Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination for protection against tuberculosis has been in use for long. Although the vaccine is safe, its administration can result in complications such as BCG adenitis. We report here a series of children with BCG adenitis with a view to recognise and manage this condition. It is hoped that this case series would encourage the increased identification of this condition.
Study site: Paediatric Surgical Unit, Department of Surgery, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
The administration of intrapleural streptokinase (IPSK) is widely practiced in the management of loculated empyema thoracis. To our knowledge, there have been only 4 cases of hemorrhagic complications attributed to the administration of IPSK reported in the literature. In this article, we report a case of a 17-year-old girl who received IPSK and developed shock, anemia, coagulopathy and massive hemothorax. Our discussion focuses on the hemorrhagic complication of chest tube insertion and the role of IPSK in blood clot lysis and inhibition of local hemostasis.
Ventriculostomy or external ventricular drain (EVD) placement by free-hand technique has a high malplacement rate. It is a blind procedure that often requires multiple attempts and revisions. To date, no neurological complication due to EVD malplacement has been reported in the literature. In this report, we present the first case of coma induced by a malplaced EVD and the patient regained consciousness after the drain was adjusted. Our discussion focused on various techniques that can improve the accuracy of EVD insertion. EVD insertion under image guidance provides better accuracy with limited disadvantages. We hypothesized that the patient's coma was due to the mass effect and irritation of the malplaced EVD exerted onto the ventral periaqueductal grey matter and the ascending neurons from upper brainstem.
The best management of asymptomatic carotid artery disease in patient who needs coronary bypass remains controversial. We report the neurological outcome of four patients with asymptomatic unilateral significant carotid artery disease who underwent conventional coronary bypass without carotid revascularization. Our review highlighted the risk of perioperative stroke is not increased despite carotid revascularization was not performed. Asymptomatic carotid artery disease is not the cause for cerebral infarct but soft aortic atheroma encountered during surgery is the main culprit.
Very limited data are available on the Helicobacter pylori infection among the population of interior Borneo. We aimed to investigate the H. pylori infection rate among an endoscoped interior Borneo population and to report the differences between the infected and noninfected patients.
Paratesticular liposarcoma is a rare entity. Compared to other genitourinary sarcoma, it is usually detected earlier and is easily resectable, resulting in an excellent prognosis. The recurrence of well-differentiated paratesticular liposarcoma after complete resection is extremely rare. Optimal management of the tumour recurrence includes complete re-excision and radiotherapy to the area of recurrence. Here, we describe a 48-year-old man with a recurrent left paratesticular well-differentiated liposarcoma, six years after its complete excision. Our discussion focused on the therapeutic strategy to prevent tumour recurrence. It is hoped that this case discussion can increase the awareness of this condition and assist in its management.
Wild banana (Musa acuminata subsp. microcarpa) seed phytobezoar rectal impaction in adult is a rare entity. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with dementia who presented with lower abdominal pain, per-rectal bleeding and overflow faecal incontinence. Our investigation discovered a large wild banana seed phytobezoar impacted in the rectum causing intestinal obstruction, stercoral ulcer and faecal overflow incontinence. In this article, we discuss the patient's clinical findings, imaging and management. The culprit plant was identified and depicted. This may be the first report of its kind. Public consumption of these wild bananas should be curtailed. It is hoped that this report would increase the awareness of such condition and its identification.
Subhepatically located caecum and appendix is a very rare entity. It occurs due to the anomaly in fetal gut rotation that results in an incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestine. Appendicitis, which is a common surgical emergency, in combination with the abnormal subhepatic location, presents a great challenge in its diagnosis and management. Here, we describe a 42-year-old male with chronic dyspepsia who presented with sepsis and severe pain at his right hypochondriac and epigastric region. The final diagnosis was acute appendicitis of the subhepatic appendix. Our discussion focuses on the diagnostic approach and clinical and surgical management. We hope that our report will increase the awareness among the clinicians and hasten the management of such rare condition to avoid complications.