Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 115 in total

  1. Lazim, S. S. R. M., Nawi, N. M., Rasli, A. M. M., Chen, G., Jensen, T.
    The influence of different data pre-processing methods (smoothing by moving average (MA),
    multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), Savitzky-Golay (SG), standard normal variate (SNV)
    and mean normalization (MN) on the prediction of sugar content from sugarcane samples was
    investigated. The performance of these pre-processing methods was evaluated using spectral
    data collected from 292 sugarcane internode samples using a visible-shortwave near infrared
    spectroradiometer (VNIRS). Partial least square (PLS) method was applied to develop both
    calibration and prediction models for the samples. If no pre-processing method was applied,
    the coefficient of determination (R2) values for both reflectance and absorbance data were 0.81
    and 0.86 respectively. The highest prediction accuracy values were obtained when the data was
    treated with MSC method, where the R2 values for reflectance and absorbance being 0.85 and
    0.87, respectively. From this study, it was concluded that pre-processing can improve the model
    performances where MSC method was found to give the highest prediction accuracy value.
  2. Onwude DI, Hashim N, Abdan K, Janius R, Chen G
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Mar;98(4):1310-1324.
    PMID: 28758207 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8595
    BACKGROUND: Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying.

    RESULTS: The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95.

    CONCLUSION: Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Nawi NM, Yahya A, Chen G, Bockari-Gevao SM, Maraseni TN
    J Agric Saf Health, 2012 Jan;18(1):45-56.
    PMID: 22458015
    A study was undertaken to evaluate the human energy consumption of various field operations involved in lowland rice cultivation in Malaysia. Based on recorded average heart rates, fertilizing was found to be the most strenuous operation, with an average heart rate of 138 beats min(-1). There were no significant differences in the average heart rates of the subjects among the individual tasks within the first plowing, second plowing, and harvesting operations, with the average heart rates for these three tasks being 116, 106, and 106 beats min(-1), respectively. The corresponding energy expenditures were 3.90, 3.43, and 3.35 kcal min(-1). Loading the seed into the blower tank and broadcasting the seed were the most critical tasks for the seed broadcasting operation, with average heart rates of 124 and 136 beats min(-1), respectively. The highest energy expenditure of 418.38 kcal ha(-1) was observed for seed broadcasting, and the lowest energy expenditure of 127.96 kcal ha(-1) was for second plowing. The total seasonal human energy expenditure for rice cultivation was estimated to be 5810.71 kcal ha(-1), 55.7% of which was spent on pesticide spraying. Although the sample size in this study was relatively small, the results indicated that human energy expenditure per unit area (kcal ha(-1)) was positively linked to the average heart rate of the subjects and negatively linked to the field capacity. Thus, mechanization of certain tasks could decrease worker physical effort and fatigue and increase production.
  4. Tso CP, Hor CH, Chen GM, Kok CK
    Heliyon, 2018 Dec;4(12):e01085.
    PMID: 30627676 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01085
    The synovial fluid motion in an artificial hip joint is important in understanding the thermo-fluids effects that can affect the reliability of the joint, although it is difficult to be studied theoretically, as the modelling involves the viscous fluid interacting with a moving surface. A new analytical solution has been derived for the maximum induced fluid motion within a spherical gap with an oscillating lower surface and a stationary upper surface, assuming one-dimensional incompressible laminar Newtonian flow with constant properties, and using the Navier-Stokes equation. The resulting time-dependent motion is analysed in terms of two dimensionless parameters R and β, which are functions of geometry, fluid properties and the oscillation rate. The model is then applied to the conditions of the synovial fluid enclosed in the artificial hip joint and it is found that the motion may be described by a simpler velocity variation, whereby laying the foundation to thermal studies in the joint.
  5. Wang Y, Chen G, Liang J, Zou Y, Wen X, Liao X, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Dec;22(23):18469-76.
    PMID: 26278905 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5170-7
    Using manure collected from swine fed with diet containing antibiotics and antibiotic-free swine manure spiked with antibiotics are the two common methods of studying the degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotic in manure in the environment. However, few studies had been conducted to co-compare these two different antibiotic addition methods. This study used oxytetracycline (OTC) as a model antibiotic to study antibiotic degradation behavior in manure under the above two OTC addition methods. In addition, the role of microorganisms present in the manure on degradation behavior was also examined. The results showed that degradation half-life of OTC in manure from swine fed OTC (9.04 days) was significantly shorter than that of the manure directly treated with OTC (9.65 days). Concentration of 4-epi-OTC in manure from swine fed OTC peaked earlier than that in manure spiked with OTC, and the degradation rates of 4-epi-OTC and α-apo-OTC in the manure from swine fed OTC were faster, but the peak concentrations were lower, than those in manure spiked with OTC. Bacterial diversity and relative abundance of Bacillus cereus data demonstrated that sterilization of the manure before experiment significantly decreased OTC degradation rate in both of the addition methods. Results of the present study demonstrated that the presence of the metabolites (especially 4-epi-OTC) and microorganisms had significant influence on OTC degradation.
