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  1. Chew SC
    Singapore Med J, 1988 Feb;29(1):28-9.
    PMID: 3406761
    The figures for abortions performed under The Abortion Act, 1974 of Singapore in a private clinic over a period of 20 months were studied. Overall, an alarming proportion of repeat abortions were found, and this was true for all age groups suggesting that abortions are being used as a regular method of family planning in Singapore.
  2. Chew SC
    Food Res Int, 2020 05;131:108997.
    PMID: 32247493 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.108997
    Rapeseed oil is the second most abundant produced edible oil in the world with low erucic acid and low glucosinolate. Thus, the quality of rapeseed oil had attracted global attention. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil appeared to be a preferred choice than refined oil as no solvent and less processing involved in the cold-pressing. The methods of cold-pressing and microwave pre-treatment on the extraction yield and bioactive compounds of rapeseed oil have been reviewed in this paper. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil offers health benefits due to its preserved fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds. High phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids contents in the cold-pressed rapeseed oil offer health benefits like regulating blood lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control, as well as offer antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Besides using as edible oil, cold-pressed rapeseed oil find applications in animal feed, chemical, and fuel.
  3. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2017 Jul;82(7):1622-1630.
    PMID: 28608553 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13758
    Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as nutritious edible oil due to its unique fatty acid composition and nutritional value. The objective of this study was to optimize the bleaching parameters of the chemical refining process for kenaf seed oil, namely concentration of bleaching earth (0.5 to 2.5% w/w), temperature (30 to 110 °C) and time (5 to 65 min) based on the responses of total oxidation value (TOTOX) and color reduction using response surface methodology. The results indicated that the corresponding response surface models were highly statistical significant (P < 0.0001) and sufficient to describe and predict TOTOX value and color reduction with R2 of 0.9713 and 0.9388, respectively. The optimal parameters in the bleaching stage of kenaf seed oil were: 1.5% w/w of the concentration of bleaching earth, temperature of 70 °C, and time of 40 min. These optimum parameters produced bleached kenaf seed oil with TOTOX value of 8.09 and color reduction of 32.95%. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental and predicted values, indicating the adequacy of the fitted models.
  4. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2288-2294.
    PMID: 30074623 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14291
    Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.

  5. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2017;26(1):63-69.
    PMID: 30263511 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0009-2
    This study assessed the changes of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of crude and refined kenaf seed oil during accelerated storage at 65°C for 24 days. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays were used to determine their antioxidant activity. The changes of phenolic, tocopherol, and phytosterol contents during the storage were also studied. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of refined oil were significantly lower than those of crude oil after the accelerated storage. There was a decrease of 72.5% tocopherol content and 31.1% phytosterol content in the crude oil and a decrease of 67% tocopherol content and 12.1% phytosterol content in the refined oil during the accelerated storage. There was no significant difference in tocopherol and phytosterol contents for crude and refined oils after the storage. The rate of degradation of tocopherol and phytosterol contents in refined oil was slower than that in crude oil during the storage.
  6. Chew SC, Md Daud MK
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 01;75(1):74-77.
    PMID: 32008025
    OBJECTIVE: A systemic steroid is known to have a potential to recover hearing after idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). However, lately many centres have introduced the use of intratympanic (IT) steroid therapy as an option. We reviewed our experience in the treatment of patients with ISSHL looking at the overall success of using systemic steroid, IT steroid injections as salvage therapy and primary IT steroid injection.

    METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 20 patients who had suffered from ISSHL from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017. ISSHL is defined as a rapid decline in hearing over three days or less affecting three or more frequencies by 30dB or greater. Comparison between the mode of steroid therapies and improvement in patients was done. At least 15dB improvement in pure tone audiogram (PTA) was considered as successful therapeutic intervention.

    RESULTS: Twenty male and female patients who fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The mean age of the patients was 41.4 years with a range from 13 to 72 years. Ninety percent patients presented with unilateral ISSHL involvement. Eight ears of patients who received systemic steroid therapy alone had improved hearings (75%). Out of seven ears from six patients who received salvage therapy, four ears (57.1 %) had improvement in PTA. Seven ears showed improvement in PTA from a total of eight patients who primarily received IT injections.

    CONCLUSIONS: IT steroid therapy promises a favourable outcome in the improvement of the hearing, as compared to systemic steroid administration. Its usage is recommended not only for salvage therapy but should be used as primary treatment especially in those with co- morbidities.

