Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 76 in total

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  1. Madhavan P, Jamal F, Chong PP, Ng KP
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):269-74.
    PMID: 22041745
    The objective of our study was to study the effectiveness of CHROMagar Candida™ as the primary identification method for various clinical Candida isolates, other than the three suggested species by the manufacturer. We studied 34 clinical isolates which were isolated from patients in a local teaching hospital and 7 ATCC strains. These strains were first cultured in Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB) for 36 hours at 35ºC, then on CHROMagar plates at 30ºC, 35ºC and 37ºC. The sensitivity of this agar to identify Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis ranged between 25 and 100% at 30ºC, 14% and 100% at 35ºC, 56% and 100% at 37ºC. The specificity of this agar was 100% at 30ºC, between 97% and 100% at 35ºC, 92% and 100% at 37ºC. The efficiency of this agar ranged between 88 and 100% at 30ºC, 83% and 100% at 35ºC, 88% and 100% at 37ºC. Each species also gave rise to a variety of colony colours ranging from pink to green to blue of different colony characteristics. Therefore, the chromogenic agar was found to be useful in our study for identifying clinical Candida isolates.
  2. Madhavan P, Jamal F, Chong PP, Ng KP
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):200-7.
    PMID: 20962716 MyJurnal
    The in vitro susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates towards fluconazole and voriconazole was determined using the E-test method. A total of 41 clinical isolates recovered from patients since 2004 until 2009 from two local hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were used. These comprised Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata. Strains from American Type Culture Collection were used as quality control. Lawn cultures of the isolates on RPMI-1640 agar medium supplemented with 2% glucose were incubated with the E-test strips at 35ºC for 48 h. Our results show that 71% were susceptible to fluconazole and 90% were susceptible to voriconazole. All strains of C. krusei were resistant to fluconazole and 50% were susceptible in a dose-dependent manner to voriconazole. There were 66% and 33% of C. glabrata that were resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. Our study revealed that majority of the clinical Candida isolates was susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole with a small percentage being resistant to both the drugs.
  3. Aizah N, Chong PP, Kamarul T
    Cartilage, 2021 12;13(2_suppl):1322S-1333S.
    PMID: 31569963 DOI: 10.1177/1947603519878479
    OBJECTIVE: Advances in research have shown that the subchondral bone plays an important role in the propagation of cartilage loss and progression of osteoarthritis (OA), but whether the subchondral bone changes precede or lead to articular cartilage loss remains debatable. In order to elucidate the subchondral bone and cartilage changes that occur in early OA, an experiment using anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced posttraumatic OA model of the rat knee was conducted.

    DESIGN: Forty-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: the ACLT group and the nonoperated control group. Surgery was conducted on the ACLT group, and subsequently rats from both groups were sacrificed at 1, 2, and 3 weeks postsurgery. Subchondral bone was evaluated using a high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scanner, while cartilage was histologically evaluated and scored.

    RESULTS: A significant reduction in the subchondral trabecular bone thickness and spacing was found as early as 1 week postsurgery in ACLT rats compared with the nonoperated control. This was subsequently followed by a reduction in bone mineral density and bone fractional volume at week 2, and finally a decrease in the trabecular number at week 3. These changes occurred together with cartilage degeneration as reflected by an increasing Mankin score over all 3 weeks.

    CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in subchondral bone occur very early in OA concurrent with surface articular cartilage degenerative change suggest that factors affecting bone remodeling and resorption together with cartilage matrix degradation occur very early in the disease.

  4. Chong SC, Dollah MA, Chong PP, Maha A
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Sep 1;137(1):817-27.
    PMID: 21763412 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.06.041
    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Pm) has been shown to reduce cholesterol level in vitro and in vivo experiment.
  5. Than LT, Chong PP, Ng KP, Seow HF
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2012 Feb;72(2):196-8.
    PMID: 22154674 DOI: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2011.10.008
    A seminested PCR detecting ten medically important Candida species were achieved. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were not compromised.
  6. Lim CS, Rosli R, Seow HF, Chong PP
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2012 Jan;31(1):21-31.
    PMID: 21544694 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1273-3
    The ubiquitous Candida spp. is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which, despite treatment with antifungal drugs, can cause fatal bloodstream infections (BSIs) in immunocompromised and immunodeficient persons. Thus far, several major C. albicans virulence factors have been relatively well studied, including morphology switching and secreted degradative enzymes. However, the exact mechanism of Candida pathogenesis and the host response to invasion are still not well elucidated. The relatively recent discovery of the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol and the existence of quorum sensing as a basic regulatory phenomenon of the C. albicans population behavior has revolutionized Candida research. Through population density regulation, the quorum-sensing mechanism also controls the cellular morphology of a C. albicans population in response to environmental factors, thereby, effectively placing morphology switching downstream of quorum sensing. Thus, the quorum-sensing phenomenon has been hailed as the 'missing piece' of the pathogenicity puzzle. Here, we review what is known about Candida spp. as the etiological agents of invasive candidiasis and address our current understanding of the quorum-sensing phenomenon in relation to virulence in the host.
