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  1. Shi W, Ching YC, Chuah CH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Feb 15;170:751-767.
    PMID: 33412201 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.214
    Spherical aerogels are not easily broken during use and are easier to transport and store which can be used as templates for drug delivery. This review summarizes the possible approaches for the preparation of aerogel beads and microspheres based on chitosan and cellulose, an overview to the methods of manufacturing droplets is presented, afterwards, the transition mechanisms from sol to a spherical gel are reviewed in detail followed by different drying processes to obtain spherical aerogels with porous structures. Additionally, a specific focus is given to aerogel beads and microspheres to be regarded as drug delivery carriers. Furthermore, a core/shell architecture of aerogel beads and microspheres for controlled drug release is described and subjected to inspire readers to create novel drug release system. Finally, the conclusions and outlooks of aerogel beads and microspheres for drug delivery are summarized.
  2. Yang J, Ching YC, Chuah CH
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Apr 28;11(5).
    PMID: 31035331 DOI: 10.3390/polym11050751
    Lignocellulosic fibers and lignin are two of the most important natural bioresources in the world. They show tremendous potential to decrease energy utilization/pollution and improve biodegradability by replacing synthetic fibers in bioplastics. The compatibility between the fiber-matrix plays an important part in the properties of the bioplastics. The improvement of lignocellulosic fiber properties by most surface treatments generally removes lignin. Due to the environmental pollution and high cost of cellulose modification, focus has been directed toward the use of lignocellulosic fibers in bioplastics. In addition, lignin-reinforced bioplastics are fabricated with varying success. These applications confirm there is no need to remove lignin from lignocellulosic fibers when preparing the bioplastics from a technical point of view. In this review, characterizations of lignocellulosic fibers and lignin related to their applications in bioplastics are covered. Then, we generalize the developments and problems of lignin-reinforced bioplastics and modification of lignin to improve the interaction of lignin-matrix. As for lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced bioplastics, we place importance on the low compatibility of the lignocellulosic fiber-matrix. The applications of lignin-containing cellulose and lignocellulosic fibers without delignification in the bioplastics are reviewed. A comparison between lignocellulosic fibers and lignin in the bioplastics is given.
  3. Wei S, Ching YC, Chuah CH
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Mar 01;231:115744.
    PMID: 31888854 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115744
    Chitosan with abundant functional groups is regarded as important ingredients for preparing aerogel materials in life science. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan aerogels, coupled to the variety of chemical functionalities they include, result in them promising carriers for drug delivery. Moreover, chitosan aerogels as drug delivery vehicles can offer improved drug bioavailability and drug loading capacity due to their highly porous network, considerably large specific surface area and polycationic feature. The major focus of this review lies in preparation methods of chitosan aerogels from acidic aqueous solution and chitosan solution in Ionic Liquids (ILs). In addition, chitosan aerogels as drug delivery carriers are introduced in detail and expected to inspire readers to create new kind of drug delivery system based on chitosan aerogels. Finally, growing points and perspectives of chitosan aerogels in drug delivery system are given.
  4. Yang J, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Liou NS
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Dec 29;13(1).
    PMID: 33383626 DOI: 10.3390/polym13010094
    This study examined the development of starch/oil palm empty fruit bunch-based bioplastic composites reinforced with either epoxidized palm oil (EPO) or epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), at various concentrations, in order to improve the mechanical and water-resistance properties of the bio-composites. The SEM micrographs showed that low content (0.75 wt%) of epoxidized oils (EOs), especially ESO, improved the compatibility of the composites, while high content (3 wt%) of EO induced many voids. The melting temperature of the composites was increased by the incorporation of both EOs. Thermal stability of the bioplastics was increased by the introduction of ESO. Low contents of EO led to a huge enhancement of tensile strength, while higher contents of EO showed a negative effect, due to the phase separation. The tensile strength increased from 0.83 MPa of the control sample to 3.92 and 5.42 MPa for the composites with 1.5 wt% EPO and 0.75 wt% ESO, respectively. EOs reduced the composites' water uptake and solubility but increased the water vapor permeability. Overall, the reinforcing effect of ESO was better than EPO. These results suggested that both EOs can be utilized as modifiers to prepare starch/empty-fruit-bunch-based bioplastic composites with enhanced properties.
  5. Gunathilake TMSU, Ching YC, Uyama H, Chuah CH
    J Drug Deliv Sci Technol, 2021 Aug;64:102634.
