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  1. Garcia-Martin R, González-Briones A, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 May 25;19(10).
    PMID: 31130598 DOI: 10.3390/s19102390
    Due to fire protection regulations, a minimum number of fire extinguishers must be available depending on the surface area of each building, industrial establishment or workplace. There is also a set of rules that establish where the fire extinguisher should be placed: always close to the points that are most likely to be affected by a fire and where they are visible and accessible for use. Fire extinguishers are pressure devices, which means that they require maintenance operations that ensure they will function properly in the case of a fire. The purpose of manual and periodic fire extinguisher checks is to verify that their labeling, installation and condition comply with the standards. Security seals, inscriptions, hose and other seals are thoroughly checked. The state of charge (weight and pressure) of the extinguisher, the bottle of propellant gas (if available), and the state of all mechanical parts (nozzle, valves, hose, etc.) are also checked. To ensure greater safety and reduce the economic costs associated with maintaining fire extinguishers, it is necessary to develop a system that allows monitoring of their status. One of the advantages of monitoring fire extinguishers is that it will be possible to understand what external factors affect them (for example, temperature or humidity) and how they do so. For this reason, this article presents a system of soft agents that monitors the state of the extinguishers, collects a history of the state of the extinguisher and environmental factors and sends notifications if any parameter is not within the range of normal values.The results rendered by the SmartFire prototype indicate that its accuracy in calculating pressure changes is equivalent to that of a specific data acquisition system (DAS). The comparative study of the two curves (SmartFire and DAS) shows that the average error between the two curves is negligible: 8% in low pressure measurements (up to 3 bar) and 0.3% in high pressure (above 3 bar).
  2. González-Briones A, Chamoso P, Yoe H, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Mar 14;18(3).
    PMID: 29538351 DOI: 10.3390/s18030861
    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.
  3. Rivas A, Chamoso P, González-Briones A, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Jun 27;18(7).
    PMID: 29954080 DOI: 10.3390/s18072048
    Multirotor drones have been one of the most important technological advances of the last decade. Their mechanics are simple compared to other types of drones and their possibilities in flight are greater. For example, they can take-off vertically. Their capabilities have therefore brought progress to many professional activities. Moreover, advances in computing and telecommunications have also broadened the range of activities in which drones may be used. Currently, artificial intelligence and information analysis are the main areas of research in the field of computing. The case study presented in this article employed artificial intelligence techniques in the analysis of information captured by drones. More specifically, the camera installed in the drone took images which were later analyzed using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to identify the objects captured in the images. In this research, a CNN was trained to detect cattle, however the same training process could be followed to develop a CNN for the detection of any other object. This article describes the design of the platform for real-time analysis of information and its performance in the detection of cattle.
  4. Choon YW, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Chong CK, Omatu S, Corchado JM
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:124537.
    PMID: 25874200 DOI: 10.1155/2015/124537
    Microbial strain optimisation for the overproduction of a desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can modify the metabolism of microbial cells to obtain desirable phenotypes. Optimisation algorithms have been developed to identify the effects of gene knockout. However, the complexities of metabolic networks have made the process of identifying the effects of genetic modification on desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to a combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene knockout. The computational time increases exponentially as the size of the problem increases. This work reports an extension of Bees Hill Flux Balance Analysis (BHFBA) to identify optimal gene knockouts to maximise the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by integrating OptKnock into BHFBA for validating the results automatically. The results show that the extension of BHFBA is suitable, reliable, and applicable in predicting gene knockout. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as model organisms, extension of BHFBA has shown better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes.
  5. Chan WH, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Zaki N, Kasim S, Omatu S, et al.
    Comput. Biol. Med., 2016 10 01;77:102-15.
    PMID: 27522238 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.08.004
    Incorporation of pathway knowledge into microarray analysis has brought better biological interpretation of the analysis outcome. However, most pathway data are manually curated without specific biological context. Non-informative genes could be included when the pathway data is used for analysis of context specific data like cancer microarray data. Therefore, efficient identification of informative genes is inevitable. Embedded methods like penalized classifiers have been used for microarray analysis due to their embedded gene selection. This paper proposes an improved penalized support vector machine with absolute t-test weighting scheme to identify informative genes and pathways. Experiments are done on four microarray data sets. The results are compared with previous methods using 10-fold cross validation in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and F-score. Our method shows consistent improvement over the previous methods and biological validation has been done to elucidate the relation of the selected genes and pathway with the phenotype under study.
  6. Chamoso P, González-Briones A, Rivas A, Bueno De Mata F, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 May 03;18(5).
    PMID: 29751554 DOI: 10.3390/s18051416
    Rapid advances in technology make it necessary to prepare our society in every aspect. Some of the most significant technological developments of the last decade are the UAVs (Unnamed Aerial Vehicles) or drones. UAVs provide a wide range of new possibilities and have become a tool that we now use on a daily basis. However, if their use is not controlled, it could entail several risks, which make it necessary to legislate and monitor UAV flights to ensure, inter alia, the security and privacy of all citizens. As a result of this problem, several laws have been passed which seek to regulate their use; however, no proposals have been made with regards to the control of airspace from a technological point of view. This is exactly what we propose in this article: a platform with different modes designed to control UAVs and monitor their status. The features of the proposed platform provide multiple advantages that make the use of UAVs more secure, such as prohibiting UAVs’ access to restricted areas or avoiding collisions between vehicles. The platform has been successfully tested in Salamanca, Spain.
  7. González-Briones A, Chamoso P, De La Prieta F, Demazeau Y, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 May 19;18(5).
    PMID: 29783768 DOI: 10.3390/s18051633
    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly common to deploy sensors in public buildings or homes with the aim of obtaining data from the environment and taking decisions that help to save energy. Many of the current state-of-the-art systems make decisions considering solely the environmental factors that cause the consumption of energy. These systems are successful at optimizing energy consumption; however, they do not adapt to the preferences of users and their comfort. Any system that is to be used by end-users should consider factors that affect their wellbeing. Thus, this article proposes an energy-saving system, which apart from considering the environmental conditions also adapts to the preferences of inhabitants. The architecture is based on a Multi-Agent System (MAS), its agents use Agreement Technologies (AT) to perform a negotiation process between the comfort preferences of the users and the degree of optimization that the system can achieve according to these preferences. A case study was conducted in an office building, showing that the proposed system achieved average energy savings of 17.15%.
  8. González-Briones A, Prieto J, De La Prieta F, Herrera-Viedma E, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 Mar 15;18(3).
    PMID: 29543729 DOI: 10.3390/s18030865
    At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS) deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN) in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices.
  9. Yigitcanlar T, Butler L, Windle E, Desouza KC, Mehmood R, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 25;20(10).
    PMID: 32466175 DOI: 10.3390/s20102988
    In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.
  10. Choon YW, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Illias RM, Chong CK, Chai LE, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(7):e102744.
    PMID: 25047076 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102744
    Microbial strains optimization for the overproduction of desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. The strains can be optimized through several techniques in the field of genetic engineering. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, the complexities of the metabolic networks have made the process to identify the effects of genetic modification on the desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to the combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene deletion strategy. Basically, the size of a genome-scale metabolic model is usually large. As the size of the problem increases, the computation time increases exponentially. In this paper, we propose Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis (DBFBA) with OptKnock to identify optimal gene knockout strategies for maximizing the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by improving the performance of a hybrid of Bees Algorithm and Flux Balance Analysis (BAFBA) by hybridizing Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm into neighborhood searching strategy of BAFBA. In addition, DBFBA is integrated with OptKnock to validate the results for improving the reliability the work. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as the model organisms, DBFBA has shown a better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes compared to the methods used in previous works.
  11. Arif MA, Mohamad MS, Abd Latif MS, Deris S, Remli MA, Mohd Daud K, et al.
    Comput. Biol. Med., 2018 11 01;102:112-119.
    PMID: 30267898 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2018.09.015
    Metabolic engineering involves the modification and alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the production of desired substance. The modification can be made using in silico gene knockout simulation that is able to predict and analyse the disrupted genes which may enhance the metabolites production. Global optimization algorithms have been widely used for identifying gene knockout strategies. However, their productions were less than theoretical maximum and the algorithms are easily trapped into local optima. These algorithms also require a very large computation time to obtain acceptable results. This is due to the complexity of the metabolic models which are high dimensional and contain thousands of reactions. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm of Cuckoo Search and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment is proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems. The hybrid algorithm searches for the near-optimal set of gene knockouts that leads to the overproduction of metabolites. Computational experiments on two sets of genome-scale metabolic models demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is better than the previous works in terms of growth rate, Biomass Product Couple Yield, and computation time.
  12. Tang PW, Chua PS, Chong SK, Mohamad MS, Choon YW, Deris S, et al.
    Recent Pat Biotechnol, 2015;9(3):176-97.
    PMID: 27185502
    BACKGROUND: Predicting the effects of genetic modification is difficult due to the complexity of metabolic net- works. Various gene knockout strategies have been utilised to deactivate specific genes in order to determine the effects of these genes on the function of microbes. Deactivation of genes can lead to deletion of certain proteins and functions. Through these strategies, the associated function of a deleted gene can be identified from the metabolic networks.

