Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Boldbaatar D, Gunasekera S, El-Seedi HR, Göransson U
    J Nat Prod, 2015 Nov 25;78(11):2545-51.
    PMID: 26509914 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00463
    The Ricinus communis biomarker peptides RCB-1 to -3 comprise homologous sequences of 19 (RCB-1) or 18 (RCB-2 and -3) amino acid residues. They all include four cysteine moieties, which form two disulfide bonds. However, neither the 3D structure nor the biological activity of any of these peptides is known. The synthesis of RCB-1, using microwave-assisted, Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, and a method for its oxidative folding are reported. The tertiary structure of RCB-1, subsequently established using solution-state NMR, reveals a twisted loop fold with antiparallel β-sheets reinforced by the two disulfide bonds. Moreover, RCB-1 was tested for antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activity, as well as in a serum stability assay, in which it proved to be remarkably stable.
  2. Rahaman Ali AAA, John J, Mani SA, El-Seedi HR
    J Prosthodont, 2020 Aug;29(7):611-616.
    PMID: 30637856 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.13018
    PURPOSE: To assess the impact of thermal cycling on flexural properties of denture base acrylic resin reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The flexural strength and flexural modulus, following thermal cycling (5000 cycles of 5-55°C) of 3 MCC-reinforced poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimens were compared with the conventional and commercially available high-impact PMMA. The 3 test groups were represented by addition of various weight combinations of MCC and acrylic powders.

    RESULTS: All 3 test groups with the addition of MCC demonstrated improved flexural strength and flexural modulus compared to the conventional resin, without and after thermal cycling. The highest mean flexural strength corresponded to the specimens reinforced with 5% MCC followed by 2% MCC.

    CONCLUSION: Addition of MCC derived from OPEFB to PMMA may be a viable alternative to the existing, commercially available synthetic reinforced PMMA resins. The potential application of natural fillers in the fabrication of a reinforced denture base resin needs further study.

  3. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Jaffar A, Ahmed QU, Sulaiman WMAW, Wahab RA, et al.
    Exp. Anim., 2019 Nov 06;68(4):407-416.
    PMID: 31118344 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0168
    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.
  4. El-Seedi HR, Khalifa SAM, Yosri N, Khatib A, Chen L, Saeed A, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 Oct 28;243:112007.
    PMID: 31170516 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112007
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Over the past thousand years, Islamic physicians have collected cultural, philosophical, sociological and historical backgrounds for understanding diseases and medications. The Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH) said: "There is no disease that Allah has created, except that Allah also has created its cure." Therefore, Islamic scholars are encouraged to explore and use both traditional and modern forms of medicine.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.

    CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.

