Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 153 in total

  1. Chin KY
    Nutrients, 2020 Apr 25;12(5).
    PMID: 32344816 DOI: 10.3390/nu12051208
    Vitamin K is a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase, which plays an important role in the activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (gla)-containing proteins that negatively regulate calcification. Thus, vitamin K status might be associated with osteoarthritis (OA), in which cartilage calcification plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. This review collates the evidence on the relationship between vitamin K status (circulating or dietary intake level of vitamin K, or circulating uncarboxylated gla proteins) and OA from human observational studies and clinical trial, to examine its potential as an agent in preventing OA. The current literature generally agrees that a sufficient level of vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of OA and pathological joint features. However, evidence from clinical trials is limited. Mechanistic study shows that vitamin K activates matrix gla proteins that inhibit bone morphogenetic protein-mediated cartilage calcification. Gla-rich proteins also inhibit inflammatory cascade in monocytic cell lines, but this function might be independent of vitamin K-carboxylation. Although the current data are insufficient to establish the optimal dose of vitamin K to prevent OA, ensuring sufficient dietary intake seems to protect the elderly from OA.
  2. Chin KY
    J Osteoporos, 2017;2017:3710959.
    PMID: 28163951 DOI: 10.1155/2017/3710959
    Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor commonly used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Its users are elderly population susceptible to osteoporosis. It also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 essential in bone remodeling. This prompts the question whether it can influence bone health among users. This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of aspirin on bone health. A literature search on experimental and clinical evidence on the effects of aspirin on bone health was performed using major scientific databases. In vitro studies showed that aspirin could enhance the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitors of osteoblasts, and stimulate the differentiation of preosteoblasts. Aspirin also inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) pathway and decreased the expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand, thus suppressing the formation of osteoclast. Aspirin could prevent bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. Despite a positive effect on bone mineral density, the limited human epidemiological studies revealed that aspirin could not reduce fracture risk. A study even suggested that the use of aspirin increased fracture risk. As a conclusion, aspirin may increase bone mineral density but its effect on fracture prevention is inconclusive. More data are needed to determine the effects of aspirin and bone health in human.
  3. Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:3029-3042.
    PMID: 27703331
    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the joint affecting aging populations worldwide. It has an underlying inflammatory cause, which contributes to the loss of chondrocytes, leading to diminished cartilage layer at the affected joints. Compounds with anti-inflammatory properties are potential treatment agents for osteoarthritis. Curcumin derived from Curcuma species is an anti-inflammatory compound as such. This review aims to summarize the antiosteoarthritic effects of curcumin derived from clinical and preclinical studies. Many clinical trials have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of curcumin in osteoarthritic patients. Extracts of Curcuma species, curcuminoids and enhanced curcumin, were used in these studies. Patients with osteoarthritis showed improvement in pain, physical function, and quality of life after taking curcumin. They also reported reduced concomitant usage of analgesics and side effects during treatment. In vitro studies demonstrated that curcumin could prevent the apoptosis of chondrocytes, suppress the release of proteoglycans and metal metalloproteases and expression of cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin E-2, and inflammatory cytokines in chondrocytes. These were achieved by blocking the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) system in the chondrocytes, by preventing the activation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha, phosphorylation, and translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB complexes into the nucleus. In conclusion, curcumin is a potential candidate for the treatment of osteoarthritis. More well-planned randomized control trials and enhanced curcumin formulation are required to justify the use of curcumin in treating osteoarthritis.
  4. Chin KY
    Int J Med Sci, 2018;15(12):1373-1383.
