Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. Chew BH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(2):101-4.
    PMID: 25606197 MyJurnal
    This case reports a 57-year-old lady presented with cough of two months duration despite repeated treatments from multiple general practitioners. It took her another two months to know her diagnoses and a further couple of months to be relieved of her cough and became asymptomatic. Chronic cough management in primary care often needs an empiric integrative approach and requires good doctor-patient rapport with informed follow ups and continuity of care to be successful.
  2. Chew BH
    Qual Life Res, 2015 Nov;24(11):2723-31.
    PMID: 26001640 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-015-1006-7
    PURPOSE: This study examined the association between medication adherence (MA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among the adult type 2 diabetes mellitus at the primary care level.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) was the main independent variable and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief the dependent variable. Besides socio-demographic data, diabetes-related distress (DRD) and depression (DS) were included as covariates. Independent association between the MMAS score and HRQoL was done using multiple linear regression.

    RESULTS: The participants' response rate was 93.1 % (700/752). Majorities were female (52.8 %), Malay (52.9 %) and married (79.1 %). The mean (SD) for age and the MMAS score was 56.9 (10.18) and 5.6 (1.42), respectively. MMAS total score correlated significantly with all HRQoL domains: overall QoL (OQoL) (r = 0.17), physical QoL (r = 0.11), psychological QoL (r = 0.10), social relationship QoL (r = 0.15) and environmental QoL (EQoL) (r = 0.18). After adjustment for covariates (age, gender, ethnicity, religion, education, income, exercise, macrovascular complications, DRD and DS), MA had persistent effects on OQoL (B = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.012-1.048) and EQoL (B = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.235-1.667).

    CONCLUSION: MA showed prevalent correlation and positive effects on the domains of HRQoL. Despite the small effects of MA on HRQoL, the sheer presence of the independent effects provides healthcare providers good reason for initiative and intervention to improve MA, which would improve quality of life.

  3. Chew BH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(3):170-172.
    MyJurnal
    The massive 2008 Sichuan earthquake brought unprecedented international humanitarian aid to China. The monstrous damages and casualties aroused all human's sympathy. I took the opportunity to join a Malaysian voluntary medical relief team to Sichuan in June 2008. This essay recounts the immediate events post-earthquake and reports on my experience during the mission.
  4. Chew BH
    Cureus, 2019 Feb 20;11(2):e4112.
    PMID: 31058006 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4112
    The goal of this review was to present the essential steps in the entire process of clinical research. Research should begin with an educated idea arising from a clinical practice issue. A research topic rooted in a clinical problem provides the motivation for the completion of the research and relevancy for affecting medical practice changes and improvements. The research idea is further informed through a systematic literature review, clarified into a conceptual framework, and defined into an answerable research question. Engagement with clinical experts, experienced researchers, relevant stakeholders of the research topic, and even patients can enhance the research question's relevance, feasibility, and efficiency. Clinical research can be completed in two major steps: study designing and study reporting. Three study designs should be planned in sequence and iterated until properly refined: theoretical design, data collection design, and statistical analysis design. The design of data collection could be further categorized into three facets: experimental or non-experimental, sampling or census, and time features of the variables to be studied. The ultimate aims of research reporting are to present findings succinctly and timely. Concise, explicit, and complete reporting are the guiding principles in clinical studies reporting.
  5. Chew BH, Cheong AT
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):24-9.
    PMID: 23466762 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: Medical students are future doctors who are trained to treat all kind of diseases including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) without prejudice. This study was to determine the factors associated with knowledge on HIV/AIDS and stigma towards PLWHA among medical students.
    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with stratified random sampling conducted in a public university, Malaysia. The participants were preclinical-year (year 1 and year 2) and clinical-year (year 3 and year 4) medical students. Simple randomisation was carried out after stratification of medical students into preclinical and clinical-year. The self-administered questionnaires were consisted of socio-demographic data, items assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and items assessing stigmatisation attitudes towards PLWHA.