  7. Lim CS, Rosli R, Seow HF, Chong PP
    Int J Med Microbiol, 2011 Aug;301(6):536-46.
    PMID: 21371935 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2010.12.002
    Systemic infections of Candida albicans, the most prevalent fungal pathogen in humans, are on the rise in recent years. However, the exact mode of pathogenesis of this fungus is still not well elucidated. Previous studies using C. albicans mutants locked into the yeast form via gene deletion found that this form was avirulent and did not induce significant differential expression of host genes in vitro. In this study, a high density of C. albicans was used to infect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), resulting in yeast-form infections, whilst a low density of C. albicans resulted in hyphae infections. Transcriptional profiling of HUVEC response to these infections showed that high densities of C. albicans induced a stronger, broader transcriptional response from HUVEC than low densities of C. albicans infection. Many of the genes that were significantly differentially expressed were involved in apoptosis and cell death. In addition, conditioned media from the high-density infections caused a significant reduction in HUVEC viability, suggesting that certain molecules released during C. albicans and HUVEC interactions were capable of causing cell death. This study has shown that C. albicans yeast-forms, at high densities, cannot be dismissed as avirulent, but instead could possibly contribute to C. albicans pathogenesis.
  8. Low CF, Mohd Tohit ER, Chong PP, Idris F
    Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2011 Jun;283(6):1255-60.
    PMID: 20552210 DOI: 10.1007/s00404-010-1548-4
    Diabetes and pregnancy can be associated in two ways: pregnancy that occurs in women who are already diabetic (diabetes of pre-gestational origin); and diabetes that occur in women who are already pregnant [gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (O'sullivan 1961)]. Patients with previous GDM history have higher risk of developing diabetes outside of pregnancy. Accumulating literature had suggested that adiponectin plays a role in the pathophysiology of this metabolic syndrome, and several of the common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in adiponectin gene have been identified in type 2 diabetes. Thus, one of the commonly found SNP was studied to determine its association with GDM.
  9. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Aala F, Sekawi Z, Chong PP
    Mycopathologia, 2010 Apr;169(4):287-95.
    PMID: 19924565 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-009-9251-3
    Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, and the type of infection encompassed by candidiasis ranges from superficial to systemic. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. In this study, we used allicin, an allyl sulfur derivative of garlic, to demonstrate both its intrinsic antifungal activity and its synergy with the azoles, in the treatment of these yeasts in vitro. In this study, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of allicin alone against six Candida spp. ranged from 0.05 to 25 microg/ml. However, when allicin was used in combination with fluconazole or ketoconazole, the MICs were decreased in some isolates. Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, but synergy was not demonstrated in the majority of Candida spp. tested. Nonetheless, In vivo testing needs to be performed to support these findings.
  10. Lim CS, Tung CH, Rosli R, Chong PP
    J Microbiol Methods, 2008 Dec;75(3):576-8.
    PMID: 18727938 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2008.07.026
    This report describes a modified, cost-effective method of cell wall disruption for the yeast Candida spp., which employs the use of glass beads in a simple sorbitol lysis buffer. This method can be used in conjunction with a commercial RNA or genomic DNA isolation method to obtain high-quality RNA or DNA.
  11. Ho KL, Chong PP, Yazan LS, Ismail M
    J Med Food, 2012 Dec;15(12):1096-102.
    PMID: 23216109 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2245
    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.
  12. Choo KK, Chong PP, Ho AS, Yong PV
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2015 Dec;34(12):2421-7.
    PMID: 26463450 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2497-4
    The purpose of this investigation was to characterise the interactions of Cryptococcus neoformans with mammalian host alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, with emphasis on the roles of the cryptococcal capsule and the host cell cytoskeletons. The adherence and internalisation of C. neoformans into mammalian lung cells and the roles of host cell cytoskeletons in host-pathogen interactions were studied using in vitro models coupled with a differential fluorescence assay, fluorescence staining, immunofluorescence and drug inhibition of actin and microtubule polymerisation. Under conditions devoid of opsonin and macrophage activation, C. neoformans has a high affinity towards MH-S alveolar macrophages, yet associated poorly to A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Acapsular C. neoformans adhered to and internalised into the mammalian cells more effectively compared to encapsulated cryptococci. Acapsular C. neoformans induced prominent actin reorganisation at the host-pathogen interface in MH-S alveolar macrophages, but minimally affected actin reorganisation in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Acapsular C. neoformans also induced localisation of microtubules to internalised cryptococci in MH-S cells. Drug inhibition of actin and microtubule polymerisation both reduced the association of acapsular C. neoformans to alveolar macrophages. The current study visualises and confirms the interactions of C. neoformans with mammalian alveolar cells during the establishment of infection in the lungs. The acapsular form of C. neoformans effectively adhered to and internalised into alveolar macrophages by inducing localised actin reorganisation, relying on the host's actin and microtubule activities.