    PMID: 30275766 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.26571
    Bone loss in women commences before the onset of menopause and oestrogen deficiency. The increase of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) precedes oestrogen decline and may be a cause for bone loss before menopause. This review summarizes the current evidence on the relationship between FSH and bone derived from cellular, animal and human studies. Cellular studies found that FSH receptor (FSHR) was present on osteoclasts, osteoclast precursors and mesenchymal stem cells but not osteoblasts. FSH promoted osteoclast differentiation, activity and survival but exerted negligible effects on osteoblasts. Transgenic FSHR or FSH knockout rodents showed heterogenous skeletal phenotypes. Supplementation of FSH enhanced bone deterioration and blocking of FSH action protected bone of rodents. Human epidemiological studies revealed a negative relationship between FSH and bone health in perimenopausal women and elderly men but the association was attenuated in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, FSH may have a direct action on bone health independent of oestrogen by enhancing bone resorption. Its effects may be attenuated in the presence of overt sex hormone deficiency. More longitudinal studies pertaining to the effects of FSH on bone health, especially on fracture risk, should be conducted to validate this speculation.
  5. Chin KY
    Postgrad Med, 2017 Sep;129(7):734-746.
    PMID: 28695762 DOI: 10.1080/00325481.2017.1353394
    The prevalence of osteoporosis in Asian countries is growing. An effective screening method will enable patients at risk for osteoporosis to receive early diagnosis and treatment, and avoid overcrowding the limited dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines available in Asian countries. Many simple osteoporosis screening algorithms have been developed but they are not validated for use in Asian populations. osteoporosis self-assessment tools for Asians (OSTA), established using a multinational Asian cohort, is the first screening algorithm that caters for the Asian populations. It considers only body weight and age in the algorithm. It shows consistently high performance and sensitivity in identifying postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis in many Asian countries. Its usage has been expanded for identifying osteoporosis in men, as well as determining fracture risk for both sexes. However, the performance of OSTA is influenced by age, sex, ethnicity and site of BMD measurement to define osteoporosis. Its usage is also limited in individuals without apparent risk factors. These limitations should be noted by physicians considering the use of OSTA in clinical setting. As a conclusion, OSTA is a cost-effective measure for osteoporosis screening in primary healthcare setting.
  6. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Aging Male, 2015 Mar;18(1):60-6.
    PMID: 25166624 DOI: 10.3109/13685538.2014.954995
    This study aimed to determine the effects of orchidectomy and supraphysiological testosterone replacement on trabecular structure and gene expression in the bone.
  7. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Clin Interv Aging, 2014;9:1247-59.
    PMID: 25120355 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S67016
    BACKGROUND: Previous animal models have demonstrated that tocotrienol is a potential treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effects of annatto-derived tocotrienol (AnTT) using a testosterone-deficient osteoporotic rat model.
    METHODS: Forty rats were divided randomly into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, AnTT, and testosterone groups. The baseline group was euthanized without undergoing any surgical treatment or intervention. The remaining groups underwent orchidectomy, with the exception of the sham group. AnTT 60 mg/kg/day was given orally to the AnTT group, while the testosterone group received testosterone enanthate 7 mg/kg per week intramuscularly for 8 weeks. Structural changes in trabecular bone at the proximal tibia were examined using microcomputed tomography. Structural and dynamic changes at the distal femur were examined using histomorphometric methods. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal of type 1 collagen crosslinks were measured. Bone-related gene expression in the distal femur was examined.
    RESULTS: There were significant degenerative changes in structural indices in the orchidectomized group (P<0.05), but no significant changes in dynamic indices, bone remodeling markers, or gene expression (P>0.05) when compared with the sham group. The AnTT group showed significant improvement in structural indices at the femur (P<0.05) and significantly increased expression of bone formation genes (P<0.05). Testosterone was more effective than AnTT in preventing degeneration of bone structural indices in the femur and tibia (P<0.05).
    CONCLUSION: AnTT supplementation improves bone health in testosterone-deficient rats by enhancing bone formation. Its potential should be evaluated further by varying the dosage and treatment duration.
    KEYWORDS: bone remodeling; osteoporosis; testosterone; tocotrienol
  8. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Nutrients, 2014 Apr;6(4):1424-41.
