Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Darwish M, Aris A, Puteh MH, Jusoh MNH, Abdul Kadir A
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Dec 01;203(Pt 2):861-866.
    PMID: 26935149 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.033
    Struvite precipitation has been widely applied for the removal of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from wastewater. Due to the high cost of phosphorus (P) reagents, the current research trend was directed to find alternative sources of P, in order to maintain a sustainable NH4-N removal process. The current study investigated waste bones ashes as alternative sources of P. Different types of bones' ashes were characterized, in which the ash produced from waste fish bones was the highest in P content (17%wt.). The optimization of the factors affecting P extraction from ash by acidic leaching showed that applying 2M H2SO4 and 1.25 kg H2SO4/kg ash achieved the highest P recovery (95%). Thereafter, the recovered P was successfully used in struvite precipitation, which achieved more than 90% NH4-N removal and high purity struvite.
  2. Mustafa S, Bahar A, Aziz ZA, Darwish M
    J Contam Hydrol, 2020 Aug;233:103662.
    PMID: 32569923 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103662
    This article provides an analytical solute transport model to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polluted surface water in a two dimensional domain. The clogging of streambed which makes the aquifer partially penetrated by the stream, is considered in the model. The impacts of pumping process, hydraulic conductivity and clogging layer on the quality of water produced from nearby drinking water wells are evaluated. It is found that results are consistent with numerical simulation conducted by MODFLOW software. Moreover, the model is applied using data of contamination occurrence in Malaysia, where high contaminants concentrations are found close to streams. Results show that the pumping activities (rate and time period) are crucial factors when evaluating the risk of groundwater contamination from surface water. Additionally, this study illustrates that the increase in either hydraulic conductivity or leakance coefficient parameters due to the clogging layer will enlarge the area of contamination. The model is able to determine the suitable pumping rate and location of the well so that the contamination plume never reaches the extraction well, which is useful in constructing riverbank filtration sites.
  3. Mustafa S, Darwish M, Bahar A, Aziz ZA
    Ground Water, 2019 09;57(5):756-763.
    PMID: 30740693 DOI: 10.1111/gwat.12868
    Analytical studies for well design adjacent to river banks are the most significant practical task in cases involving the efficiency of riverbank filtration systems. In times when high pollution of river water is joined with increasing water demand, it is necessary to design pumping wells near the river that provide acceptable amounts of river water with minimum contaminant concentrations. This will guarantee the quality and safety of drinking water supplies. This article develops an analytical solution based on the Green's function approach to solve an inverse problem: based on the required level of contaminant concentration and planned pumping time period, the shortest distance to the riverbank that has the maximum percentage of river water is determined. This model is developed in a confined and homogenous aquifer that is partially penetrated by the stream due to the existence of clogging layers. Initially, the analytical results obtained at different pumping times, rates and with different values of initial concentration are checked numerically using the MODFLOW software. Generally, the distance results obtained from the proposed model are acceptable. Then, the model is validated by data related to two pumping wells located at the first riverbank filtration pilot project conducted in Malaysia.
  4. Mustafa S, Bahar A, Aziz ZA, Darwish M
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Dec;29(58):87114-87131.
    PMID: 35802329 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-21402-8
    Modeling three-dimensional contaminant transport released from arbitrary shape source geometries is useful in hydrological and environmental sciences. This article produces several analytical solutions for three-dimensional contaminant transport in a homogeneous and isotropic aquifer by using Green's function with the groundwater flow which is assumed to be in three directions. The solutions are obtained for both finite depth aquifer and semi-infinite depth aquifer. Various types of sources are discussed: point, line, plane, or cuboid sources. The continuous and instantaneous sources are also investigated. A MATLAB coding is developed to calculate the numerical integrals which occur at the solutions. Some solutions are verified with the solutions obtained in the literature. This study confirms the effect of groundwater velocities in all directions on the degree and the directions of contaminant spreading. Additionally, the results highlight the significant effect of the geometrical shape of the contaminant sources on contaminant concentrations for instantaneous and continuous sources. In particular, the cuboid source and the horizontal rectangular source provide the highest concentrations. The analytical solutions developed in this article can be applied for a wide range of contaminant transport.
  5. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Oct 09;125(15):152001.