    PMID: 34127930 DOI: 10.1016/j.jddst.2021.102634
    Viral diseases have recently become a threat to human health and rapidly become a significant cause of mortality with a continually exacerbated unfavorable socio-economic impact. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), have threatened human life, with immense accompanying morbidity rates; the COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has become a severe threat to global public health. In addition, the design process of antiviral medications usually takes years before the treatments can be made readily available. Hence, it is necessary to invest scientifically and financially in a technology platform that can then be quickly repurposed on demand to be adequately positioned for this kind of pandemic situation through lessons learned from the previous pandemics. Nanomaterials/nanoformulations provide such platform technologies, and a proper investigation into their basic science and biological interactions would be of great benefit for potential vaccine and therapeutic development. In this respect, intelligent and advanced nano-based technologies provide specific physico-chemical properties, which can help fix the key issues related to the treatments of viral infections. This review aims to provide an overview of the latest research on the effective use of nanomaterials in the treatment of coronaviruses. Also raised are the problems, perspectives of antiviral nanoformulations, and the possibility of using nanomaterials effectively against current pandemic situations.
  6. Choo K, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Julai S, Liou NS
    Materials (Basel), 2016 Jul 29;9(8).
    PMID: 28773763 DOI: 10.3390/ma9080644
    In this study microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation. The treated cellulose slurry was mechanically homogenized to form a transparent dispersion which consisted of individual cellulose nanofibers with uniform widths of 3-4 nm. Bio-nanocomposite films were then prepared from a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-chitosan (CS) polymeric blend with different TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) contents (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt %) via the solution casting method. The characterizations of pure PVA/CS and PVA/CS/TOCN films were performed in terms of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from FESEM analysis justified that low loading levels of TOCNs were dispersed uniformly and homogeneously in the PVA-CS blend matrix. The tensile strength and thermal stability of the films were increased with the increased loading levels of TOCNs to a maximum level. The thermal study indicated a slight improvement of the thermal stability upon the reinforcement of TOCNs. As evidenced by the FTIR and XRD, PVA and CS were considered miscible and compatible owing to hydrogen bonding interaction. These analyses also revealed the good dispersion of TOCNs within the PVA/CS polymer matrix. The improved properties due to the reinforcement of TOCNs can be highly beneficial in numerous applications.
  7. Nguyen DH, Vo TNN, Nguyen NT, Ching YC, Hoang Thi TT
    PLoS One, 2020;15(9):e0239360.
    PMID: 32960911 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239360
    Exploiting plant extracts to form metallic nanoparticles has been becoming the promising alternative routes of chemical and physical methods owing to environmentally friendly and abundantly renewable resources. In this study, Momordica charantia and Psidium guajava leaf extract (MC.broth and PG.broth) are exploited to fabricate two kinds of biogenic silver nanoparticles (MC.AgNPs and PG.AgNPs). Phytoconstituent screening is performed to identify the categories of natural compounds in MC.broth and PG.broth. Both extracts contain wealthy polyphenols which play a role of reducing agent to turn silver (I) ions into silver nuclei. Trace alkaloids, rich saponins and other oxygen-containing compounds creating the organic corona surrounding nanoparticles act as stabilizing agents. MC.AgNPs and PG.AgNPs are characterized by UV-vis and FTIR spectrophotometry, EDS and TEM techniques. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of O-H, C = O, C-O-C and C = C groups on the surface of silver nanoparticles which is corresponded with three elements of C, O and Ag found in EDS analysis. TEM micrographs show the spherical morphology of MC.AgNPs and PG.AgNPs. MC.AgNPs were 17.0 nm distributed in narrow range of 5-29 nm, while the average size of PG.AgNPs were 25.7 nm in the range of 5-53 nm. Further, MC.AgNPs and PG.AgNPs exhibit their effectively inhibitory ability against A. niger, A. flavus and F. oxysporum as dose-dependence. Altogether, MC.AgNPs and PG.AgNPs will have much potential in scaled up production and become the promising fungicides for agricultural applications.
  8. Lin PC, Fang JC, Lin JW, Tran XV, Ching YC
    Materials (Basel), 2020 Sep 19;13(18).
