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  1. Tajul Arifin K, Sulaiman S, Md Saad S, Ahmad Damanhuri H, Wan Ngah WZ, Mohd Yusof YA
    BMC Cancer, 2017 12 21;17(1):879.
    PMID: 29268718 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-017-3883-3
    BACKGROUND: Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), a unicellular green algae has been reported to have anticancer and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the chemopreventive effect of ChV on liver cancer induced rats by determining the level and expression of several liver tumour markers.

    METHODS: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups according to the diet given: control group (normal diet), ChV group with three different doses (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight), liver cancer- induced group (choline deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine in drinking water or CDE group), and the treatment group (CDE group treated with three different doses of ChV). Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6).

    RESULTS: Serum level of TGF-β increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CDE rats. However, ChV at all doses managed to decrease (p < 0.05) its levels to control values. Expressions of liver tumour markers AFP, TGF-β, M2-PK and OV-6 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tissues of CDE rats when compared to control showing an increased number of cancer cells during hepatocarcinogenesis. ChV at all doses reduced their expressions significantly (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Chlorella vulgaris has chemopreventive effect by downregulating the expression of tumour markers M2-PK, OV-6, AFP and TGF-β, in HCC-induced rats.

  2. Abdul Hakim BN, Yahya HM, Shahar S, Abdul Manaf Z, Damanhuri H
    PMID: 31766283 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16224464
    Little is known about the effects of manipulating sequence of fruit consumption during a meal in suppressing an individual's appetite. Therefore, we investigate the effects of the sequence of fruit intake on satiety and blood glucose in a group of 17 healthy, young male adults. This intervention study repeatedly measured the effects of fruit intake (120 g red apple) before and after a meal and control (no fruit). Ad libitum test meal was weighed before and after a meal. Subjective appetite rating and appetite-related hormones were assessed at regular time intervals. The satiety score was significantly higher for fruit intake before a meal followed by after a meal and control (p < 0.05). Eating fruit before a meal reduced 18.5% (166 kcal) subsequent energy intake compared to control (p < 0.05). Fruit intake before a meal had a significantly higher incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), compared to after a meal (p < 0.05). There were no differences in plasma changes of ghrelin, Cholecystokinin 8 (CCK8), or blood glucose in all sessions. Consuming fruit before a meal potentially enhanced satiety. Further research is required to confirm both short- and long-term effects of the sequence of fruit intake on appetite regulation in a wider population.
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