    PMID: 33095627 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.152001
    Using a data sample of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 140  fb^{-1} collected by the CMS experiment in 2016-2018, the B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ decay is observed. Decays into J/ψπ^{+}π^{-} and K^{+}K^{-} are used to reconstruct, respectively, the X(3872) and ϕ. The ratio of the product of branching fractions B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]B[X(3872)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] to the product B[B_{s}^{0}→ψ(2S)ϕ]B[ψ(2S)→J/ψπ^{+}π^{-}] is measured to be [2.21±0.29(stat)±0.17(syst)]%. The ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{0}→X(3872)K^{0}] is found to be consistent with one, while the ratio B[B_{s}^{0}→X(3872)ϕ]/B[B^{+}→X(3872)K^{+}] is two times smaller. This suggests a difference in the production dynamics of the X(3872) in B^{0} and B_{s}^{0} meson decays compared to B^{+}. The reported observation may shed new light on the nature of the X(3872) particle.
  6. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2020;80(8):752.
    PMID: 32852485 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-8168-3
    A data sample of events from proton-proton collisions with at least two jets, and two isolated same-sign or three or more charged leptons, is studied in a search for signatures of new physics phenomena. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of




    at a center-of-mass energy of



    , collected in 2016-2018 by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The search is performed using a total of 168 signal regions defined using several kinematic variables. The properties of the events are found to be consistent with the expectations from standard model processes. Exclusion limits at 95% confidence level are set on cross sections for the pair production of gluinos or squarks for various decay scenarios in the context of supersymmetric models conserving or violating R parity. The observed lower mass limits are as large as



    for gluinos and



    for top and bottom squarks. To facilitate reinterpretations, model-independent limits are provided in a set of simplified signal regions.
  7. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Oct 09;125(15):151802.
    PMID: 33095594 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.151802
    The first observation is reported of the combined production of three massive gauge bosons (VVV with V=W, Z) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The analysis is based on a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137  fb^{-1}. The searches for individual WWW, WWZ, WZZ, and ZZZ production are performed in final states with three, four, five, and six leptons (electrons or muons), or with two same-sign leptons plus one or two jets. The observed (expected) significance of the combined VVV production signal is 5.7 (5.9) standard deviations and the corresponding measured cross section relative to the standard model prediction is 1.02_{-0.23}^{+0.26}. The significances of the individual WWW and WWZ production are 3.3 and 3.4 standard deviations, respectively. Measured production cross sections for the individual triboson processes are also reported.
  8. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Nov 27;125(22):222001.
    PMID: 33315428 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.222001
    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions recreate in the laboratory the thermodynamical conditions prevailing in the early universe up to 10^{-6}  sec, thereby allowing the study of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) matter with deconfined partons. The top quark, the heaviest elementary particle known, is accessible in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN LHC, and constitutes a novel probe of the QGP. Here, we report the first evidence for the production of top quarks in nucleus-nucleus collisions, using lead-lead collision data at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment. Two methods are used to measure the cross section for top quark pair production (σ_{tt[over ¯]}) via the selection of charged leptons (electrons or muons) and bottom quarks. One method relies on the leptonic information alone, and the second one exploits, in addition, the presence of bottom quarks. The measured cross sections, σ_{tt[over ¯]}=2.54_{-0.74}^{+0.84} and 2.03_{-0.64}^{+0.71}  μb, respectively, are compatible with expectations from scaled proton-proton data and QCD predictions.
  9. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Apr 05;122(13):132001.
    PMID: 31012626 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.132001
    Signals consistent with the B_{c}^{+}(2S) and B_{c}^{*+}(2S) states are observed in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, in an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 143  fb^{-1}, collected by the CMS experiment during the 2015-2018 LHC running periods. These excited b[over ¯]c states are observed in the B_{c}^{+}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass spectrum, with the ground state B_{c}^{+} reconstructed through its decay to J/ψπ^{+}. The two states are reconstructed as two well-resolved peaks, separated in mass by 29.1±1.5(stat)±0.7(syst)  MeV. The observation of two peaks, rather than one, is established with a significance exceeding five standard deviations. The mass of the B_{c}^{+}(2S) meson is measured to be 6871.0±1.2(stat)±0.8(syst)±0.8(B_{c}^{+})  MeV, where the last term corresponds to the uncertainty in the world-average B_{c}^{+} mass.
  10. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Sep 27;123(13):131802.