    RESULTS: We had 100% response rate of 340 participants. Pre-clinical and clinical year medical students each contributed 170 (50%). Majority was female (64.1%). About two-thirds (60.6%) was Malay, followed by Chinese (31.2%) and Indian (7.1%). Pre-clinical students were significantly more stigmatizing in subscale of "attitudes towards imposed measures" (t=3.917, p<0.001), even with adjustment for previous encounter and ethnicity (B= 1.2, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.83, p=0.001). On the other hand, clinical students were found to be significantly less comfortable in handling HIV/AIDS cases (t=0.039, p=0.039), even after controlled for previous encounter and ethnicity (B=0.6, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.98, p< 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Clinical encounter with PLWHA was associated with higher knowledge in HIV/AIDS. Medical students in preclinical years were having stigmatizing attitude towards imposed measures compared to the clinical years who had more stigmatizing attitude in being less comfortable with PLWHA.
  6. Chew BH, Mohd-Sidik S, Shariff-Ghazali S
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2015 Nov 24;13:187.
    PMID: 26596372 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-015-0384-4
    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often experienced change in life, altered self-esteem and increased feelings of uncertainty about the future that challenge their present existence and their perception of quality of life (QoL). There was a dearth of data on the association between diabetes-related distress (DRD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study examined the determinants of HRQoL, in particular the association between DRD and HRQoL by taking into account the socio-demographic-clinical variables, including depressive symptoms (DS) in adult patients with T2D.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2013 in three public health clinics in Malaysia. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF), 17-items Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS-17), and 9-items Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to measure HRQoL, DRD and DS, respectively. The aim of this research was to examine the association between the socio-demographic-clinical variables and HRQoL as well as each of the WHOQOL-BREF domain score using multivariable regression analyses.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The mean (SD) for age was 56.9 (10.18). The majority of the patients were female (52.8%), Malay (53.1%) and married (79.1%). About 60% of the patients had good overall HRQoL. The mean (SD) for Overall QoL, Physical QoL, Psychological QoL, Social Relationship QoL and Environmental QoL were 61.7 (9.86), 56.7 (10.64), 57.9 (11.73), 66.8 (15.01) and 65.3 (13.02), respectively. The mean (SD) for the total DDS-17 score was 37.1 (15.98), with 19.6% (136/694) had moderate distress. DDS-17 had a negative association with HRQoL but religiosity had a positive influence on HRQoL (B ranged between 3.07 and 4.76). Women, especially younger Malays, who had diabetes for a shorter period of time experienced better HRQoL. However, patients who were not married, had dyslipidaemia, higher levels of total cholesterol and higher PHQ-9 scores had lower HRQoL. Macrovascular complications showed the largest negative effect on the overall HRQoL (adjusted B = -4.98, 95% CI -8.56 to -1.40).
    CONCLUSION: The majority of primary care adult with T2D had good overall HRQoL. Furthermore, the independent determinants for HRQoL had also concurred with many past studies. In addition, the researchers found that DRD had negative effects on HRQoL, but religiosity had positive influence on HRQoL. Appropriate support such as primary care is needed for adult patients with T2D to improve their life and their HRQoL.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: NMRR-12-1167-14158.
  7. Chew BH, Shariff-Ghazali S, Fernandez A
    World J Diabetes, 2014 Dec 15;5(6):796-808.
    PMID: 25512782 DOI: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i6.796
    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.
  8. Chew BH, Md Zain A, Hassan F
    Psychol Health Med, 2015;20(2):198-204.
    PMID: 24773524 DOI: 10.1080/13548506.2014.913797
    Positive social interaction with peers was said to facilitate cognitive and intellectual development leading to good academic performance. There was paucity of published data on the effect of social management (SM) emotional intelligence (EI) on academic performance. We conducted this study to examine their relationship in the undergraduate medical students in a public medical school in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to measure the SM. The first and final year medical students were invited to participate. Students answered a paper-based demography questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT in privacy. Independent predictors were identified using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 first year and 79 final year) medical students completed the study (at a response rate of 66.0%). SM score (B = -.10 95% CI -.175 to -.015, p = .021) was significantly related to the continuous assessment (CA) marks (adjusted R(2) = .45, F13,137 = 10.26, p 
  9. Chew BH, Lee PY, Ismail IZ
    Malays Fam Physician, 2014;9(2):26-33.