  5. Zajmi A, Mohd Hashim N, Noordin MI, Khalifa SA, Ramli F, Mohd Ali H, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(6):e0128157.
    PMID: 26030925 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128157
    Staphylococci are facultative anaerobes, perfectly spherical un-encapsulated cocci, with a diameter not exceeding 1 micrometer in diameter. Staphylococcus aureus are generally harmless and remain confined to the skin unless they burrow deep into the body, causing life-threatening infections in bones, joints, bloodstream, heart valves and lungs. Among the 20 medically important staphylococci species, Staphylococcus aureus is one of the emerging human pathogens. Streptomycin had its highest potency against Staphylococcus infections despite the likelihood of getting a resistant type of staphylococcus strains. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the persister type of Staphylococcus aureus and was evolved after decades of antibiotic misuse. Inadequate penetration of the antibiotic is one of the principal factors related to success/failure of the therapy. The active drug needs to reach the bacteria at concentrations necessary to kill or suppress the pathogen's growth. In turn the effectiveness of the treatment relied on the physical properties of Staphylococcus aureus. Thus understanding the cell integrity, shape and roughness is crucial to the overall influence of the therapeutic agent on S. aureus of different origins. Hence our experiments were designed to clarify ultrastructural changes of S. aureus treated with streptomycin (synthetic compound) in comparison to artonin E (natural compound). In addition to the standard in vitro microbial techniques, we used transmission electron microscopy to study the disrupted cell architecture under antibacterial regimen and we correlate this with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to compare results of both techniques.
  6. Salama SM, Gwaram NS, AlRashdi AS, Khalifa SA, Abdulla MA, Ali HM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 07 27;6:29646.
    PMID: 27460157 DOI: 10.1038/srep29646
    Zinc is a naturally occurring element with roles in wound healing and rescuing tissue integrity, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, where it can be detected in the mucosal and submucosal layers. Zinc chelates are known to have beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa and in cases of gastric ulcer. We synthesized complexes of zinc featuring a heterocyclic amine binding amino acids then investigated their ability to enhance the gastric self-repair. Zinc-morpholine complex, Zn(L)SCN, namely showed strong free-radical scavenging, promotion of the DNA and RNA polymerases reconstruction and suppression of cell damage. The complex's mode of action is proposed to involve hydrogen bond formation via its bis(thiocyanato-k)zinc moiety. Zn(L)SCN complex had potent effects on gastric enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The complex disrupted the ulcerative process as demonstrated by changes in the intermediate metabolites of the oxidative pathway - specifically, reduction in the MDA levels and elevation of reduced glutathione together with an attenuation of oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, Zn(L)SCN restored the gastric mucosa, inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF and the caspases), and preserved the gastric mucous balance. Zn(L)SCN thus exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, all of which have cytoprotective effects on the gastric lining.
  7. Shwter AN, Abdullah NA, Alshawsh MA, El-Seedi HR, Al-Henhena NA, Khalifa SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 1.
    PMID: 27492327 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.002
    Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention.
  8. Nipun TS, Khatib A, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Redzwan IE, Saiman MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Dec 12;25(24).
    PMID: 33322801 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25245885
    Psychotria malayana Jack has traditionally been used to treat diabetes. Despite its potential, the scientific proof in relation to this plant is still lacking. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitors in P.malayana leaf extracts using a metabolomics approach and to elucidate the ligand-protein interactions through in silico techniques. The plant leaves were extracted with methanol and water at five various ratios (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% v/v; water-methanol). Each extract was tested for α-glucosidase inhibition, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem to mass spectrometry. The data were further subjected to multivariate data analysis by means of an orthogonal partial least square in order to correlate the chemical profile and the bioactivity. The loading plots revealed that the m/z signals correspond to the activity of α-glucosidase inhibitors, which led to the identification of three putative bioactive compounds, namely 5'-hydroxymethyl-1'-(1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro-pyrrolo (2, 1-b) quinazolin-1-yl)-heptan-1'-one (1), α-terpinyl-β-glucoside (2), and machaeridiol-A (3). Molecular docking of the identified inhibitors was performed using Auto Dock Vina software against the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (Protein Data Bank code: 3A4A). Four hydrogen bonds were detected in the docked complex, involving several residues, namely ASP352, ARG213, ARG442, GLU277, GLN279, HIE280, and GLU411. Compound 1, 2, and 3 showed binding affinity values of -8.3, -7.6, and -10.0 kcal/mol, respectively, which indicate the good binding ability of the compounds towards the enzyme when compared to that of quercetin, a known α-glucosidase inhibitor. The three identified compounds that showed potential binding affinity towards the enzymatic protein in molecular docking interactions could be the bioactive compounds associated with the traditional use of this plant.
  9. Nipun TS, Khatib A, Ahmed QU, Redzwan IE, Ibrahim Z, Khan AYF, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 11;25(18).