    PMID: 31697516 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.131802
    A search for a light charged Higgs boson (H^{+}) decaying to a W boson and a CP-odd Higgs boson (A) in final states with eμμ or μμμ is performed using data from pp collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. In this search, it is assumed that the H^{+} boson is produced in decays of top quarks, and the A boson decays to two oppositely charged muons. The presence of signals for H^{+} boson masses between 100 and 160 GeV and A boson masses between 15 and 75 GeV is investigated. No evidence for the production of the H^{+} boson is found. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are obtained on the combined branching fraction for the decay chain, t→bH^{+}→bW^{+}A→bW^{+}μ^{+}μ^{-}, of 1.9×10^{-6} to 8.6×10^{-6}, depending on the masses of the H^{+} and A bosons. These are the first limits for these decay modes of the H^{+} and A bosons.
  11. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Jan 31;124(4):041803.
    PMID: 32058742 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.041803
    The first search for supersymmetry in events with an experimental signature of one soft, hadronically decaying τ lepton, one energetic jet from initial-state radiation, and large transverse momentum imbalance is presented. These event signatures are consistent with direct or indirect production of scalar τ leptons (τ[over ˜]) in supersymmetric models that exhibit coannihilation between the τ[over ˜] and the lightest neutralino (χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0}), and that could generate the observed relic density of dark matter. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77.2  fb^{-1} of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016 and 2017. The results are interpreted in a supersymmetric scenario with a small mass difference (Δm) between the chargino (χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}) or next-to-lightest neutralino (χ[over ˜]_{2}^{0}), and the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0}. The mass of the τ[over ˜] is assumed to be the average of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±} and χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0} masses. The data are consistent with standard model background predictions. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the sum of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}, χ[over ˜]_{2}^{0}, and τ[over ˜] production cross sections for Δm(χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±},χ[over ˜]_{1}^{0})=50  GeV, resulting in a lower limit of 290 GeV on the mass of the χ[over ˜]_{1}^{±}, which is the most stringent to date and surpasses the bounds from the LEP experiments.
  12. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Dec 06;123(23):231803.
    PMID: 31868480 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.231803
    A search for narrow low-mass resonances decaying to quark-antiquark pairs is presented. The search is based on proton-proton collision events collected at 13 TeV by the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}, recorded in 2016. The search considers the case where the resonance has high transverse momentum due to initial-state radiation of a hard photon. To study this process, the decay products of the resonance are reconstructed as a single large-radius jet with two-pronged substructure. The signal would be identified as a localized excess in the jet invariant mass spectrum. No evidence for such a resonance is observed in the mass range 10 to 125 GeV. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are set on the coupling strength of resonances decaying to quark pairs. The results obtained with this photon trigger strategy provide the first direct constraints on quark-antiquark resonance masses below 50 GeV obtained at a hadron collider.
  13. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Apr 03;124(13):131802.
    PMID: 32302170 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.131802
    A search is presented for a narrow resonance decaying to a pair of oppositely charged muons using sqrt[s]=13  TeV proton-proton collision data recorded at the LHC. In the 45-75 and 110-200 GeV resonance mass ranges, the search is based on conventional triggering and event reconstruction techniques. In the 11.5-45 GeV mass range, the search uses data collected with dimuon triggers with low transverse momentum thresholds, recorded at high rate by storing a reduced amount of trigger-level information. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 137 and 96.6  fb^{-1} for conventional and high-rate triggering, respectively. No significant resonant peaks are observed in the probed mass ranges. The search sets the most stringent constraints to date on a dark photon in the ∼30-75 and 110-200 GeV mass ranges.
  14. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2019 Dec 13;123(24):241801.
    PMID: 31922872 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.241801
    Results are reported from a search for new particles that decay into a photon and two gluons, in events with jets. Novel jet substructure techniques are developed that allow photons to be identified in an environment densely populated with hadrons. The analyzed proton-proton collision data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in 2016 at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. The spectra of total transverse hadronic energy of candidate events are examined for deviations from the standard model predictions. No statistically significant excess is observed over the expected background. The first cross section limits on new physics processes resulting in such events are set. The results are interpreted as upper limits on the rate of gluino pair production, utilizing a simplified stealth supersymmetry model. The excluded gluino masses extend up to 1.7 TeV, for a neutralino mass of 200 GeV and exceed previous mass constraints set by analyses targeting events with isolated photons.
  15. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 May 22;124(20):202001.