    PMID: 32961763 DOI: 10.3390/ma13184170
    Effects of processing parameters on preheated (heat-assisted) clinching process to join aluminum alloy 5052-H32 (AA5052) and thermoplastic carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (TP-CFRP) sheets for cross-tension (CT) specimens were first studied. Preheating was critical since brittle TP-CFRP could be softened to avoid fracturing or cracking during clinching process. Four processing parameters, including punching force, die depth, heating mode, and heating temperature, were considered. Quasi-static tests and microscope observations were taken to evaluate AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints in CT specimens and determine appropriate processing parameters for fatigue tests. Finally, fatigue data and failure mode of clinch joints in CT specimens were obtained and discussed.
  9. Mhd Haniffa MAC, Ching YC, Illias HA, Munawar K, Ibrahim S, Nguyen DH, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2021 Feb 01;253:117245.
    PMID: 33279000 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117245
    Cellulose with ample hydroxyl groups is considered as a promising supportive biopolymer for fabricating cellulose supported promising magnetic sorbents (CMS) for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). The easy recovery via external magnetic field, and recyclability of CMS, associated with different types and surface modifications of cellulose has made them a promising sorbent in the field of solid-phase extraction. CMS based sorbent can offer improved adsorption and absorption capabilities due to its high specific surface area, porous structure, and magnetic attraction feature. This review mainly focuses on the fabrication strategies of CMS using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and various forms of cellulose as a heterogeneous and homogeneous solution either in alkaline mediated urea or Ionic liquids (ILs). Moreover, CMS will be elaborated based on their structures, synthesis, physical performance, and chemical attraction of MNPs and their MSPE in details. The advantages, challenges, and prospects of CMS in future applications are also presented.
  10. Kunnan Singh JS, Ching YC, Abdullah LC, Ching KY, Razali S, Gan SN
    Polymers (Basel), 2018 Mar 20;10(3).
    PMID: 30966373 DOI: 10.3390/polym10030338
    This paper investigated the effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-particles on mechanical properties of polyoxymethylene (POM) composites. Since PTFE is immiscible with most polymers, the surface was etched using sodium naphthalene salt in tetrahydrofuran to increase its surface energy. The effects of two variables, namely PTFE content and PTFE etch time, on the mechanical properties of the composite were studied. Experiments were designed in accordance to response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). Samples were prepared with different compositions of PTFE (1.7, 4.0, 9.5, 15.0, or 17.3 wt %) at different PTFE etch times (2.9, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, or 17.1 min). Four mechanical properties of the POM/GF/PTFE composites, that is, strength, stiffness, toughness, and hardness, were characterized as a function of two studied variables. The dependency of these mechanical properties on the PTFE etch conditions was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Overall desirability, D global index, was computed based on the combination of these mechanical properties for POM/GF/PTFE composites. The D global index was found to be 87.5%, when PTFE content and PTFE etch time were 6.5% and 10 min, respectively. Good correlation between experimental and RSM models was obtained using normal probability plots.
  11. Haniffa MACM, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Kuan YC, Liu DS, Liou NS
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 May 01;9(5).
    PMID: 30970841 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050162
    Non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) was prepared from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and its alkyd resin via curing with different diamines. The isocyanate-free approach is a green chemistry route, wherein carbon dioxide conversion plays a major role in NIPU preparation. Catalytic carbon dioxide fixation can be achieved through carbonation of epoxidized derivatives of JCO. In this study, 1,3-diaminopropane (DM) and isophorone diamine (IPDA) were used as curing agents separately. Cyclic carbonate conversion was catalyzed by tetrabutylammonium bromide. After epoxy conversion, carbonated JCO (CJCO) and carbonated alkyd resin (CC-AR) with carbonate contents of 24.9 and 20.2 wt %, respectively, were obtained. The molecular weight of CJCO and CC-AR were determined by gel permeation chromatography. JCO carbonates were cured with different amine contents. CJCO was blended with different weight ratios of CC-AR to improve its characteristics. The cured NIPU film was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, differential scanning calorimetry, and a universal testing machine. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the morphology of the NIPU film before and after solvent treatment. The solvent effects on the NIPU film interfacial surface were investigated with water, 30% ethanol, methyl ethyl ketone, 10% HCl, 10% NaCl, and 5% NaOH. NIPU based on CCJO and CC-AR (ratio of 1:3) with IPDA crosslink exhibits high glass transition temperature (44 °C), better solvent and chemical resistance, and Young's modulus (680 MPa) compared with the blend crosslinked with DM. Thus, this study showed that the presence of CC-AR in CJCO-based NIPU can improve the thermomechanical and chemical resistance performance of the NIPU film via a green technology approach.
