RESULTS: The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg-1 ) at 200°C for 10 min.
CONCLUSION: The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
RESULTS: Numerical optimization showed that rice noodles prepared with SPI, 68.32 (g kg-1 of rice flour), MTG, 5.06 (g kg-1 of rice flour) and GDL, 5.0 (g kg-1 of rice flour) gave the best response variables; hardness (53.19 N), springiness (0.76), chewiness (20.28 J), tensile strength (60.35 kPa), and cooking time (5.15 min). The pH, sensory, and microstructure results showed that the optimized rice noodles had a more compact microstructure with fewer hollows, optimum pH for MTG action, and overall sensory panelists also showed the highest preference for the optimized formulation, compared to other samples selected from the numerical optimization and desirability tests.
CONCLUSION: Optimization of the levels of SPI, MTG, and GDL yielded quality noodles with improved textural, mechanical, sensory, and microstructural properties. This was partly due to the favourable pH value of the optimized noodles that provided the most suitable conditions for MTG crosslinking and balanced electrostatic interaction of proteins. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.