    METHODS: The main aim of this paper is to review the available techniques in gene knockout strategies for microbial cells. The review is done in terms of their methodology, recent applications in microbial cells. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are compared and discuss and the related patents are also listed as well.

    RESULTS: Traditionally, gene knockout is done through wet lab (in vivo) techniques, which were conducted through laboratory experiments. However, these techniques are costly and time consuming. Hence, various dry lab (in silico) techniques, where are conducted using computational approaches, have been developed to surmount these problem.

    CONCLUSION: The development of numerous techniques for gene knockout in microbial cells has brought many advancements in the study of gene functions. Based on the literatures, we found that the gene knockout strategies currently used are sensibly implemented with regard to their benefits.

  13. Hon MK, Mohamad MS, Mohamed Salleh AH, Choon YW, Mohd Daud K, Remli MA, et al.
    Interdiscip Sci, 2019 Mar;11(1):33-44.
    PMID: 30758766 DOI: 10.1007/s12539-019-00324-z
    In recent years, metabolic engineering has gained central attention in numerous fields of science because of its capability to manipulate metabolic pathways in enhancing the expression of target phenotypes. Due to this, many computational approaches that perform genetic manipulation have been developed in the computational biology field. In metabolic engineering, conventional methods have been utilized to upgrade the generation of lactate and succinate in E. coli, although the yields produced are usually way below their theoretical maxima. To overcome the drawbacks  of such conventional methods, development of hybrid algorithm is introduced to obtain an optimal solution by proposing a gene knockout strategy in E. coli which is able to improve the production of lactate and succinate. The objective function of the hybrid algorithm is optimized using a swarm intelligence optimization algorithm and a Simple Constrained Artificial Bee Colony (SCABC) algorithm. The results maximize the production of lactate and succinate by resembling the gene knockout in E. coli. The Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is integrated in a hybrid algorithm to evaluate the growth rate of E. coli as well as the productions of lactate and succinate. This results in the identification of a gene knockout list that contributes to maximizing the production of lactate and succinate in E. coli.
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