  6. Chen G, Zhou W, Guan D, Sunarso J, Zhu Y, Hu X, et al.
    Sci Adv, 2017 06;3(6):e1603206.
    PMID: 28691090 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1603206
    Perovskite oxides exhibit potential for use as electrocatalysts in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, their low specific surface area is the main obstacle to realizing a high mass-specific activity that is required to be competitive against the state-of-the-art precious metal-based catalysts. We report the enhanced performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) for the OER with intrinsic activity that is significantly higher than that of the benchmark IrO2, and this result was achieved via fabrication of an amorphous BSCF nanofilm on a surface-oxidized nickel substrate by magnetron sputtering. The surface nickel oxide layer of the Ni substrate and the thickness of the BSCF film were further used to tune the intrinsic OER activity and stability of the BSCF catalyst by optimizing the electronic configuration of the transition metal cations in BSCF via the interaction between the nanofilm and the surface nickel oxide, which enables up to 315-fold enhanced mass-specific activity compared to the crystalline BSCF bulk phase. Moreover, the amorphous BSCF-Ni foam anode coupled with the Pt-Ni foam cathode demonstrated an attractive small overpotential of 0.34 V at 10 mA cm-2 for water electrolysis, with a BSCF loading as low as 154.8 μg cm-2.
  7. Sun H, Chen G, Sunarso J, Dai J, Zhou W, Shao Z
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 May 23;10(20):16939-16942.
    PMID: 29741862 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b03702
    An abundant, highly active, and durable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst is an enabling component for a more sustainable energy future. We report, herein, a molybdenum and niobium codoped B-site-ordered double perovskite oxide with a compositional formula of Ba2CoMo0.5Nb0.5O6-δ (BCMN) as an active and robust catalyst for OER in an alkaline electrolyte. BCMN displayed a low overpotential of 445 mA at a current density of 10 mA cm-2disk. BCMN also showed long-term stability in an alkaline medium. This work hints toward the possibility of combining a codoping approach with double perovskite structure formation to achieve significant enhancement in the OER performance.
  8. Hu T, Qiu W, He B, Zhang Y, Yu J, Liang X, et al.
    BMC Microbiol., 2014;14:293.
    PMID: 25433675 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-014-0293-4
    In recent years novel human respiratory disease agents have been described for Southeast Asia and Australia. The causative pathogens were classified as pteropine orthoreoviruses with a strong phylogenetic relationship to orthoreoviruses of bat origin.
  9. Shan L, Kadhum AAH, Al-Furjan MSH, Weng W, Gong Y, Cheng K, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Mar 10;12(5).
    PMID: 30857349 DOI: 10.3390/ma12050815
    It is well known that three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technology used to produce customized implants and surface characteristics of implants, strongly deciding their osseointegration ability. In this study, Ti alloy microspheres were printed under selected rational printing parameters in order to tailor the surface micro-characteristics of the printed implants during additive manufacturing by an in situ, controlled way. The laser path and hatching space were responsible for the appearance of the stripy structure (S), while the bulbous structure (B) and bulbous⁻stripy composite surface (BS) were determined by contour scanning. A nano-sized structure could be superposed by hydrothermal treatment. The cytocompatibility was evaluated by culturing Mouse calvaria-derived preosteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). The results showed that three typical microstructured surfaces, S, B, and BS, could be achieved by varying the 3D printing parameters. Moreover, the osteogenic differentiation potential of the S, B, and BS surfaces could be significantly enhanced, and the addition of nano-sized structures could be further improved. The BS surface with nano-sized structure demonstrated the optimum osteogenic differentiation potential. The present research demonstrated an in situ, controlled way to tailor and optimize the surface structures in micro-size during the 3D printing process for an implant with higher osseointegration ability.
  10. Sun Y, Chen G, Wang L, Li N, Srisurapanont M, Hong JP, et al.
    Front Psychiatry, 2019;10:321.
    PMID: 31156476 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00321
    Stigma of major depressive disorder (MDD) is an important public health problem. This study aimed to examine the level of perceived stigma and its associated factors in MDD patients in five Asian countries, including China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. A total of 547 outpatients with MDD were included from Asian countries. We used the stigma scale of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to assess stigma. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to assess symptoms, clinical features, functional impairment, health status, and social support. The stigma scores of patients under 55 years old were significantly higher than those equal to or greater than 55 years old (P < 0.001). The stigma scores exhibited significant negative correlation with age; MSPSS scores of family, friends, and others; and SF-36 subscale of mental health, but significant positive correlation with MADRS, FSS, SDS, and SCL-90-R subscale scores of depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, psychoticism, and somatization. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age, SCL-90-R interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, psychoticism, MSPSS scores of friends and others, and SF-36 of mental health were significantly associated with the level of perceived stigma. These findings suggest that MDD patients who are young, have a high degree of interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism, have low health-related quality of life, and have low social support are the target population for stigma interventions in Asia.