    PMID: 32932994 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184161
    The plant Psychotria malayana Jack belongs to the Rubiaceae family and is known in Malaysia as "meroyan sakat/salung". A rapid analytical technique to facilitate the evaluation of the P. malayana leaves' quality has not been well-established yet. This work aimed therefore to develop a validated analytical technique in order to predict the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory action (AGI) of P. malayana leaves, applying a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprint and utilizing an orthogonal partial least square (OPLS). The dried leaf extracts were prepared by sonication of different ratios of methanol-water solvent (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% v/v) prior to the assessment of alpha-glucosidase inhibition (AGI) and the following infrared spectroscopy. The correlation between the biological activity and the spectral data was evaluated using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The 100% methanol extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase (IC50 2.83 ± 0.32 μg/mL). Different bioactive functional groups, including hydroxyl (O-H), alkenyl (C=C), methylene (C-H), carbonyl (C=O), and secondary amine (N-H) groups, were detected by the multivariate analysis. These functional groups actively induced the alpha-glucosidase inhibition effect. This finding demonstrated the spectrum profile of the FTIR for the natural herb P. malayana Jack, further confirming its medicinal value. The developed validated model can be used to predict the AGI of P. malayana, which will be useful as a tool in the plant's quality control.
  10. Al-Henhena N, Khalifa SA, Ying RP, Ismail S, Hamadi R, Shawter AN, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015;15(1):419.
    PMID: 26608653 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0926-7
    With cancer being one of the major causes of death around the world, studies are ongoing to find new chemotherapeutic leads. There are common mechanisms for colorectal cancer (CRC) formation. Several are connected with oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis and others are related to imbalanced homeostasis or intake of drugs/toxins. Plants that have been used for decades in folk and traditional medicine have been accepted as one of the commonest sources of discovered natural agents of cancer chemotherapy and chemoprevention. The aim was to study the antioxidant and chemopreventive effects of Strobilanthes crispus on colorectal cancer formation.
  11. Al-Henhena N, Khalifa SA, Ying RP, Hassandarvish P, Rouhollahi E, Al-Wajeeh NS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:13312.
    PMID: 26307342 DOI: 10.1038/srep13312
    In this work, microscopic and histological studies suggest that Strobilanthes crispus ethanol extract reduce azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. S. crispus is considered a traditional medicine and used as an antioxidant. Its leaf contains a large amount of phenolic compounds to which its radical scavenging role is attributed and enhance its ability to eradicate oxidative stress reactions. The study was designed to determine the chemopreventive effect of S. crispus ethanol extract in vivo and in vitro by elucidating the effect of the extract on intermediate biomarkers which can be used as effective predictors of colon cancer. S. crispus was analyzed for DPPH free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) and ferric acid reduction. The results indicated that S. crispus oral administration significantly inhibited colorectal carcinogenesis induced by AOM as revealed by the reduction in the number of ACF. S. crispus down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Bcl2 and β-catenin. Additionally, it exerted a pronounced inhibitory effect on MDA and NO levels and stimulatory effect on CAT and GPx activities. These results demonstrate that S. crispus is a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer through the suppression of early and intermediate carcinogenic phases that may be related to its flavonoid content.
  12. Gomaa MN, Soliman K, Ayesh A, Abd El-Wahed A, Hamza Z, Mansour HM, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2016;30(6):729-34.
    PMID: 26186031 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1040991
    The marine soft corals Sarcophyton trocheliophorum crude extracts possessed antimicrobial activity towards pathogenic bacterial strains, i.e. Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that the antimicrobial effect was due to the presence of terpenoid bioactive derivatives. Further biological assays of the n-hexane fractions were carried out using turbidity assay, inhibition zone assay and minimum inhibitory concentration for investigating the growth-inhibition effect towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fractions were screened and the structure of the isolated compound was justified by interpretation of the spectroscopic data, mainly mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The structure was assigned as (5S)-3-[(3E,5S)-5-hydroxy-3-hepten-6-yn-1-yl]-5-methyl-2(5H)-furanone and was effective at concentrations as low as 0.20 mg/mL. The above findings, in the course of our ongoing research on marine products, may implicate that the profound anti-microbial activity of the S. trocheliophorum soft corals, inhabiting the red sea reefs, is attributed to the presence of growth-inhibiting secondary metabolites mainly terpenoids.
  13. Karimian H, Fadaeinasab M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hajrezaei M, Zahedifard M, Razavi M, et al.
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2015;36(3):988-1003.
    PMID: 26087920 DOI: 10.1159/000430273
    BACKGROUND: Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) using in in vivo and in vitro models.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen) were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC). Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels.

