RESULTS: A combined process of microwave pretreatment and solvent extraction to mill crude palm oil, without introducing water or steam, is described. An excellent yield (up to 30%) of oil was obtained with pretreatment in a 42 L, 1000 W and 2450 MHz microwave oven followed by hexane extraction. The optimum conditions (10 min microwave pretreatment and 12 h solvent extraction) yielded an oil with a low free fatty acid content (<1.0%) and an acceptable anisidine value (<3.0 meq kg(-1) ). The oil had a fatty acid composition not resembling those of conventional crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil. In the pretreatment, the leached oil had 6.3% lauric acid whereas the solvent extracted oil had only 1.5% lauric acid. Among the factors affecting the oil quality, microwave pretreatment affected the oil quality significantly; however, an optimised duration that would ensure high efficiency in solvent extraction also resulted in ruptured fruitlets, although not to the extent of causing excessive oxidation. In fact, microwave pretreatment should exceed 12 min; after only 15 min, the oil had 1-methylcyclopentanol (12.96%), 1-tetradecanol (9.44%), 1-nonadecene (7.22%), nonanal (7.13%) and 1-tridecene (5.09%), which probably arose from the degradation of fibres.
CONCLUSION: Microwave pretreatment represents an alternative milling process for crude palm oil compared with conventional processes in the omission of wet treatment with steam. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: This is a retrospective case-control study (ratio 1:1) where a patient with CRE infection or colonisation was matched with a control. The control was an individual who tested negative for CRE but was a close contact of a patient testing positive and was admitted at the same time and place. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were done.
RESULTS: The study included 154 patients. The majority of the CRE was Klebsiella species (83%). From univariate analysis, the significant risk factors were having a history of indwelling devices (OR: 2.791; 95% CI: 1.384-5.629), concomitant other MDRO (OR: 2.556; 95% CI: 1.144-5.707) and hospitalisation for more than three weeks (OR: 2.331; 95% CI: 1.163-4.673). Multivariate analysis showed that being unable to ambulate on admission (adjusted OR: 2.345; 95% CI: 1.170-4.699) and antibiotic exposure (adjusted OR: 3.515; 95% CI: 1.377-8.972) were independent predictors. The in-hospital mortality rate of CRE infection was high (64.5%). CRE acquisition resulted in prolonged hospitalisation (median=35 days; P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: CRE infection results in high morbidity and mortality. On top of the common risk factors, patients with mobility restriction, prior antibiotic exposures and hospitalisation for more than three weeks should be prioritised in the screening strategy to control the spread of CRE.