  7. Chew SC, Khor GL, Loh SP
    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2011;57(2):150-5.
    PMID: 21697634
    Folate is of prime interest among investigators in nutrition due to its multiple roles in maintaining health, especially in preventing neural tube defects and reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the effect of dietary folate intake on blood folate, vitamin B(12), vitamin B(6), and homocysteine status. One hundred subjects consisting of Chinese and Malay subjects volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Dietary folate intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall and a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum and red blood cell folate were analyzed using a microbiological assay, while serum vitamin B(12) was determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of serum vitamin B(6) and homocysteine. The mean folate intake, serum folate, RBC folate, serum vitamin B(12), and B(6), were higher in female subjects, with the exception of serum homocysteine. The Chinese tended to have higher folate intake, serum folate, RBC folate, and vitamin B(12). A positive association was found between folate intake and serum folate while a negative association was found between folate intake and serum homocysteine. Stepwise linear regression of serum folate showed a significant positive coefficient for folate intake whilst a significant negative coefficient was found for serum homocysteine when controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity. In conclusion, high dietary folate intake helps to increase serum folate and to lower the homocysteine levels.
  8. Chew SC, Khor GL, Loh SP
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Dec;18(3):383-91.
    PMID: 24568079 MyJurnal
    Data on folate availability of Malaysian cooked foods would be useful for estimation of dietary folate intake; however such information is scarce.
  9. Chew SC, Tan CP, Lai OM, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2018 Jun;27(3):905-914.
    PMID: 30263818 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0295-8
    An optimized refining process for kenaf seed oil was conducted. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) contents, triacylglycerol composition, fatty acids composition, bioactive compounds, phosphorus contents, and oxidation indexes of the kenaf seed oil during each stage of the refining process were determined. The results showed that there was no detected 3-MCPD ester in kenaf seed oil throughout the refining process. Deodorization had slightly increased the 2-MCPD ester (9.0 μg/kg) and glycidyl ester (54.8 μg/kg). Oleic (36.53%) and linoleic acids (36.52%) were presented in the largest amount in the refined kenaf seed oil, and triacylglycerols contributed to 99.96% in the oil. There was a removal of 31.6% of phytosterol content and 17.1% of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in kenaf seed oil after refining. The refining process was totally removed the hydroperoxides, 93% of free fatty acids and 98.8% of phosphorus content in kenaf seed oil.
  10. Chew SC, Tan CP, Tan CH, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2020 Jul;57(7):2507-2515.
    PMID: 32549601 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04286-9
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a coffee beverage matrix on the oil release percentage and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds from microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Refined kenaf seed oil was spray-dried with gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate. Oil release percentage, total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS, tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, as well as phytosterol content, were measured in the oil released from digested MRKSO along with the coffee matrix and compared to the digested MRKSO without coffee matrix and undigested MRKSO. Refined kenaf seed oil showed a significantly higher oxidative stability index than crude, degummed, and neutralized oil samples. About 91.2 and 94.7% of the oils were released from the digested MRKSO without and with coffee matrix, respectively. Oil released from the digested MRKSO with coffee matrix showed an increase in the total phenolic content (200.5%), DPPH (172.7%), and ABTS (68.1%) values, tocopherol and tocotrienol contents (24.6%), as well as the phytosterol content (62.0%), compared to oil released from the digested MRKSO without coffee matrix. MRKSO was successfully incorporated in the coffee drink and can use as a partial replacement for coffee creamers or supplementation in coffee drinks.
  11. Goh TH, Tan CH, Lim SM, Chew SC, Hutapea H, Iskandar J
    Med J Malaysia, 1978 Jun;32(4):304-7.
    PMID: 732628
  12. Chew SC, Beh ZY, Hakumat Rai VR, Jamaluddin MF, Ng CC, Chinna K, et al.
    J Vasc Access, 2020 Jan;21(1):26-32.
    PMID: 31148509 DOI: 10.1177/1129729819852057
    PURPOSE: Central venous catheter insertion is a common procedure in the intensive care setting. However, complications persist despite real-time ultrasound guidance. Recent innovation in needle navigation technology using guided positioning system enables the clinician to visualize the needle's real-time position and trajectory as it approaches the target. We hypothesized that the guided positioning system would improve performance time in central venous catheter insertion.

    METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted in a single-center adult intensive care unit. In total, 100 patients were randomized into two groups. These patients underwent internal jugular vein central venous catheter cannulation with ultrasound guidance (short-axis scan, out-of-plane needling approach) in which one group adopted conventional method, while the other group was aided with the guided positioning system. Outcomes were measured by procedural efficacy (success rate, number of attempts, time to successful cannulation), complications, level of operators' experience, and their satisfaction.

    RESULTS: All patients had successful cannulation on the first attempt except for one case in the conventional group. The median performance time for the guided positioning system method was longer (25.5 vs 15.5 s; p = 0.01). And 86% of the operators had more than 3-year experience in anesthesia. One post-insertion hematoma occurred in the conventional group. Only 88% of the operators using the guided positioning system method were satisfied compared to 100% in the conventional group.

    CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion via internal jugular vein was a safe procedure in both conventional and guided positioning system methods. The guided positioning system did not confer additional benefit but was associated with slower performance time and lower satisfaction level among the experienced operators.

  13. Abdullah B, Chew SC, Aziz ME, Shukri NM, Husain S, Joshua SW, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 03 12;10(1):4600.
    PMID: 32165705 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-61610-1
    Keros and Gera classifications are widely used to assess the risk of skull base injury during endoscopic sinus surgery. Although, both classifications are useful preoperatively to stratify risk of patients going for surgery, it is not practical to measure the respective lengths during surgery. In this study, we aimed to propose a new radiological classification (Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore (TMS)) to assess the anatomical risk of anterior skull base injury using the orbital floor (OF) as a reference. A total of 150 computed tomography images of paranasal sinuses (300 sides) were reviewed. The TMS classification was categorized into 3 types by measuring OF to cribriform plate and OF to ethmoid roof. Most patients were classified as TMS type 1, Keros type 2 and Gera class II, followed by patients classified as TMS type 3, Keros type 1 and Gera class 1. TMS has significant correlation with Keros classification (p 
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