  11. Gurr GM, Lu Z, Zheng X, Xu H, Zhu P, Chen G, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2016 02 22;2:16014.
    PMID: 27249349 DOI: 10.1038/nplants.2016.14
    Global food security requires increased crop productivity to meet escalating demand(1-3). Current food production systems are heavily dependent on synthetic inputs that threaten the environment and human well-being(2,4,5). Biodiversity, for instance, is key to the provision of ecosystem services such as pest control(6,7), but is eroded in conventional agricultural systems. Yet the conservation and reinstatement of biodiversity is challenging(5,8,9), and it remains unclear whether the promotion of biodiversity can reduce reliance on inputs without penalizing yields on a regional scale. Here we present results from multi-site field studies replicated in Thailand, China and Vietnam over a period of four years, in which we grew nectar-producing plants around rice fields, and monitored levels of pest infestation, insecticide use and yields. Compiling the data from all sites, we report that this inexpensive intervention significantly reduced populations of two key pests, reduced insecticide applications by 70%, increased grain yields by 5% and delivered an economic advantage of 7.5%. Additional field studies showed that predators and parasitoids of the main rice pests, together with detritivores, were more abundant in the presence of nectar-producing plants. We conclude that a simple diversification approach, in this case the growth of nectar-producing plants, can contribute to the ecological intensification of agricultural systems.
  12. Cheng J, Wang Y, Hou J, Luo D, Xie Q, Ning Q, et al.
    J. Clin. Virol., 2014 Dec;61(4):509-16.
    PMID: 25200354 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2014.08.008
    In mainland China, peginterferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2b 1.0μg/kg/wk for 24 weeks is the approved treatment for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B.
  13. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017 Mar 24;118(12):122301.
    PMID: 28388204 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.122301
    Charge-dependent azimuthal particle correlations with respect to the second-order event plane in p-Pb and PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV have been studied with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement is performed with a three-particle correlation technique, using two particles with the same or opposite charge within the pseudorapidity range |η|<2.4, and a third particle measured in the hadron forward calorimeters (4.4
  14. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(2):92.
    PMID: 28331430 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4573-z
    The production cross section of a W boson in association with two b jets is measured using a sample of proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.8[Formula: see text]. The W bosons are reconstructed via their leptonic decays, [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]. The fiducial region studied contains exactly one lepton with transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and pseudorapidity [Formula: see text], with exactly two b jets with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and no other jets with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The cross section is measured to be [Formula: see text]+[Formula: see text], in agreement with standard model predictions.
  15. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(3):172.
    PMID: 28408859 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4718-8
    The cross section of top quark-antiquark pair production in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] is measured by the CMS experiment at the LHC, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed by analyzing events in which the final state includes one electron, one muon, and two or more jets, at least one of which is identified as originating from hadronization of a b quark. The measured cross section is [Formula: see text], in agreement with the expectation from the standard model.
  16. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017 Apr 21;118(16):162301.
    PMID: 28474955 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.162301
    The relative modification of the prompt ψ(2S) and J/ψ yields from pp to PbPb collisions, at the center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair, is presented. The analysis is based on pp and PbPb data samples collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2015, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 28.0  pb^{-1} and 464  μb^{-1}, respectively. The double ratio of measured yields of prompt charmonia reconstructed through their decays into muon pairs, (N_{ψ(2S)}/N_{J/ψ})_{PbPb}/(N_{ψ(2S)}/N_{J/ψ})_{pp}, is determined as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charmonium transverse momentum p_{T}, in two kinematic intervals: |y|<1.6 covering 6.5
  17. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(5):294.
    PMID: 28579921 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4787-8
    A search for new phenomena is performed in final states containing one or more jets and an imbalance in transverse momentum in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13[Formula: see text]. The analysed data sample, recorded with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.3[Formula: see text]. Several kinematic variables are employed to suppress the dominant background, multijet production, as well as to discriminate between other standard model and new physics processes. The search provides sensitivity to a broad range of new-physics models that yield a stable weakly interacting massive particle. The number of observed candidate events is found to agree with the expected contributions from standard model processes, and the result is interpreted in the mass parameter space of fourteen simplified supersymmetric models that assume the pair production of gluinos or squarks and a range of decay modes. For models that assume gluino pair production, masses up to 1575 and 975[Formula: see text] are excluded for gluinos and neutralinos, respectively. For models involving the pair production of top squarks and compressed mass spectra, top squark masses up to 400[Formula: see text] are excluded.
  18. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(4):269.
    PMID: 28515672 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4828-3
    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.
  19. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(4):252.
    PMID: 28515669 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4781-1
    The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.
  20. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(4):236.
    PMID: 28515665 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4730-z
    The WZ production cross section is measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in proton-proton collision data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.9[Formula: see text] collected at [Formula: see text], and 19.6[Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The measurements are performed using the fully-leptonic WZ decay modes with electrons and muons in the final state. The measured cross sections for [Formula: see text] are [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Differential cross sections with respect to the [Formula: see text] boson [Formula: see text], the leading jet [Formula: see text], and the number of jets are obtained using the [Formula: see text] data. The results are consistent with standard model predictions and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings are obtained.
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