    PMID: 25893068
    BACKGROUND: Personal mission in life can determine the motivation, happiness, career advancement and fulfilment in life of the medical students (MSs) along with improvement in professional/clinical performance of the family physicians. This study explored the personal beliefs, values and goals in the lives of MSs and general practitioners (GPs).
    METHODS: Fourth-year MSs at the Universiti Putra Malaysia and GPs who participated in a 2-hour session on 'Ethics in Family Medicine' in 2012 were invited. All the participants submitted the post-session written reflections about their personal missions in life. The written reflections were analysed using thematic analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 87 MSs and 31 GPs submitted their written reflections. The authors identified 17 categories from the reflections contained by four themes-good vs. smart doctor, professional improvement vs. self-improvement, self-fulfilment and expressed motivation. The most common categories were "to be a good doctor" (97/330) and "professional improvement" (65/330). Many MSs had expressed motivation and wanted to be a smart doctor as compared to the GPs, whereas a larger number of GPs wished to have a fulfilled life and be a good doctor through professional improvement.
    CONCLUSION: The difference between the two student groups might indicate different levels of maturity and life experiences. Medical teachers should engage students more effectively in orientating them towards the essential values needed in medical practice.
    KEYWORDS: Concept formation; education; goals; medical; medical students general; practitioners; professional; values of life
  10. Chew BH, Zain AM, Hassan F
    BMC Med Educ, 2013;13:44.
    PMID: 23537129 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-44
    BACKGROUND: Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses.
    RESULTS: A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43).
    CONCLUSIONS: Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.
  11. Chew BH, Khoo EM, Chia YC
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2011 Mar;8(1):21-8.
    PMID: 22479289
    Background To determine the relationships between religiosity, religions and glycaemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, university-based, teaching outpatient clinic. Religiosity was assessed with the Beliefs and Values Scale (BV), which contains 20 items each with a Likert scale of five possible responses. The range of scores is 0 to 80, with a higher score indicating stronger religious belief. Glycaemic control was taken as the mean value of the latest three fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and HbA1c readings documented in each patient's case records.Results A total of 212 patients participated (a response rate of 79%). Two-thirds were female, mean age was 62.7 (SD 10.8) years and mean duration of T2D was 11.7 (SD 6.7) years. The mean BV score was 57.4 (SD 10.97, CI 55.9, 59.0). Religiosity had a negative correlation with lower FPG (r = -0.15, p = 0.041) but no such correlation was found with HbA1c. Moslem religiosity had a significant negative correlation with HbA1c (r = -0.34, p = 0.007, n = 61) even after controlling for covariates. Christians and non-religious group had significantly lower mean rank HbA1c than other religions (p = 0.042).Conclusions Those with higher religiosity amongst the Moslem population had significantly better glycaemic control. Patients who had church-going religions had better glycaemic control compared with those of other religions.

    Study site: UMMC, a university based primary care clinic
  12. Chew BH, Khoo EM, Chia YC
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP166-73.
    PMID: 22199159 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511431300
    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of social support and its association with glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in an urban primary care center within an academic institution. Social support is important in the management of chronic diseases. However, its association with glycemic control has been controversial.
    METHODS: This was part of a study examining religiosity in T2D patients. Nonsmoking patients with T2D for at least 3 years and aged 30 years and above were recruited. Social support was measured using The Social Support Survey-Medical Outcomes Study (SS), a self-administered questionnaire; the scores range from 19 to 95, and a high score indicates better social support. Glycemic control was measured using the 3 most recent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels within the past 3 years.
    RESULTS: A total of 175 participants completed the SS survey (response rate 79.0%). The mean age was 62.7 (standard deviation [SD] = 10.8) years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 11.74 (SD = 6.7) years. The mean HbA1c level was 8.15 (SD = 1.44). The mean SS score was 68.1. The prevalence of high and low social support were 29.7% and 24.0 %, respectively. A significant correlation was found between SS score and number of social supporters (n = 167). No significant correlation was found between the self-reported number of social supporters or the SS score and the mean HbA1c level.
