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  1. Dong Z, Morandini AC, Schiariti A, Wang L, Sun T
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6191.
    PMID: 30643699 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6191
    Background: It has been suggested that aquaculture ponds on the Chinese coast could act as breeding grounds for scyphozoans. Here, we present the first record of the scyphomedusa Phyllorhiza sp. in an aquaculture pond on the coast of the southern Yellow Sea, based on a combination of morphological characteristics and mitochondrial 16S DNA sequence data.

    Methods: A field survey was performed on June 29, 2017 in a pond used for culturing the shrimp Penaeus japonicus, located in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Jellyfish specimens were collected for morphological and genetic analysis. The morphological characters of the jellyfish specimens were compared to taxonomic literature. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S fragments of these specimens were also conducted.

    Results: These specimens had the following morphological characters: hemispherical umbrella without scapulets; J-shaped oral arms; a single larger terminal club on each arm; bluish colored with a slightly expanded white tip; and mouthlets present only in the lower half to one-third of each arm. These morphological features of the medusae indicated that the specimens found in the shrimp culture ponds belong to the genus Phyllorhiza Agassiz, 1862, but did not match with the description of any of the known species of the genus Phyllorhiza. Phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA 16S regions revealed that these specimens, together with Phyllorhiza sp. from Malaysian coastal waters, belong to a sister group of Phyllorhiza punctata. Juveniles and ephyrae of Phyllorhiza sp. were observed in the aquaculture pond. The mean density of Phyllorhiza sp. medusa in the surface water within the pond was estimated to be 0.05 individuals/m2.

    Discussion: Based on our observations of the gross morphology and molecular data, we state that the specimens collected in the aquaculture pond can be identified as Phyllorhiza sp. This is the first record of Phyllorhiza sp. in Chinese seas. Large scale dispersal through ballast water or the expansion of jellyfish aquarium exhibitions are possible pathways of invasion, but this needs to be confirmed in further studies.

  2. He P, Dong Z, Wang Q, Zhan QP, Zhang MM, Wu H
    J. Nat. Prod., 2019 02 22;82(2):169-176.
    PMID: 30714735 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00238
    A polysaccharide, Ali-1, was isolated from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia, a popular traditional medicinal herb in Malaysia. The structure of Ali-1 was characterized by monosaccharide, methylation, and NMR data analyses. The average molecular weight of Ali-1 is 14.3 ku, and it is composed of arabinose (14.31%), xylose (57.69%), galacturonic acid (13.03%), and glucuronic acid (14.86%). The main chain comprises (1→4)-linked xylose residues. It has branch points in the main chain; (1→2,4)-linked xylose residues, 1,2-linked glucuronic acid residues, and 1,2-linked arabinose residues form the branches, and the branches are terminated with T-linked galacturonic acid residues and T-linked arabinose residues. Ali-1 significantly improves the pinocytic and phagocytic abilities of RAW264.7 cells and facilitates cytokine secretion according to an immunostimulation assay. These results demonstrate that Ali-1 has potential as a functional supplement for people with compromised immune systems.
  3. Jiang B, Fu J, Dong Z, Fang M, Zhu W, Wang L
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e7007.
    PMID: 31179190 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7007
    Background: Many tilapia species or varieties have been widely introduced and have become an economically important food fish in China. Information on the genetic backgrounds of these populations is deficient and requires more research, especially for red tilapia strains.

    Methods: In the present study, displacement loop (D-loop) sequences were used to evaluate the genetic relationship and diversity of seven tilapia populations that are widely cultured in China; this was done specifically to speculate on the maternal ancestry of red tilapia strains. Three red tilapia varieties of Oreochromis ssp., Taiwan (TW), Israel (IL), and Malaysia (MY) strains and other populations, including O. aureus (AR), O. niloticus (NL), O. mossambicus (MS), and the GIFT strain of O. niloticus, were collected and analyzed in this study.

    Results: A total of 146 polymorphic sites and 32 haplotypes of D-loop sequences were detected among 332 fish and four major haplotypes were shared among the populations. The TW and NL populations had a greater number of haplotypes (20 and 8, respectively). The haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (π) of each population ranged from 0.234 to 0.826, and 0 to 0.060, respectively. The significant positive Tajima's D value of neutral test were detected in the NL, IL, and MY populations (P  0.05). The nearest K2P genetic distance (D = 0.014) was detected between the MS and TW populations, whereas, the farthest (D = 0.101) was found between the GIFT and AR populations. The results from the molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) showed that there was an extremely significant genetic variation observed among the populations (P 

  4. Ma ZF, Zhang H, Teh SS, Wang CW, Zhang Y, Hayford F, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2019;2019:2437397.
    PMID: 30728882 DOI: 10.1155/2019/2437397
    Goji berries (Lycium fruits) are usually found in Asia, particularly in northwest regions of China. Traditionally, dried goji berries are cooked before they are consumed. They are commonly used in Chinese soups and as herbal tea. Moreover, goji berries are used for the production of tincture, wine, and juice. Goji berries are high antioxidant potential fruits which alleviate oxidative stress to confer many health protective benefits such as preventing free radicals from damaging DNA, lipids, and proteins. Therefore, the aim of the review was to focus on the bioactive compounds and pharmacological properties of goji berries including their molecular mechanisms of action. The health benefits of goji berries include enhancing hemopoiesis, antiradiation, antiaging, anticancer, improvement of immunity, and antioxidation. There is a better protection through synergistic and additive effects in fruits and herbal products from a complex mixture of phytochemicals when compared to one single phytochemical.
  5. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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