  12. Udenni Gunathilake TMS, Ching YC, Ching KY, Chuah CH, Abdullah LC
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Apr 29;9(5).
    PMID: 30970839 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050160
    Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
  13. Mhd Haniffa MAC, Ching YC, Abdullah LC, Poh SC, Chuah CH
    Polymers (Basel), 2016 Jun 29;8(7).
    PMID: 30974522 DOI: 10.3390/polym8070246
    The properties of a composite material depend on its constituent materials such as natural biopolymers or synthetic biodegradable polymers and inorganic or organic nanomaterials or nano-scale minerals. The significance of bio-based and synthetic polymers and their drawbacks on coating film application is currently being discussed in research papers and articles. Properties and applications vary for each novel synthetic bio-based material, and a number of such materials have been fabricated in recent years. This review provides an in-depth discussion on the properties and applications of biopolymer-based nanocomposite coating films. Recent works and articles are cited in this paper. These citations are ubiquitous in the development of novel bionanocomposites and their applications.
  14. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake TM, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Rahman NA, Liou NS
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 May 07;158:670-688.
    PMID: 32389655 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.010
    The limitations of existing drug delivery systems (DDS) such as non-specific bio-distribution and poor selectivity have led to the exploration of a variety of carrier platforms to facilitate highly desirable and efficient drug delivery. Stimuli-responsive DDS are one of the most versatile and innovative approach to steer the compounds to the intended sites by exploiting their responsiveness to a range of various triggers. Preparation of stimuli-responsive DDS using celluloses and their derivatives offer a remarkable advantage over conventional polymer materials. In this review, we highlight on state-of-art progress in developing cellulose/cellulose hybrid stimuli-responsive DDS, which covers the preparation techniques, physicochemical properties, basic principles and, mechanisms of stimuli effect on drug release from various types of cellulose based carriers, through recent innovative investigations. Attention has been paid to endogenous stimuli (pH, temperature, redox gradient and ionic-strength) responsive DDS and exogenous stimuli (light, magnetic field and electric field) responsive DDS, where the cellulose-based materials have been extensively employed. Furthermore, the current challenges and future prospects of these DDS are also discussed at the end.
  15. Gunathilake TMSU, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Hai ND, Nai-Shang L
    Pharm. Res., 2020 Aug 30;37(9):178.
    PMID: 32864721 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-020-02910-z
    PURPOSE: Among various types of external stimuli-responsive DDS, electric-responsive DDS are more promising carriers as they exploit less complex, easily miniaturized electric signal generators and the possibility of fine-tuning the electric signals. This study investigates the use of intrinsically biocompatible biopolymers in electro-simulative drug delivery to enhance the release of poorly-soluble/non-ionic drug.

    METHODS: CMC/PLA/ZnO/CUR nanocomposite films were prepared by the dispersion of CMC and ZnO NPs in solubilized PLA/curcumin medium, followed by solvent casting step. Curcumin is poorly water-soluble and used as the model drug in this study. The films with different contents of CMC, PLA and ZnO NPs were characterized using FTIR, impedance spectroscopy, tensile testing and FESEM imaging. The in vitro drug release of the films was carried out in deionized water under DC electric field of 4.5 V.

    RESULTS: The ionic conductivity of the films increased with increasing the CMC concentration of the film. The addition of a small amount of ZnO NPs (2%) successfully restored the tensile properties of the film. In response to the application of the electric field, the composite films released drug with a near-linear profile. There was no noticeable amount of passive diffusion of the drug from the film with the absence of the electric field.

    CONCLUSION: The outcome of this study enabled the design of an electric-responsive nanocomposite platform for the delivery of poorly water-soluble/non-ionic drugs. Graphical abstract.

  16. Mhd Haniffa MAC, Munawar K, Ching YC, Illias HA, Chuah CH
    Chem Asian J, 2021 Jun 01;16(11):1281-1297.