    CONCLUSIONS: Social support was not associated with glycemic control in adult patients with T2D in this primary care setting.

    Study site: Primary care clinic, Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
  13. Chew BH, Mastura I, Bujang MA
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(3):11-8.
    PMID: 25893052 MyJurnal
    AIM: We examined disease profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at four different public health facilities in Malaysia to determine which site would be the most suitable for early and intensive diabetes care against diabetes-related complications.
    METHODS: This study analysed 57,780 T2D patients in the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry database in the year 2009. The four public health facilities were hospital with specialists (HS), hospital without specialists (HNS), health clinics with family medicine specialists (CS) and health clinic without doctors (CND). Descriptive analyses were used to examine age, duration of diseases, intervals from the onset of diabetes to co-morbidities (hypertension and dyslipidaemia) and complication of T2D patients at the four public health facilities.
    RESULTS: Patients were significantly older in HS. Patients with T2D at HS had significantly longer duration of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Health clinics, both the CS and the CND, were seeing T2D patients with shorter duration of macrovascular and microvascular complications.
    CONCLUSION: Public health clinics in this country managed T2D patients who were younger and at the early stage of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and complications. Thus, primary care physicians are best positioned to provide early and intensive diabetes care for this group of T2D patients to prevent the development of diabetes-related complications.
    KEYWORDS:
    diabetes complications; disease management; health facilities; primary health care; type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study name: Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) 2009
  14. Chew BH, Mohd Sidik S, Hassan NH
    Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2015;11:669-81.
    PMID: 25995640 DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S81623
    This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level.
  15. Chew BH, Hassan NH, Mohd Sidik S
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2015;9:639-48.
    PMID: 25999699 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S81612
    Medication adherence (MA) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with improved disease control (glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipid profile), lower rates of death and diabetes-related complications, increased quality of life, and decreased health care resource utilization. However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of diabetes-related distress, depression, and health-related quality of life on MA. This study examined factors associated with MA in adults with T2D at the primary care level. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics, where adults with T2D were recruited consecutively in 2013. We used the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) to assess MA as the main dependent variable. In addition to sociodemographic data, we included diabetes-related distress, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life as independent variables. Independent association between the MMAS-8 score and its determinants was done using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and log link function. The participant response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were female (52.8%), Malay (52.9%), and married (79.1%). About 43% of patients were classified as showing low MA (MMAS-8 score <6). Higher income (adjusted odds ratio 0.90) and depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.99) were significant independent determinants of medication non-adherence in young adults with T2D. Low MA in adults with T2D is a prevalent problem. Thus, primary health care providers in public health clinics should focus on MA counselling for adult T2D patients who are younger, have a higher income, and symptoms of depression.
  16. Chew BH, Fernandez A, Shariff-Ghazali S
    Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2018;11:145-155.
    PMID: 29765258 DOI: 10.2147/PRBM.S117224
    Psychological aspects of a person, such as the personal value and belief systems, cognition and emotion, form the basis of human health behaviors, which, in turn, influence self-management, self-efficacy, quality of life, disease control and clinical outcomes in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. However, psychological, psychosocial and behavioral interventions aimed at these groups of patients have yielded inconsistent effects in terms of clinical outcomes in clinical trials. This might have been due to differing conceptualization of health behavioral theories and models in the interventions. Assimilating different theories of human behavior, this narrative review attempts to demonstrate the potential modulatory effects of intrinsic values on cognitive and affective health-directed interventions. Interventions that utilize modification of cognition alone via education or that focuses on both cognitive and emotional levels are hardly adequate to initiate health-seeking behavior and much less to sustain them. People who are aware of their own personal values and purpose in life would be more motivated to practice good health-related behavior and persevere in them.
  17. Chew BH, Hussain H, Supian ZA
    BMC Fam Pract, 2021 06 11;22(1):111.