  13. Than LT, Chong PP, Ng KP, Seow HF
    Jundishapur J Microbiol, 2015 Jan;8(1):e14940.
    PMID: 25789129 DOI: 10.5812/jjm.14940
    The number of invasive candidiasis cases has risen especially with an increase in the number of immunosuppressed and immunocom promised patients. The early detection of Candida species which is specific and sensitive is important in determining the correct administration of antifungal drugs to patients.
  14. Chin VK, Lee TY, Rusliza B, Chong PP
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016 Oct 18;17(10).
    PMID: 27763544
    Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients. Adoption of animal models, viz. minihosts, mice, and zebrafish, has brought us closer to unraveling the pathogenesis and complexity of Candida infection in human hosts, leading towards the discovery of biomarkers and identification of potential therapeutic agents. In addition, the advancement of omics technologies offers a holistic view of the Candida-host interaction in a non-targeted and non-biased manner. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize past and present milestone findings on C. albicans virulence, adoption of animal models in the study of C. albicans infection, and the application of omics technologies in the study of Candida-host interaction. A profound understanding of the interaction between host defense and pathogenesis is imperative for better design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future.
  15. Chong PP, Selvaratnam L, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    J Orthop Res, 2012 Apr;30(4):634-42.
    PMID: 21922534 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21556
    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage repair has generated much interest owing to their multipotentiality. However, their significant presence in peripheral blood (PB) has been a matter of much debate. The objectives of this study are to isolate and characterize MSCs derived from PB and, compare their chondrogenic potential to MSC derived from bone marrow (BM). PB and BM derived MSCs from 20 patients were isolated and characterized. From 2 ml of PB and BM, 5.4 ± 0.6 million and 10.5 ± 0.8 million adherent cells, respectively, were obtained by cell cultures at passage 2. Both PB and BM derived MSCs were able to undergo tri-lineage differentiation and showed negative expression of CD34 and CD45, but positively expressed CD105, CD166, and CD29. Qualitative and quantitative examinations on the chondrogenic potential of PB and BM derived MSCs expressed similar cartilage specific gene (COMP) and proteoglycan levels, respectively. Furthermore, the s-GAG levels expressed by chondrogenic MSCs in cultures were similar to that of native chondrocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MSCs from PB maintain similar characteristics and have similar chondrogenic differentiation potential to those derived from BM, while producing comparable s-GAG expressions to chondrocytes.
  16. Tan ST, Ismail A, Hamid M, Chong PP, Sun J
    J Food Biochem, 2019 05;43(5):e12843.
    PMID: 31353513 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.12843
    Unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activities are among the contributing factors for obesity and diabetes. It has been reported that consumption of naturally occurring phenolics could exert beneficial effects toward these diseases. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the ability of phenolic-rich soy husk powder extract (SHPE) in modifying the physical and biochemical parameters for obesity and diabetes. Forty-nine Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups, including three supplementary/treatment groups. Rats in supplementary/treatment groups were provided with either 4 mg/kg BW Rosiglitazone Maleate, 250 mg SHPE/kg BW, or 500 mg SHPE/kg BW. The effectiveness of SHPE in alleviating obesity-diabetes was evaluated by measuring body weight (physical parameter), blood glucose metabolisms (biochemical parameters), and PPARγ expression. Findings in the present study revealed that short-term SHPE and Rosiglitazone Maleate administration improved the physical and biochemical parameters of obese-diabetic rats. In addition, SHPE was also demonstrated to upregulate PPARγ expression in adipocytes. These findings suggest that soy husk could emerge as a potential hypoglycemic and anti-adipogenic nutraceutical in future. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This was the first study to evaluate the potential effects of soy husk against the parameters of obese-diabetes in rats. In addition, promising effects derived from this study might explore the possibility of soy husk to be utilized as an antidiabetes nutraceutical.