    PMID: 24727433 DOI: 10.3390/nu6041424
    Recent studies have found conflicting evidence on the role of α-tocopherol (αTF) on bone health. This nonsystematic review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of αTF on bone health from cell culture, animal, and human studies in order to clarify the role of αTF on bone health. Our review found that αTF exerted beneficial, harmful or null effects on bone formation cells. Animal studies generally showed positive effects of αTF supplementation on bone in various models of osteoporosis. However, high-dose αTF was possibly detrimental to bone in normal animals. Human studies mostly demonstrated a positive relationship between αTF, as assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and/or dietary questionnaire, and bone health, as assessed using bone mineral density and/or fracture incidence. Three possible reasons high dosage of αTF can be detrimental to bone include its interference with Vitamin K function on bone, the blocking of the entry of other Vitamin E isomers beneficial to bone, and the role of αTF as a prooxidant. However, these adverse effects have not been shown in human studies. In conclusion, αTF may have a dual role in bone health, whereby in the appropriate doses it is beneficial but in high doses it may be harmful to bone.
  9. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1632-41.
    PMID: 24354587
    The Asian population whose soy intake is higher compared to Western populations shows a significantly lower incidence of osteoporotic fracture. Several meta-analyses have revealed that supplementation of soy isoflavones improve bone health status in women. This review examined the current evidence as to whether soy could exhibit similar bone protective effects on the male population. In vivo studies revealed that supplementation of soy protein or soy isoflavones improved bone health in both normal and osteoporotic male rodents. Cell culture studies showed that soy isoflavones influenced osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis through mechanisms such as estrogen receptor binding activity, antiinflammatory activity and anti-parathyroid hormone activity. Soy isoflavones also affected calcium channel signaling and might exhibit direct effects on the osteoblastogenesis modulator, core binding factor 1. However, limited clinical trials involving soy intervention in males generally showed insignificant results. This could be attributed to the short duration of intervention, characteristics of the subjects or method of bone health assessment. More well-planned clinical trials are required to establish possible bone protective effects of soy in men.
  10. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Int J Med Sci, 2013;10(12):1778-83.
    PMID: 24273451 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.6765
    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has emerged as a convenient and popular screening tool for osteoporosis. This review aimed to provide basic information on the principle of QUS measurement and discuss the properties of bone reflected by QUS indices. QUS employed high frequency sound waves generated by the device to determine bone health status in humans. In vitro studies showed that QUS indices were significantly associated with bone mineral density (BMD), bone microarchitecture and mechanical parameters. In humans, QUS indices were found to be associated with BMD as well. In addition, QUS could discriminate subjects with and without fracture history and predict risk for future fracture. In conclusion, QUS is able to reflect bone quality and should be used in the screening of osteoporosis, especially in developing countries where dual-X-ray absorptiometry devices are less accessible to the general population.
  11. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    PMID: 22919420 DOI: 10.1155/2012/747020
    Osteoporosis is a growing healthcare burden that affects the quality of life in the aging population. Vitamin E is a potential prophylactic agent that can impede the progression of osteoporosis. Various in vivo studies demonstrated the antiosteoporotic potential of vitamin E, but evidence on its molecular mechanism of action is limited. A few in vitro studies showed that various forms of vitamin E can affect the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) signaling and their molecular targets, thus preventing the formation of osteoclasts in the early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Various studies have also shown that the effects of the different isoforms of vitamin E differ. The effects of single isoforms and combinations of isoforms on bone metabolism are also different. Vitamin E may affect bone metabolism by disruption of free radical-mediated RANKL signaling, by its oestrogen-like effects, by its effects on the molecular mechanism of bone formation, by the anti-inflammatory effects of its long-chain metabolites on bone cells, and by the inhibition of 3-hydroxyl-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA). In conclusion, the vitamin E isoforms have enormous potential to be used as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in preventing osteoporosis, but further studies should be conducted to elucidate their mechanisms of action.
  12. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Int J Endocrinol, 2012;2012:208719.