    CONCLUSION: This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

  14. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
  15. El-Seedi HR, Azeem M, Khalil NS, Sakr HH, Khalifa SAM, Awang K, et al.
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2017 Sep;73(1):139-157.
    PMID: 28864886 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-017-0165-3
    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.
  16. El-Seedi HR, Khalifa SAM, Taher EA, Farag MA, Saeed A, Gamal M, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2019 03;141:123-175.
    PMID: 30579976 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.12.015
    Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, increasing evidence has indicated the potential cytotoxic effects of CGs against various types of cancer. In this review, we highlight some of the structural features of this class of natural products that are crucial for their efficacy, some methods of isolating these compounds from natural resources, and the structural elucidation tools that have been used. We also describe their physicochemical properties and several modern biotechnological approaches for preparing CGs that do not require plant sources.
  17. Murugesu S, Khatib A, Ahmed QU, Ibrahim Z, Uzir BF, Benchoula K, et al.
    Toxicol Rep, 2019;6:1148-1154.
    PMID: 31993329 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.10.020
    Clinacanthus nutans, an herbal shrub belonging to the Acanthaceae family, is traditionally used as a functional food to treat various ailments in Malaysia and Indonesia. Although the polar fraction of this plant shows non-toxic effect, the toxicity of the non-polar extract is not reported so far. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effect and determine the lethal concentration of this non-polar fraction using zebrafish embryos. The n-hexane fraction was partitioned from the crude extract of C. nutans obtained using 80% methanolic solution. After spawning of the adult male and female zebrafish, the eggs were collected, transferred into a 96-well plate and incubated with the n-hexane fraction at concentrations of 15.63 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml, 62.5 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml in 2% DMSO. The survival and sublethal endpoint were assessed, the mortality and hatchability rates were calculated based on microscopic observation, while the heartbeat rate was measured using DanioScope software. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the C. nutans n-hexane fraction, which was determined using probit analysis, was calculated to be 75.49 μg/mL, which is harmful. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol and stigmasterol in the n-hexane fraction.
  18. El-Seedi HR, Yosri N, Khalifa SAM, Guo Z, Musharraf SG, Xiao J, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2020 Nov 25;269:113626.
    PMID: 33248183 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113626
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Egyptian plants are a rich source of natural molecules, representing considerable biodiversity due to climate variations between the Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western regions of the country. Sinai is considered a precious nature reserves preserving flora, fauna, marine organisms, and historical habitats with ancient origins. Here, traditional medicinal approaches have been used for hundreds of years. Healthy lifestyles, low levels of stress and microbial infections, and a dependence on flora and herbal medicine might in combination explain why the burden of cancer is lower in some regions than in others.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary aim of this review is to document the plants and natural products that are used as foods and medicines in Egypt, in general, and in Sinai, in particular, with a focus on those with demonstrated anticancer activities. The documented traditional uses of these plants are described, together with their chemical and pharmacological activities and the reported outcomes of clinical trials against cancer.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify texts describing the medicinal plants that are cultivated and grown in Egypt, including information found in textbooks, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/), and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We collected data for most of the plants cultivated or grown in Egypt that have been previously investigated for anticancer effects and reported their identified bioactive elements. Several plant species, belonging to different families and associated with 67 bioactive compounds, were investigated as potential anticancer agents (in vitro studies). The most potent cytotoxic activities were identified for the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. The anticancer activities of some species, such as Punica granatum L., Nerium oleander L., Olea europea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Cassia acutifolia L., Nigella sativa L., Capsicum frutescens L., Withania somnifera L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, have been examined in clinical trials. Among the various Egyptian plant habitats, we found that most of these plants are grown in the North Sinai, New-Delta, and Giza Governorates.

    CONCLUSION: In this review, we highlight the role played by Egyptian flora in current medicinal therapies and the possibility that these plants may be examined in further studies for the development of anticancer drugs. These bioactive plant extracts form the basis for the isolation of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activities. Some active components derived from these plants have been applied to preclinical and clinical settings, including resveratrol, quercetin, isoquercetin, and rutin.

  19. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

  20. Khalifa SAM, Yosri N, El-Mallah MF, Ghonaim R, Guo Z, Musharraf SG, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2020 Aug 29.
    PMID: 33067112 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153311
    BACKGROUND: Starting December 2019, mankind faced an unprecedented enemy, the COVID-19 virus. The world convened in international efforts, experiences and technologies in order to fight the emerging pandemic. Isolation, hygiene measure, diagnosis, and treatment are the most efficient ways of prevention and intervention nowadays. The health organizations and global care systems screened the available resources and offered recommendations of approved and proposed medications. However, the search for a specific selective therapy or vaccine against COVID-19 remains a challenge.

    METHODS: A literature search was performed for the screening of natural and derived bio-active compounds which showed potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses using published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and web databases (PubMed, SCI Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

    RESULTS: Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV. Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses. Additionally, it is worth noting that some compounds have already moved into clinical trials for their activity against COVID-19 including fingolimod, methylprednisolone, chloroquine, tetrandrine and tocilizumab.

    CONCLUSION: Natural compounds and their derivatives could be used for developing potent therapeutics with significant activity against SARS-COV-2, providing a promising frontline in the fighting against COVID-19.

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