    PMID: 33871151 DOI: 10.1002/asia.202100226
    New and emerging demand for polyurethane (PU) continues to rise over the years. The harmful isocyanate binding agents and their integrated PU products are at the height of environmental concerns, in particular PU (macro and micro) pollution and their degradation problems. Non-isocyanate poly(hydroxy urethane)s (NIPUs) are sustainable and green alternatives to conventional PUs. Since the introduction of NIPU in 1957, the market value of NIPU and its hybridized materials has increased exponentially in 2019 and is expected to continue to rise in the coming years. The secondary hydroxyl groups of these NIPU's urethane moiety have revolutionized them by allowing for adequate pre/post functionalization. This minireview highlights different strategies and advances in pre/post-functionalization used in biobased NIPU. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation of the development of new ideas in this field to achieve more efficient synthetic biobased hybridized NIPU processes through selective and kinetic understanding.
  17. Mhd Haniffa MAC, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Yong Ching K, Nazri N, Abdullah LC, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Oct 01;173:91-99.
    PMID: 28732923 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.05.084
    Recently, surface functionality and thermal property of the green nanomaterials have received wide attention in numerous applications. In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used to prepare the nanocrystalline celluloses (NCCs) using acid hydrolysis method. The NCCs was treated with TEMPO [(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxy radical]-oxidation to prepare TEMPO-oxidized NCCs. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) also prepared from MCC using TEMPO-oxidation. The effects of rapid cooling and chemical treatments on the thermo-structural property studies of the prepared nanocelluloses were investigated through FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric (TGA-DTG), and XRD. A posteriori knowledge of the FTIR and TGA-DTG analysis revealed that the rapid cooling treatment enhanced the hydrogen bond energy and thermal stability of the TEMPO-oxidized NCC compared to other nanocelluloses. XRD analysis exhibits the effect of rapid cooling on pseudo 2Ihelical conformation. This was the first investigation performed on the effect of rapid cooling on structural properties of the nanocellulose.
  18. Sampath Udeni Gunathilake TM, Ching YC, Chuah CH, Illias HA, Ching KY, Singh R, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Oct 15;118(Pt A):1055-1064.
    PMID: 30001596 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.06.147
    Nanocellulose reinforced chitosan hydrogel was synthesized using chemical crosslinking method for the delivery of curcumin which is a poorly water-soluble drug. Curcumin extracted from the dried rhizomes of Curcuma longa was incorporated to the hydrogel via in situ loading method. A nonionic surfactant (Tween 20) was incorporated into the hydrogel to improve the solubility of curcumin. After the gas foaming process, hydrogel showed large interconnected pore structures. The release studies in gastric medium showed that the cumulative release of curcumin increased from 0.21% ± 0.02% to 54.85% ± 0.77% with the increasing of Tween 20 concentration from 0% to 30% (w/v) after 7.5 h. However, the entrapment efficiency percentage decreased with the addition of Tween 20. The gas foamed hydrogel showed higher initial burst release within the first 120 min compared to hydrogel formed at atmospheric condition. The solubility of curcumin would increase to 3.014 ± 0.041 mg/mL when the Tween 20 concentration increased to 3.2% (w/v) in simulated gastric medium. UV-visible spectra revealed that the drug retained its chemical activity after in vitro release. From these findings, it is believed that the nonionic surfactant incorporated chitosan/nanocellulose hydrogel can provide a platform to overcome current problems associated with curcumin delivery.
  19. Nguyen DH, Lee JS, Park KD, Ching YC, Nguyen XT, Phan VHG, et al.
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Mar 17;10(3).
    PMID: 32192177 DOI: 10.3390/nano10030542
    Phytoconstituents presenting in herbal plant broths are the biocompatible, regenerative, and cost-effective sources that can be utilized for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Different plant extracts can form nanoparticles with specific sizes, shapes, and properties. In the study, we prepared silver nanoparticles (P.uri.AgNPs, P.zey.AgNPs, and S.dul.AgNPs) based on three kinds of leaf extracts (Phyllanthus urinaria, Pouzolzia zeylanica, and Scoparia dulcis, respectively) and demonstrated the antifungal capacity. The silver nanoparticles were simply formed by adding silver nitrate to leaf extracts without using any reducing agents or stabilizers. Formation and physicochemical properties of these silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. P.uri.AgNPs were 28.3 nm and spherical. P.zey.AgNPs were 26.7 nm with hexagon or triangle morphologies. Spherical S.dul.AgNPs were formed and they were relatively smaller than others. P.uri.AgNPs, P.zey.AgNPs and S.dul.AgNPs exhibited the antifungal ability effective against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Fusarium oxysporum, demonstrating their potentials as fungicides in the biomedical and agricultural applications.
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