not significantly different (p = 0.427). While the RLP is smaller in myopic eyes, lens thickness was increased in hyperopic eyes. PACG was significantly higher in elderly patients compared to PACS and PAC (p = 0.005). A total of 37 (13.8%) eyes were blind (vision worse than 3/60) and 19 of them (51.3%) were female patients.
CONCLUSION: A decrease in RLP is predictive of angle closure disease in myopic eyes, whereas increased lens thickness contributes to angle closure disease in hyperopic eyes.
Case presentation: A 25-year-old chronic smoker with sympathetic ophthalmia on long-term immunosuppression, latent tuberculosis infection and a significant family history of tuberculosis presented with a three-week history of productive cough, low-grade fever, night sweats and weight loss. Examination of the lungs showed reduced breath sounds at the right lower zone. Chest x-ray showed minimal right pleural effusion with a small area of right upper lobe consolidation. The pleural fluid was exudative with predominant mononuclear leukocytes. Direct smears of sputum and pleural fluid; polymerase chain reaction of pleural fluid; and sputum, pleural fluid and blood cultures were negative for M. tuberculosis (MTB) and other organisms. As he did not respond to a course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, he was then treated as a case of azathioprine-induced lung injury. However, his condition did not improve despite the cessation of azathioprine. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax showed right upper lobe consolidation with tree-in-bud changes, bilateral lung atelectasis, subpleural nodule, mild right pleural effusion and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoalveolar lavage was negative for malignant cells and microorganisms including, MTB. However, no pleural biopsy was done. He was empirically treated with anti-tubercular therapy for 9 months duration and showed complete recovery.
Conclusion: A high index of suspicion for TPE is required in individuals with immunosuppression living in regions endemic to tuberculosis. Targeted investigations and sound clinical judgement allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation to prevent morbidity and mortality.
METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.
RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.
METHODS: Three groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used: intervention, vehicle group and negative control groups (n = 6 in each). Intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg sodium iodate (day 0) induced retinal degeneration. On day 4 post-injection of sodium iodate, the rats in the intervention group received intravenous DPSC and subretinal DPSC in the right eye; rats in the vehicle group received subretinal Hank's balance salt solution and intravenous normal saline; while negative control group received nothing. Electroretinogram (ERG) was performed to assess the retinal function at day 0 (baseline), day 4, day 11, day 18, day 26, and day 32. By the end of the study at day 32, the rats were euthanized, and both their enucleated eyes were sent for histology.
RESULTS: No significant difference in maximal ERG a-wave (p = 0.107) and b-wave, (p = 0.153) amplitude was seen amongst the experimental groups. However, photopic 30 Hz flicker amplitude of the study eye showed significant differences in the 3 groups (p = 0.032). Within the intervention group, there was an improvement in 30 Hz flicker ERG response of all 6 treated right eyes, which was injected with subretinal DPSC; while the 30 Hz flicker ERG of the non-treated left eyes remained flat. Histology showed improved outer nuclear layer thickness in intervention group; however, findings were not significant compared to the negative and vehicle groups.
CONCLUSION: Combination of subretinal and intravenous injection of DPSCs may have potential to rescue cone function from a NaIO3-induced retinal injury model.