    PMID: 23150727 DOI: 10.1155/2012/208719
    Male osteoporosis is a health problem which deserves more attention as nearly 30% of osteoporotic fractures happen in men aged 50 years and above. Although men do not experience an accelerated bone loss phase and testosterone deficiency is not a universal characteristic for aged men, osteoporosis due to age-related testosterone deficiency does have a negative impact on bone health status of men. Observations from epidemiological studies indicate that elderly men with higher testosterone can preserve their BMD better and thus are less prone to fracture. Observations on men with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency indicate that estrogen is equally important in the maintenance of bone health status. This had been validated in several epidemiological studies which found that the relationships between estrogen and bone health indices are significant and sometimes stronger than testosterone. Studies on the relationship between quantitative ultrasound and bone remodeling markers suggest that testosterone and estrogen may have differential effects on bone, but further evidence was needed. In conclusion, both testosterone and estrogen are important in the maintenance of bone health in men.
  13. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(5):439-450.
    PMID: 26343111 DOI: 10.2174/1389450116666150907100838
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin C, traditionally associated with scurvy, is an important nutrient for maintaining bone health. It is essential in the production of collagen in bone matrix. It also scavenges free radicals detrimental to bone health.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to assess the current evidence of the bone-sparing effects of vitamin C derived from cell, animal and human studies.

    RESULTS: Cell studies showed that vitamin C was able to induce osteoblast and osteoclast formation. However, high-dose vitamin C might increase oxidative stress and subsequently lead to cell death. Vitamin C-deficient animals showed impaired bone health due to increased osteoclast formation and decreased bone formation. Vitamin C supplementation was able to prevent bone loss in several animal models of bone loss. Human studies generally showed a positive relationship between vitamin C and bone health, indicated by bone mineral density, fracture probability and bone turnover markers. Some studies suggested that the relationship between vitamin C and bone health could be U-shaped, more prominent in certain subgroups and different between dietary and supplemental form. However, most of the studies were observational, thus could not confirm causality. One clinical trial was performed, but it was not a randomized controlled trial, thus confounding factors could not be excluded.

    CONCLUSION: vitamin C may exert beneficial effects on bone, but more rigorous studies and clinical trials should be performed to validate this claim.

  14. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:2049-61.
    PMID: 25897211 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S79660
    Osteoporosis causes significant health care and economic burden to society, leading to a relentless search for effective preventive agents. Tocotrienol, a member of the vitamin E family, has demonstrated promising potential as an osteoporosis-preventing agent. This review summarizes evidence on the effects of tocotrienol on bone in animal models. Techniques used to examine the effects of tocotrienol on bone in animals included bone histomorphometry, X-ray microtomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bone turnover markers, bone calcium content, and biomechanical strength. Tocotrienol was shown to improve osteoblast number, bone formation, mineral deposition, and bone microarchitecture in osteopenic rats. It also decreased osteoclast number and bone erosion in the rats. Tocotrienol supplementation resulted in an improvement in bone mineral density, although biomechanical strength was not significantly altered in the rats. The beneficial effects of tocotrienol on bone can be attributed to its role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, suppressor of the mevalonate pathway, and modulator of genes favorable to bone formation.
  15. Chin KY, Pang KL
    Front Pediatr, 2020;8:563.
    PMID: 33072660 DOI: 10.3389/fped.2020.00563
    Isoflavones are dietary phytoestrogens commonly found in soy-based products. The widespread presence of isoflavones in soy infant formula and breast milk may have long-lasting effects on the development of sex hormone-sensitive organs like the skeleton. Animal early-life programming models are suitable for testing the skeletal effects of pre- and neonatal exposure of soy isoflavones. This review aims to collate the impacts of early-life exposure of soy isoflavones as evidenced in animal models. The isoflavones previously studied include daidzein, genistein, or a combination of both. They were administered to rodent pups during the first few days postnatal, but prolonged exposure had also been studied. The skeletal effects were observed when the animals reached sexual maturity or after castration to induce bone loss. In general, neonatal exposure to soy isoflavones exerted beneficial effects on the skeletal system of female rodents, but the effects on male rodents seem to depend on the time of exposure and require further examinations. It might also protect the animals against bone loss due to ovariectomy at adulthood but not upon orchidectomy. The potential benefits of isoflavones on the skeletal system should be interpreted together with its non-skeletal effects in the assessment of its safety and impacts.
  16. Pang KL, Chin KY
    Molecules, 2019 Mar 06;24(5).