  17. Chong PP, Selvaratnam L, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Open Life Sci, 2018 Jan;13:279-284.
    PMID: 33817094 DOI: 10.1515/biol-2018-0034
    Most studies highlight mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extracted primarily from bone marrow (BM), very few report the use of peripheral blood (PB), often due to the associated low seeding density and difficulties with extraction techniques. As ageing populations are becoming more predominant globally, together with escalating demands for MSC transplantation and tissue regeneration, obtaining quality MSCs suitable for induced differentiation and biological therapies becomes increasingly important. In this study, BM and PB were obtained from elderly patients and extracted MSCs grown in vitro to determine their successful isolation and expansion. Patients' socio-demographic background and other medical information were obtained from medical records. Successful and failed cultures were correlated with key demographic and medical parameters. A total of 112 samples (BM or PB) were used for this study. Of these, 50 samples (44.6%) were successfully cultured according to standardised criteria with no signs of contamination. Our comparative analyses demonstrated no statistical correlation between successful MSC cultures and any of the six demographic or medical parameters examined, including sample quantity, age, sex, race, habits and underlying comorbidities of sample donors. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that typical demographics and comorbidities do not influence successful MSC isolation and expansion in culture.
  18. Kang X, Handayani DOD, Chong PP, Acharya UR
    Comput Biol Med, 2020 10;125:103970.
    PMID: 32892114 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103970
    Nowadays human behavior has been affected with the advent of new digital technologies. Due to the rampant use of the Internet by children, many have been addicted to pornography. This addiction has negatively affected the behaviors of children including increased impulsiveness, learning ability to attention, poor decision-making, memory problems, and deficit in emotion regulation. The children with porn addiction can be identified by parents and medical practitioners as third-party observers. This systematic literature review (SLR) is conducted to increase the understanding of porn addiction using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. We have searched five different databases namely IEEE, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) using addiction, porn, and EEG as keywords along with 'OR 'operation in between the expressions. We have selected 46 studies in this work by screening 815,554 papers from five databases. Our results show that it is possible to identify children with porn addiction using EEG signals.
  19. Chong PP, Lee YL, Tan BC, Ng KP
    J Med Microbiol, 2003 Aug;52(Pt 8):657-66.
    PMID: 12867559
    The aims of this study were to compare the genetic relatedness of: (i) sequential and single isolates of Candida strains from women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC); and (ii) Candida strains from women who had only one episode of infection within a 1-year period. In total, 87 isolates from 71 patients were cultured, speciated and genotyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Patients were categorized into three groups, namely those with: (i) a history of RVC from whom two or more yeast isolates were obtained (group A); (ii) a history of RVC from whom only a single isolate was obtained (group B); and (iii) a single episode of vaginal candidiasis within a 1-year period (group C). Six yeast species were detected: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae, Candida famata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Interestingly, the prevalence of non-albicans species was higher in group A patients (50 %) than in patients in groups B (36 %) or C (18.9 %). Eighty RAPD profiles were observed, with a total of 61 polymorphic PCR fragments of distinct sizes. Clustering analysis showed that, overall, the majority of patients in group A had recurrent infections caused by highly similar, but not identical, sequential strains [mean pairwise similarity coefficient (S(AB)) = 0.721 +/- 0.308]. The range of mean S(AB) values for intergroup comparisons for C. albicans isolates alone was 0.50-0.56, suggesting that there was no significant relatedness between strains from different groups. Genetic similarity of C. albicans isolates from patients in group A was lower than that of C. albicans isolates from patients in group C (mean S(AB) = 0.532 +/- 0.249 and 0.636 +/- 0.206, respectively); this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.036). These results demonstrate that the cause of recurrent infections varies among individuals and ranges between strain maintenance, strain microevolution and strain replacement; the major scenario is strain maintenance with microevolution. They also show that C. albicans strains that cause recurrent infections are less similar to each other than strains that cause one-off infections, suggesting that the former may represent more virulent subtypes.
  20. Sulaiman S, Chong PP, Mokhtarudin R, Lye MS, Wan Hassan WH
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):36-45.
    PMID: 24862043 MyJurnal
    Identification of pregnant women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis is essential to allow early antibiotic treatment in order to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study, two nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) namely nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA) were evaluated in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of C. trachomatis DNA in pregnant women with preterm complications. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two public hospitals in Southern Selangor, Malaysia. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to DNA amplification using nested PCR (BioSewoom, Korea) and Amplicor CT/NG (Roche Diagnostic, USA). A total of 83 endocervical swabs obtained from pregnant women of less than 37 weeks gestation and presented with preterm complications were subjected to chlamydial DNA detection using both assays. The study shows that Amplicor CT/NG assay is more effective in the detection of C. trachomatis DNA from endocervical swabs compared to Biosewoom nested PCR kit. Agreement between the two assays were poor (kappa=0.094) with nested PCR showing a low sensitivity of 10.81% and a 97.83% specificity when compared to Amplicor CT/NG. The results obtained indicated that BioSewoom nested PCR was less sensitive than Amplicor CT/ NG for detecting C. trachomatis in endocervical specimens and that another more reliable test is required for confirmatory result.
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