    PMID: 32501048 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.202001
    A measurement is reported of the jet mass distribution in hadronic decays of boosted top quarks produced in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. The measurement is performed in the lepton+jets channel of tt[over ¯] events, where the lepton is an electron or muon. The products of the hadronic top quark decay t→bW→bqq[over ¯]^{'} are reconstructed as a single jet with transverse momentum larger than 400 GeV. The tt[over ¯] cross section as a function of the jet mass is unfolded at the particle level and used to extract a value of the top quark mass of 172.6±2.5  GeV. A novel jet reconstruction technique is used for the first time at the LHC, which improves the precision by a factor of 3 relative to an earlier measurement. This highlights the potential of measurements using boosted top quarks, where the new technique will enable future precision measurements.
  16. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Apr 24;124(16):162002.
    PMID: 32383915 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.162002
    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=8  TeV. The χ_{c} states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_{c}→J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e^{+}e^{-}, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_{c2} to χ_{c1} yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ→μ^{+}μ^{-} decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum.
  17. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2020 Aug 07;125(6):061801.
    PMID: 32845700 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.061801
    The first observation of the tt[over ¯]H process in a single Higgs boson decay channel with the full reconstruction of the final state (H→γγ) is presented, with a significance of 6.6 standard deviations (σ). The CP structure of Higgs boson couplings to fermions is measured, resulting in an exclusion of the pure CP-odd structure of the top Yukawa coupling at 3.2σ. The measurements are based on a sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt[s]=13  TeV collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137  fb^{-1}. The cross section times branching fraction of the tt[over ¯]H process is measured to be σ_{tt[over ¯]H}B_{γγ}=1.56_{-0.32}^{+0.34}  fb, which is compatible with the standard model prediction of 1.13_{-0.11}^{+0.08}  fb. The fractional contribution of the CP-odd component is measured to be f_{CP}^{Htt}=0.00±0.33.
  18. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Andrejkovic JW, Bergauer T, Chatterjee S, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2021 Jun 25;126(25):252003.
    PMID: 34241504 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.252003
    The Ξ_{b}^{-}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass spectrum is investigated with an event sample of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016-2018 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 140  fb^{-1}. The ground state Ξ_{b}^{-} is reconstructed via its decays to J/ψΞ^{-} and J/ψΛK^{-}. A narrow resonance, labeled Ξ_{b}(6100)^{-}, is observed at a Ξ_{b}^{-}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass of 6100.3±0.2(stat)±0.1(syst)±0.6(Ξ_{b}^{-})  MeV, where the last uncertainty reflects the precision of the Ξ_{b}^{-} baryon mass. The upper limit on the Ξ_{b}(6100)^{-} natural width is determined to be 1.9  MeV at 95% confidence level. The low Ξ_{b}(6100)^{-} signal yield observed in data does not allow a measurement of the quantum numbers of the new state. However, following analogies with the established excited Ξ_{c} baryon states, the new Ξ_{b}(6100)^{-} resonance and its decay sequence are consistent with the orbitally excited Ξ_{b}^{-} baryon, with spin and parity quantum numbers J^{P}=3/2^{-}.
  19. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Andrejkovic JW, Bergauer T, Chatterjee S, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2021 Jun 25;126(25):252002.
    PMID: 34241533 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.252002
    A fiducial cross section for Wγ production in proton-proton collisions is measured at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 137  fb^{-1} of data collected using the CMS detector at the LHC. The W→eν and μν decay modes are used in a maximum-likelihood fit to the lepton-photon invariant mass distribution to extract the combined cross section. The measured cross section is compared with theoretical expectations at next-to-leading order in quantum chromodynamics. In addition, 95% confidence level intervals are reported for anomalous triple-gauge couplings within the framework of effective field theory.
  20. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys Rev Lett, 2021 Sep 03;127(10):102002.
    PMID: 34533355 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.102002
    The CMS experiment at the LHC has measured the differential cross sections of Z bosons decaying to pairs of leptons, as functions of transverse momentum and rapidity, in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02  TeV. The measured Z boson elliptic azimuthal anisotropy coefficient is compatible with zero, showing that Z bosons do not experience significant final-state interactions in the medium produced in the collision. Yields of Z bosons are compared to Glauber model predictions and are found to deviate from these expectations in peripheral collisions, indicating the presence of initial collision geometry and centrality selection effects. The precision of the measurement allows, for the first time, for a data-driven determination of the nucleon-nucleon integrated luminosity as a function of lead-lead centrality, thereby eliminating the need for its estimation based on a Glauber model.
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