METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 20 patients who had suffered from ISSHL from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017. ISSHL is defined as a rapid decline in hearing over three days or less affecting three or more frequencies by 30dB or greater. Comparison between the mode of steroid therapies and improvement in patients was done. At least 15dB improvement in pure tone audiogram (PTA) was considered as successful therapeutic intervention.
RESULTS: Twenty male and female patients who fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The mean age of the patients was 41.4 years with a range from 13 to 72 years. Ninety percent patients presented with unilateral ISSHL involvement. Eight ears of patients who received systemic steroid therapy alone had improved hearings (75%). Out of seven ears from six patients who received salvage therapy, four ears (57.1 %) had improvement in PTA. Seven ears showed improvement in PTA from a total of eight patients who primarily received IT injections.
CONCLUSIONS: IT steroid therapy promises a favourable outcome in the improvement of the hearing, as compared to systemic steroid administration. Its usage is recommended not only for salvage therapy but should be used as primary treatment especially in those with co- morbidities.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.
METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted in a single-center adult intensive care unit. In total, 100 patients were randomized into two groups. These patients underwent internal jugular vein central venous catheter cannulation with ultrasound guidance (short-axis scan, out-of-plane needling approach) in which one group adopted conventional method, while the other group was aided with the guided positioning system. Outcomes were measured by procedural efficacy (success rate, number of attempts, time to successful cannulation), complications, level of operators' experience, and their satisfaction.
RESULTS: All patients had successful cannulation on the first attempt except for one case in the conventional group. The median performance time for the guided positioning system method was longer (25.5 vs 15.5 s; p = 0.01). And 86% of the operators had more than 3-year experience in anesthesia. One post-insertion hematoma occurred in the conventional group. Only 88% of the operators using the guided positioning system method were satisfied compared to 100% in the conventional group.
CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion via internal jugular vein was a safe procedure in both conventional and guided positioning system methods. The guided positioning system did not confer additional benefit but was associated with slower performance time and lower satisfaction level among the experienced operators.
METHODS: Using multi-region sampled RNA-seq data of 90 patients, we performed patient-specific differential expression testing, together with the patients' matched adjacent normal samples.
RESULTS: Comparing the results from conventional DE analysis and patient-specific DE analyses, we show that the conventional DE analysis omits some genes due to high inter-individual variability present in both tumour and normal tissues. Dysregulated genes shared in small subgroup of patients were useful in stratifying patients, and presented differential prognosis. We also showed that the target genes of some of the current targeted agents used in HCC exhibited highly individualistic dysregulation pattern, which may explain the poor response rate.
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the importance of identifying patient-specific DE genes, with its potential to provide clinically valuable insights into patient subgroups for applications in precision medicine.