    PMID: 30845769 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24050923
    Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, and these two metabolic conditions cause significant healthcare burden worldwide. Chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress due to exposure of cells to excess nutrients in obesity may trigger insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Tocotrienol, as a functional food component with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cell signaling-mediating effects, may be a potential agent to complement the current management of obesity and diabetes. The review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of tocotrienol. Previous studies showed that tocotrienol could suppress adipogenesis and, subsequently, reduce body weight and fat mass in animals. This was achieved by regulating pathways of lipid metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis. It could also reduce the expression of transcription factors regulating adipogenesis and increase apoptosis of adipocytes. In diabetic models, tocotrienol was shown to improve glucose homeostasis. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was suggested to be responsible for these effects. Tocotrienol also prevented multiple systemic complications due to obesity and diabetes in animal models through suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress. Several clinical trials have been conducted to validate the antidiabetic of tocotrienol, but the results were heterogeneous. There is no evidence showing the anti-obesity effects of tocotrienol in humans. Considering the limitations of the current studies, tocotrienol has the potential to be a functional food component to aid in the management of patients with obesity and diabetes.
  17. Chow YY, Chin KY
    Mediators Inflamm, 2020;2020:8293921.
    PMID: 32189997 DOI: 10.1155/2020/8293921
    A joint is the point of connection between two bones in our body. Inflammation of the joint leads to several diseases, including osteoarthritis, which is the concern of this review. Osteoarthritis is a common chronic debilitating joint disease mainly affecting the elderly. Several studies showed that inflammation triggered by factors like biomechanical stress is involved in the development of osteoarthritis. This stimulates the release of early-stage inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which in turn induces the activation of signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). These events, in turn, generate more inflammatory molecules. Subsequently, collagenase like matrix metalloproteinases-13 (MMP-13) will degrade the extracellular matrix. As a result, anatomical and physiological functions of the joint are altered. This review is aimed at summarizing the previous studies highlighting the involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.
  18. Ekeuku SO, Chin KY
    Molecules, 2021 May 25;26(11).
    PMID: 34070497 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113156
    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are two major mechanisms leading to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation rate, and subsequently, bone loss. Thus, functional foods and dietary compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory could protect skeletal health. This review aims to examine the current evidence on the skeletal protective effects of propolis, a resin produced by bees, known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify studies on the effects of propolis on bone health. The search string used was (i) propolis AND (ii) (bone OR osteoporosis OR osteoblasts OR osteoclasts OR osteocytes). Eighteen studies were included in the current review. The available experimental studies demonstrated that propolis could prevent bone loss due to periodontitis, dental implantitis, and diabetes in animals. Combined with synthetic and natural grafts, it could also promote fracture healing. Propolis protects bone health by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoblastogenesis, partly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Despite the promising preclinical results, the skeletal protective effects of propolis are yet to be proven in human studies. This research gap should be bridged before nutraceuticals based on propolis with specific health claims can be developed.
  19. Ng JS, Chin KY
    Int J Med Sci, 2021;18(3):604-614.
    PMID: 33437195 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.50680
    Chronic psychological stress affects many body systems, including the skeleton, through various mechanisms. This review aims to provide an overview of the factors mediating the relationship between psychological stress and bone health. These factors can be divided into physiological and behavioural changes induced by psychological stress. The physiological factors involve endocrinological changes, such as increased glucocorticoids, prolactin, leptin and parathyroid hormone levels and reduced gonadal hormones. Low-grade inflammation and hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system during psychological stress are also physiological changes detrimental to bone health. The behavioural changes during mental stress, such as altered dietary pattern, cigarette smoking, alcoholism and physical inactivity, also threaten the skeletal system. Psychological stress may be partly responsible for epigenetic regulation of skeletal development. It may also mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and bone health. However, more direct evidence is required to prove these hypotheses. In conclusion, chronic psychological stress should be recognised as a risk factor of osteoporosis and stress-coping methods should be incorporated as part of the comprehensive osteoporosis-preventing strategy.
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