MATERIALS AND METHODS: The flexural strength and flexural modulus, following thermal cycling (5000 cycles of 5-55°C) of 3 MCC-reinforced poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimens were compared with the conventional and commercially available high-impact PMMA. The 3 test groups were represented by addition of various weight combinations of MCC and acrylic powders.
RESULTS: All 3 test groups with the addition of MCC demonstrated improved flexural strength and flexural modulus compared to the conventional resin, without and after thermal cycling. The highest mean flexural strength corresponded to the specimens reinforced with 5% MCC followed by 2% MCC.
CONCLUSION: Addition of MCC derived from OPEFB to PMMA may be a viable alternative to the existing, commercially available synthetic reinforced PMMA resins. The potential application of natural fillers in the fabrication of a reinforced denture base resin needs further study.
AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen) were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC). Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels.
CONCLUSION: This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary aim of this review is to document the plants and natural products that are used as foods and medicines in Egypt, in general, and in Sinai, in particular, with a focus on those with demonstrated anticancer activities. The documented traditional uses of these plants are described, together with their chemical and pharmacological activities and the reported outcomes of clinical trials against cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify texts describing the medicinal plants that are cultivated and grown in Egypt, including information found in textbooks, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/), and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We collected data for most of the plants cultivated or grown in Egypt that have been previously investigated for anticancer effects and reported their identified bioactive elements. Several plant species, belonging to different families and associated with 67 bioactive compounds, were investigated as potential anticancer agents (in vitro studies). The most potent cytotoxic activities were identified for the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. The anticancer activities of some species, such as Punica granatum L., Nerium oleander L., Olea europea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Cassia acutifolia L., Nigella sativa L., Capsicum frutescens L., Withania somnifera L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, have been examined in clinical trials. Among the various Egyptian plant habitats, we found that most of these plants are grown in the North Sinai, New-Delta, and Giza Governorates.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we highlight the role played by Egyptian flora in current medicinal therapies and the possibility that these plants may be examined in further studies for the development of anticancer drugs. These bioactive plant extracts form the basis for the isolation of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activities. Some active components derived from these plants have been applied to preclinical and clinical settings, including resveratrol, quercetin, isoquercetin, and rutin.
METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.
RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.
METHODS: A literature search was performed for the screening of natural and derived bio-active compounds which showed potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses using published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and web databases (PubMed, SCI Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS: Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV. Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses. Additionally, it is worth noting that some compounds have already moved into clinical trials for their activity against COVID-19 including fingolimod, methylprednisolone, chloroquine, tetrandrine and tocilizumab.
CONCLUSION: Natural compounds and their derivatives could be used for developing potent therapeutics with significant activity against SARS-COV-2, providing a promising frontline in the fighting against COVID-19.