    PMID: 34116645 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-021-01472-2
    BACKGROUND: Good-quality evidence has shown that early glycaemic, blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol control in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) leads to better outcomes. In spite of that, diseases control have been inadequate globally, and therapeutic inertia could be one of the main cause. Evidence on therapeutic inertia has been lacking at primary care setting. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the proportions of therapeutic inertia when treatment targets of HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol were not achieved in adults with T2D at three public health clinics in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The index prescriptions were those that when the annual blood tests were reviewed. Prescriptions of medication were verified, compared to the preceding prescriptions and classified as 1) no change, 2) stepping up and 3) stepping down. The treatment targets were HbA1c 

  18. Chew BH, Than TL, Chew KS, Jamaludin NK, Hassan H
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):571-6.
    PMID: 23770947 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Our study was to examine prevalence and treatment outcomes of medical emergencies at two urban public health clinics in the Petaling district, Selangor, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A prospective universal sampling was employed to recruit all emergencies over one month period (12 April to 11 May 2011). A structured case record form was used to capture demographic data, whether the index case was selfpresenting or decided by health care workers as a medical emergency, presenting complaints, diagnoses, concurrent chronic diseases and their treatment outcomes at the clinic level. Emergency presentations and diagnoses were classified according to the International Classification of Primary Care, revised second edition (ICPC-2-R).
    RESULTS: A total of 125 medical emergencies with 276 presenting complaints were recorded. The mean age was 30.7 years old (SD 19.9). The prevalence of medical emergency was 0.56% (125/22,320). Chief complaints were mainly from ICPC-2-R chapter R (respiratory system) and chapter A (general and unspecified), 40.0% and 28.0% respectively. The most common diagnosis was acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (34.6%). Forty percent were referred to hospitals. After adjusting for age and gender, patients who presented with painful emergency (OR 4.9 95% CI 2.0 to 11.7), cardiovascular emergency (OR 63.4 95% CI 12.9 to 310.4) and non-respiratory emergency were predictors of hospital referral (OR 4.6 95% CI 1.1 to 19.1).
    CONCLUSION: There was about one medical emergency for every 200 patients presenting to these urban public polyclinics which were mainly acute asthma. More than half were discharged well and given a follow-up.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Seri Kembangan and Klinik Kesihatan Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia
  19. Chew BH, Vos R, Mohd-Sidik S, Rutten GE
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0152095.
    PMID: 27002728 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152095
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (< 3 months) were consecutively recruited. Associations between DRD, depression and the combination DRD-depression with demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed using generalized linear models. From 752 invited people, 700 participated (mean age 56.9 years, 52.8% female, 52.9% Malay, 79.1% married). Prevalence of DRD and depression were 49.2% and 41.7%, respectively. Distress and depression were correlated, spearman's r = 0.50. Patients with higher DRD were younger (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.996 to 0.991), Chinese (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29), attending Dengkil health clinic (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22) and had higher scores on the PHQ (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Depression was less likely in the unmarried compared to divorced/separately living and those attending Dengkil health clinic, but more likely in patients with microvascular complications (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.73) and higher DDS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03). For the combination of DRD and depression, unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression.
  20. Chew BH, Mastura I, Cheong AT, Syed Alwi SAR
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(3):134-138.
    PMID: 25606205 MyJurnal
    Hypertension is a common co-morbidity in diabetes mellitus (DM) that may lead to serious complications if not adequately controlled. This is a descriptive study based on data from the Audit of Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) registry. This audit assessed the treatment and standard of control of hypertension in diabetic patients aged 18 years and above. Data were analysed using STATA version 9.From a total of 20 646 cases, about two third of them, 13 417 (65%) were reported to have hypertension. 19 484 (94.4%) had their blood pressure (BP) recorded and out of these, 11 414 (58.5%) were found to have BP >130/80 mmHg. 13 601 cases (65.9%) of the total sample were on antihypertensive drugs. 64.1% of those on antihypertensive drugs were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers. 14.2% were on more than two types of antihypertensive drugs. Older patients and those with longer duration of DM were less likely to achieve the target BP of ≤130/80. In general, about 40% of diabetic cases registered in the ADCM project had their hypertension well controlled.
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